Thoran (Malayalam : തോരൻ, pronounced [t̪oːɾan] ; or upperi in Malabar) is a coconut-based vegetable dish in Kerala. This common dish is usually eaten with steamed rice. Thoran is a common menu item for a sadhya .
The cuisine of Kerala, a state in the south of India, is linked to its history, geography, demography and culture. Kerala cuisine offers a multitude of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes prepared using fish, poultry and red meat with rice a typical accompaniment. Chillies, curry leaves, coconut, mustard seeds, turmeric, tamarind, and asafoetida are all frequently used.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize.
Sadhya is a feast of Hindu origin and of importance to Hindu Malayalis, consisting of a variety of traditional vegetarian dishes usually served on a banana leaf in Kerala, India. Sadhya means banquet in Malayalam. It is a vegetarian feast prepared by both men and women, especially when needed in large quantities, for weddings and other special events. Sadhya is typically served as a traditional dish for Onam, the state festival of Kerala.
Thoran is a dry dish traditionally made of finely chopped vegetables such as cabbage, yardlong bean and other bean varieties, unripe jackfruit, bittergourd (കയ്പ്പക്ക/പാവയ്ക്ക) or elephant foot yam, of leaves such as green or red cheera (ചീര), Moringa oleifera or Ipomoea aquatica , as well as of flowers such as Moringa oleifera or Sesbania grandiflora .
The jackfruit, also known as jack tree, is a species of tree in the fig, mulberry, and breadfruit family (Moraceae). Its native range is unknown but most sources place its center of origin in the region between the Western Ghats of southern India to the rainforests of Borneo.
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, the elephant foot yam or whitespot giant arum, is a tropical tuber crop grown primarily in Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the tropical Pacific islands. Because of its production potential and popularity as a vegetable in various cuisines, it can be raised as a cash crop.
Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree of the family Moringaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions of South Asia. Common names include moringa, drumstick tree, horseradish tree, and ben oil tree or benzoil tree.
The chopped vegetable is mixed together with grated coconut, mustard seeds, curry leaves and turmeric powder and briefly stirred on a pan over a hot fire.
The coconut tree is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only known living species of the genus Cocos. The term "coconut" can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco, meaning "head" or "skull" after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features.
Thoran can be also made with carrots, green beans, cabbage, green tomatoesor spinach, vegetables that were traditionally not available in Kerala. The traditional recipes made in southern Kerala do not use garlic, but in the present day, garlic and onion are also added.
The carrot is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist. Carrots are a domesticated form of the wild carrot, Daucus carota, native to Europe and southwestern Asia. The plant probably originated in Persia and was originally cultivated for its leaves and seeds. The most commonly eaten part of the plant is the taproot, although the stems and leaves are eaten as well. The domestic carrot has been selectively bred for its greatly enlarged, more palatable, less woody-textured taproot.
Green beans are the unripe, young fruit and protective pods of various cultivars of the common bean. Immature or young pods of the runner bean, yardlong bean, and hyacinth bean are used in a similar way. Green beans are known by many common names, including French beans, string beans, snap beans, snaps, and the French name haricot vert.
Cabbage or headed cabbage is a leafy green, red (purple), or white biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the wild cabbage, B. oleracea var. oleracea, and belongs to the "cole crops", meaning it is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower ; Brussels sprouts ; and savoy cabbage. Brassica rapa is commonly named Chinese, celery or napa cabbage and has many of the same uses. Cabbage is high in nutritional value.
Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are generally used in cooking. They may be eaten ripe or unripe and are generally starchy. Many cooking bananas are referred to as plantains or green bananas, although not all of them are true plantains. Bananas are treated as a starchy fruit with a relatively neutral flavour and soft texture when cooked. Bananas fruit all year round, making them a reliable all-season staple food.
Salvadoran cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of El Salvador. The traditional cuisine consists of food from Native American cuisine, indigenous Lenca, Pipil and European Spanish peoples. Many of the dishes are made with maize (corn).
Burmese cuisine is mainly an amalgam of cuisines from various regions of Myanmar. It has also been influenced by various cuisines of neighbouring countries, in particular, China, India and Thailand.
Undhiyu is a Gujarati mixed vegetable dish that is a regional specialty of Surat, India. The name of this dish comes from the Gujarati word "undhu", which translates to upside down, since the dish is traditionally cooked upside down underground in earthen pots, termed "matlu", which are fired from above.
Avial is a dish which is believed to have been originated from South India and is common in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is a thick mixture of vegetables and coconut, seasoned with coconut oil and curry leaves. Avial is considered an essential part of the Sadya.
Cazuela is the common name given to a variety of dishes, especially from South America. It receives its name from the cazuela in which it is cooked. The ingredients and preparation vary from region to region, but it is usually a mid-thick flavoured stock obtained from cooking several kinds of meats and vegetables mixed together.
South Indian cuisine includes the cuisines of the five southern states of India—Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana—and the union territories of Lakshadweep, Pondicherry, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Pachadi refers to a traditional South Indian fresh pickle served as a side dish. Broadly translated, it refers to food which has been pounded. In Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, pachadi is a side dish curry similar to the North Indian raita, and is made with vegetable, yoghurt, coconut, ginger and curry leaves and seasoned with mustard. Pachadi generally is a mildly spiced coconut and yogurt-based dish made with seasonal vegetables or fruits.
Olan is a dish that is part of the Kerala cuisine of the state of Kerala in South India. It is a light and subtle-flavored dish prepared from white gourd or ash-gourd, and black-eyed peas, coconut milk and ginger seasoned with coconut oil. It is usually served as part of a Sadhya.
Poduthol is a South Indian North Malabar side dish. It is generally served with cooked rice at lunch and dinner. It is customarily served in celebration of weddings and other ceremonies.
Mas huni is a typical Maldivian breakfast, composed of tuna, onion, coconut, and chili. All ingredients are finely chopped and mixed with the grated meat of the coconut. This dish is usually eaten with freshly baked roshi flatbread and sweetened hot tea.
Sinabawang gulay, usually anglicized as Filipino vegetable soup, is a Filipino vegetable soup made with leafy vegetables and various other vegetables in a broth seasoned with seafood stock or patis. The ingredients of the dish can vary widely. It is eaten on its own or over white rice.
Karedok is a raw vegetable salad in peanut sauce from West Java, Indonesia. It is one of the Sundanese signature dish. It originally included cucumbers, bean sprouts, cabbage, legumes, Thai basil, and small green eggplant, covered in peanut sauce dressing, but there are now many variations. It is very similar to gado-gado, except all the vegetables are raw, while most of gado-gado vegetables are boiled, and it uses kencur, Thai basil and eggplant. Karedok is also known as lotek atah for its fresh and raw version of the vegetable covered with peanut sauce. Karedok is widely served as daily food in the Sundanese family, usually eaten with hot rice, tofu, tempeh, and krupuk. Nowadays karedok can be found in many variation from hawkers carts, stalls (warung) as well as in restaurants and hotels both in Indonesia and worldwide.
Gado-gado, also known as Lotek, is an Indonesian salad of slightly boiled, blanched or steamed vegetables and hard-boiled eggs, boiled potato, fried tofu and tempeh, and lontong, served with a peanut sauce dressing. In 2018, gado-gado is promoted as one of 5 national dishes of Indonesia.
A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables and may include meat, especially tougher meats suitable for slow-cooking, such as beef. Poultry, sausages, and seafood are also used. While water can be used as the stew-cooking liquid, stock is also common. Seasoning and flavourings may also be added. Stews are typically cooked at a relatively low temperature, allowing flavours to mingle.
Gising-gising, also known as ginataang sigarilyas, is a spicy Filipino vegetable soup or stew originating from the provinces of Nueva Ecija and Pampanga in the Philippines. It is traditionally made with chopped winged beans, and coconut milk spiced with labuyo chili, garlic, onions, and bagoong alamang. The name literally means "wake up, wake up". It can be eaten alone, on top of rice, or as a side dish to grilled meat dishes. It is a type of ginataan.
Ginataang manok is a Filipino chicken soup made from chicken in coconut milk with green papaya and other vegetables, garlic, ginger, onion, patis or bagoong alamang, and salt and pepper. It is a type of ginataan. A common variant of the dish adds curry powder or non-native Indian spices and is known as Filipino chicken curry.