Last updated

Southern Kerala-style traditional thoran made with cheera leaves, grated coconut, chilies and other ingredients. Travancore Cheera Thoran.JPG
Southern Kerala-style traditional thoran made with cheera leaves, grated coconut, chilies and other ingredients.
Kerala yardlong bean thoran Kerala Beans thoran curry.jpg
Kerala yardlong bean thoran

Thoran (Malayalam : തോരൻ, pronounced [t̪oːɾan] ; or upperi in Northern Kerala is a class of dry vegetable dishes combined with coconut that originated in the Indian state of Kerala. [1] This common dish is usually eaten with rice and curry and is also part of the traditional Keralite sadhya .



Thoran is a dry dish traditionally made of finely chopped vegetables such as cabbage, yardlong bean and other bean varieties, unripe jackfruit, bittergourd (കയ്പ്പക്ക/പാവയ്‌ക്ക) or elephant foot yam, of leaves such as green or red cheera (Spinach, ചീര), Moringa oleifera or Ipomoea aquatica , as well as of flowers such as Moringa oleifera or Sesbania grandiflora .

The chopped vegetable is mixed together with grated coconut, mustard seeds, curry leaves and turmeric powder and briefly stirred on a pan over a hot fire.

Snakegourd thoran Thoran , Kerala Vegetable curry.jpg
Snakegourd thoran


Thoran can be also made with carrots, green beans, cabbage, green tomatoes [2] or spinach, vegetables that were traditionally not available in Kerala. The traditional recipes made in southern Kerala do not use garlic, but in the present day, garlic and onion are also added.

See also

Related Research Articles

Trinidad and Tobago cuisine Culinary traditions of Trinidad and Tobago

Tobago has a unique history and its food is influenced by African, Indian, European culinary styles.Tobagonian food is dominated by a wide selection of seafood dishes, most notably, curried crab and dumplings. Tobago is also known for its sumptuously prepared provisions, such as dasheen, sweet potato, eddoe, cassava, yam, soups and stews, also known as blue food across the country. Corresponding to the BLUE FOOD DAY event held annually in Tobago.

Sadya Traditional vegetarian platters served on a banana leaf in Kerala as lunch

Sadya is a platter of Kerala origin and of importance to all Malayalis, consisting of a variety of traditional vegetarian platters usually served on a banana leaf in Kerala as lunch. Sadya means banquet in Malayalam. Sadya is typically served as a traditional platter for Onam, the state festival of Kerala, Vishu.

Tamil cuisine Culinary traditions of Tamil Nadu

Tamil cuisine is a culinary style originating in the southern Indian state Tamil Nadu and other parts of South Asia like Sri Lanka. Both Vegetarian cuisine and Non-Vegetarian cuisine is popular among the Tamil people and has been since ancient times. Meats, along with rice, legumes, and lentils, are also popular. Dairy products and tamarind are used to provide sour flavors. On special occasions, traditional Tamil dishes are served in a traditional manner, using banana leaves in place of utensils. After eating, the banana leaves are then used as a secondary food for cattle. A typical breakfast meal consists of idli or dosa with chutney. Lunch includes Rice, sambar, Curd, kuzhambu, and rasam.

Noodle soup Variety of soups with noodles and other ingredients served in a light broth

Noodle soup refers to a variety of soups with noodles and other ingredients served in a light broth. Noodle soup is a common dish across East Asia, Southeast Asia and the Himalayan states of South Asia. Various types of noodles are used, such as rice noodles, wheat noodles and egg noodles.

Gujarati cuisine Cuisine of Gujarat, India

{}Gujarati cuisine is that of the state of Gujarat, in western India.

<i>Moringa oleifera</i> Species of flowering tree

Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree of the family Moringaceae, native to the Indian subcontinent. Common names include moringa, drumstick tree, horseradish tree, and ben oil tree or benzolive tree.


Undhiyu is a Gujarati mixed vegetable dish that is a regional specialty of Surat, Gujarat, India. The name of this dish comes from the Gujarati word "undhu", which translates to upside down, since the dish is traditionally cooked upside down underground in earthen pots, termed "matlu", which are fired from above.

Avial Indian dish containing a thick mixture of vegetables

Avial is an Indian dish with origins in the Kerala region, although it is equally popular in Tamil Nadu and Udupi. It is a thick mixture of 13 vegetables commonly found in the western ghats and coconut, seasoned with coconut oil and curry leaves. Avial is considered an essential part of the Main meal and also served as a delicacy in south India.

South Indian cuisine Food cuisines in south Indian

South Indian cuisine includes the cuisines of the five southern states of India—Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana—and the union territories of Lakshadweep, Pondicherry, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.There are typically vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes for all five states. Additionally, all regions have typical main dishes, snacks, light meals, desserts, and drinks that are well known in their respective region.

Pachadi South Indian pickle side dish

Pachadi refers to a traditional South Indian fresh pickle served as a side dish. Broadly translated, it refers to food which has been pounded. In Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, pachadi is a side dish curry similar to the North Indian raita, and is made with vegetable, yoghurt, coconut, ginger and curry leaves and seasoned with mustard. Pachadi generally is a hot or mildly spiced coconut, green chillies, red chillies and yogurt-based dish made with seasonal vegetables or fruits.

Javanese cuisine Cuisine of the Javanese people

Javanese cuisine is the cuisine of Javanese people, a major ethnic group in Indonesia, more precisely the province of Central Java, Yogyakarta and East Java.


Poduthol is a South Indian North Malabar side dish. It is generally served with cooked rice at lunch and dinner. It is customarily served in celebration of weddings and other ceremonies.

Malaysian Indian cuisine Cuisine of ethnic Indian communities of Malaysia

Malaysian Indian cuisine, or the cooking of the ethnic Indian communities in Malaysia consists of adaptations of authentic dishes from India, as well as original creations inspired by the diverse food culture of Malaysia. Because the vast majority of Malaysia's Indian community are of South Indian descent, and are mostly ethnic Tamils who are descendants of immigrants from a historical region which consists of the modern Indian state of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka's Northern Province, much of Malaysian Indian cuisine is predominantly South Indian inspired in character and taste. A typical Malaysian Indian dish is likely to be redolent with curry leaves, whole and powdered spice, and contains fresh coconut in various forms. Ghee is still widely used for cooking, although vegetable oils and refined palm oils are now commonplace in home kitchens. Before a meal it is customary to wash hands as cutlery is often not used while eating, with the exception of a serving spoon for each respective dish.

Stew Combination of solid food ingredients

A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables and may include meat, especially tougher meats suitable for slow-cooking, such as beef, pork, lamb, poultry, sausages, and seafood. While water can be used as the stew-cooking liquid, stock is also common. A small amount of red wine is sometimes added for flavour. Seasoning and flavourings may also be added. Stews are typically cooked at a relatively low temperature, allowing flavours to mingle.

Ginataang manok

Ginataang manok is a Filipino chicken soup made from chicken in coconut milk with green papaya and other vegetables, garlic, ginger, onion, patis or bagoong alamang, and salt and pepper. It is a type of ginataan. A common variant of the dish adds curry powder or non-native Indian spices and is known as Filipino chicken curry.


Mallung or mallum, is a shredded vegetable Sri Lankan dish that comprises lightly cooked/sautéed greens, with fresh coconut and any number of spices and chili. Mallung is a common condiment and is eaten at almost every meal. Most meals are usually served with one or two different mallungs, which play an important part in nutrition as this is how locals got a regular vitamin intake in their diet. The word 'mallung' or 'mallum' simply means ‘mix’ or 'mixed'.


  1. Robert Bradnock, Roma Bradnock (2000). South India Handbook. Footprint Handbooks.
  2. Pacha Thakkaali Thoran