Thorax (Gr. Θώραξ) of Lacedaemonia is mentioned by Diodorus Siculus as acting under Spartan commander Callicratidas during his operations in Lesbos in 405 BC, and as having been commissioned by him, after the capture of Mithymna, to conduct the heavy-armed troops to Mytilene. In the following year we again find Thorax in command of the land-force which cooperated with the fleet under Lysander in the storming of Lampsacus; and he was left at Samos as harmost by Lysander, when the latter was on his way to Athens after the Battle of Aegospotami in 404 BC. According to Plutarch, when the satrap Pharnabazus sent to Sparta to complain of ravages committed in his territory by Lysander, the Lacedaemonian government put Thorax to death, as he was a friend and colleague of the accused admiral, and they had found money in his possession. The date and circumstances of this, however, are very doubtful.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek.
Diodorus Siculus or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian. He is known for writing the monumental universal history Bibliotheca historica, much of which survives, between 60 and 30 BC. It is arranged in three parts. The first covers mythic history up to the destruction of Troy, arranged geographically, describing regions around the world from Egypt, India and Arabia to Greece and Europe. The second covers the Trojan War to the death of Alexander the Great. The third covers the period to about 60 BC. Bibliotheca, meaning 'library', acknowledges that he was drawing on the work of many other authors.
Sparta was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity the city-state was known as Lacedaemon, while the name Sparta referred to its main settlement on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese. Around 650 BC, it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece.
Camissares was a Carian, father of Datames, who was high in favour with the Persian Great King Artaxerxes II, by whom he was made satrap of a part of Cilicia bordering on Cappadocia. He fell in Artaxerxes' war against the Cadusii in 385 BC, and was succeeded in his satrapy by his son by a Scythian or Paphlagonian mother.
Ariamnes I was satrap of Cappadocia under Persian suzerainty. Son of Datames and father of Ariarathes I and his brother Orophernes (Holophernes), Diodorus states that Ariamnes governed fifty years although it is unclear how this could be correct given the dates that his father Datames and his son Ariarathes I were satraps of Cappadocia.
Oxyathres was a brother of the Persian king Darius III Codomannus. He was distinguished for his bravery, and in the battle of Issus, 333 BC, took a prominent part in the combat in defence of the king, when attacked by the Macedonian cavalry under Alexander himself, as shown in the celebrated Alexander Mosaic found in Pompeii. He afterwards accompanied Darius on his flight into Bactria, and fell into the hands of Alexander during the pursuit, but was treated with the utmost distinction by the conqueror, who even assigned him an honourable post about his own person; and subsequently devolved upon him the task of punishing Bessus for the murder of Darius. He was the father of Amastris queen of Heraclea.
Ptolemy, Ptolemaios or Polemaios ; died 309 BC) was a nephew and general of Antigonus I Monophthalmus, one of the Successors of Alexander the Great.
Menander was an officer in the service of Alexander the Great. He was one of those called etairoi, but he held the command of a body of mercenaries. He was appointed by Alexander to the government of Lydia, during the settlement of the affairs of Asia made by Alexander when at Tyre. Menander appears to have remained at that post until the year 323 BC, when he was commissioned to lead a reinforcement of troops to Alexander at Babylon — he arrived there just before the king's last illness. In the division of the provinces, after the death of Alexander, Menander received his former government of Lydia, of which he was quick to take possession.
Philip was satrap of Sogdiana. He was first appointed to this position by Alexander the Great in 327 BC. He retained his post, as did most of the satraps of the more remote provinces, in the arrangements which followed the death of the king in 323 BC; but in the subsequent partition at Triparadisus in 321 BC, he was assigned the government of Parthia instead. Here he remained until 318 BC, when Peithon, who was then seeking to establish his power over all the provinces of the East, made himself master of Parthia, and put Philip to death.
Oxyartes was a Sogdian or Bactrian nobleman of Bactria, father of Roxana, the wife of Alexander of Macedon. He is first mentioned as one of the chiefs who accompanied Bessus on his retreat across the Oxus river into Sogdiana. After the death of Bessus, Oxyartes deposited his wife and daughters for safety in a rock fortress in Sogdiana, which was deemed impregnable, but nevertheless soon fell into the hands of Alexander's forces. Alexander not only treated his captives with respect and attention, but was so charmed with the beauty of Roxana as to decide that he wanted to make her his wife. Oxyartes, on learning these tidings, is said to have hastened to make his submission to Alexander, who received him with the utmost distinction. The nuptials of his daughter with the king in 327 BC were celebrated with a magnificent feast.
Eudemus was one of Alexander the Great's generals. In 326 BC he was appointed by the king as the commander of Alexander's troops in India. After Alexander's death, Eudemus effectively controlled Alexander's northern Indian territories until he became involved in the Wars of the Diadochi during which he was captured and killed by Antigonus.
Antigenes was a general of Alexander the Great, who also served under Philip II of Macedon, and lost an eye at the siege of Perinthus. After the death of Alexander in 323 he obtained the satrapy of Susiana. He was one of the commanders of the Argyraspides and, with his troops, took the side of Eumenes. On the defeat of Eumenes in 316, Antigenes fell into the hands of his enemy Antigonus, and was burnt alive by him.
Teutamus was a Macedonian officer, who, in 319 BC, shared with Antigenes the command of the select troops called the Argyraspids. Of the services by which he had earned this distinguished post we know nothing. When Eumenes, after escaping from Nora, joined the Argyraspids in Cilicia, Antigenes and Teutamus at first, in obedience to the orders of the regent Polyperchon and Olympias, placed themselves under his command but they secretly regarded him with jealousy, and Teutamus even listened to the overtures of Ptolemy, and would have joined in a plot against the life of Eumenes, had he not been dissuaded by his more prudent colleague. But though they continued to follow the guidance of Eumenes, and with the troops under their command, bore an important part in his campaigns against Antigonus, they took every opportunity of displaying their envy and jealousy, which their general in vain tried to allay, by avoiding all appearance of the exercise of authority. During the winter campaign in Gabiene the two leaders of the Argyraspids were the prime movers of a plot for the destruction of Eumenes; and after the final action, Teutamus was the first to open negotiations with Antigonus for the recovery of the baggage of the Argyraspids by the betrayal of his rival into his hands. By this act of treachery he probably hoped to secure the favour of Antigonus, as well as to supplant his own colleague or leader, Antigenes; but we find no farther mention of his name, and it is probable that he was sent, with the greater part of the Argyraspids, to perish in Arachosia.
Antigonos Dokimos, commonly shortened and Latinized as Docimus, was one of the officers in the Macedonian army.
Stratonice was daughter of Corrhaeus, and wife of Antigonus, king of Asia, by whom she became the mother of two sons, Demetrius Poliorcetes and Philip, who died in 306 BC. In 316 BC she is mentioned as entering into negotiations with Docimus, when that general was shut up with the other adherents of Perdiccas, in a fortress of Phrygia: but having induced him to quit his stronghold, she caused him to be seized and detained as a prisoner. After the battle of Ipsus she fled from Cilicia with her son Demetrius to Salamis in Cyprus, 301 BC. Here she probably died, as nothing is mentioned of her when the island fell into the power of Ptolemy some years afterwards.
Phoenix was a native of Tenedos, who held a high rank in the army of Eumenes, 321 BC.
Neoptolemus was a Macedonian officer who served under Alexander the Great.
Pammenes was a Theban general of considerable fame who lived during the 4th century BC. He was connected with Epaminondas by political ties and ties of friendship. When Philip, the future king of Macedonia, was sent as a hostage to Thebes, he was placed under the care of Pammenes.
Pleistarchus or Plistarch was son of Antipater and brother of Cassander, king of Macedonia. He is first mentioned in the year 313 BC, when he was left by his brother in the command of Chalcis, to make headway against Ptolemy, the general of Antigonus, when Cassander himself was recalled to the defence of Macedonia. Again, in 302 BC, when the general coalition was formed against Antigonus, Pleistarchus was sent forward by his brother, with an army 12000 foot and 500 horse, to join Lysimachus in Asia. As the Hellespont and entrance of the Euxine was occupied by Demetrius, he endeavoured to transport his troops from Odessus direct to Heraclea, but lost by far the greater part on the passage, some having been captured by the enemy's ships, while others perished in a storm, in which Pleistarchus himself narrowly escaped shipwreck. Notwithstanding this misfortune, he seems to have rendered efficient service to the confederates, for which he was rewarded after the battle of Ipsus by obtaining the province of Cilicia, as an independent government. This, however, he did not long retain, being expelled from it in the following year by Demetrius, almost without opposition. Afterwards he is recorded in inscriptions as the ruler of Caria; he was apparently given this province after the battle of Ipsus, and ruled there for at least seven years. Pausanias mentions him as having been defeated by the Athenians in an action in which he commanded the cavalry and auxiliaries of Cassander; but the period at which this event took place is uncertain. It is perhaps to him that the medical writer, Diocles of Carystus, addressed his work, which is cited more than once by Athenaeus, as τα προς Πλεισταρχον Υγιεινα.
Menon was a citizen of Pharsalus in Thessaly, and a man of great influence and reputation, took a prominent part in the Lamian war, and commanded the Thessalian cavalry in the battle with the Macedonians, in which Leonnatus was slain.
Aulus Postumius Tubertus was a Roman military leader in the wars with the Aequi and Volsci during the fifth century BC. He served as Magister Equitum under the dictator Mamercus Aemilius Mamercinus in 434 BC.
Caeso Fabius Ambustus was a four-time consular tribune of the Roman Republic around the turn of the 5th and 4th centuries BC.
Deidamia was a Princess of Epirus.
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Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He also made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans three volumes and 3,700 pages. It is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.