Thordarhyrna

Last updated
Thordarhyrna
Iceland relief map.jpg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Thordarhyrna
Highest point
Listing List of volcanoes in Iceland
Coordinates 64°12′4″N17°0′17″W / 64.20111°N 17.00472°W / 64.20111; -17.00472 Coordinates: 64°12′4″N17°0′17″W / 64.20111°N 17.00472°W / 64.20111; -17.00472
Geology
Mountain type Subglacial volcano
Last eruption 1910

Thordarhyrna (Icelandic : Þórðarhyrna [ˈθourðarhɪrtna] ) is one of seven [1] subglacial volcanoes beneath the Vatnajokull glacier Iceland.

Icelandic language North Germanic language mainly spoken in Iceland

Icelandic is a North Germanic language spoken in Iceland. Along with Faroese, Norn, and Western Norwegian it formerly constituted West Nordic; while Danish, Eastern Norwegian and Swedish constituted East Nordic. Modern Norwegian Bokmål is influenced by both groups, leading the Nordic languages to be divided into mainland Scandinavian languages and Insular Nordic. Historically, it was the westernmost of the Indo-European languages until the Portuguese settlement in the Azores.

Subglacial volcano volcanic form

A subglacial volcano, also known as a glaciovolcano, is a volcanic form produced by subglacial eruptions or eruptions beneath the surface of a glacier or ice sheet which is then melted into a lake by the rising lava. Today they are most common in Iceland and Antarctica; older formations of this type are found also in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada.

Contents

Eruptions

It last erupted in 1910 and prior to that in 1903. [2] [3]

An eruption in 3550 BC ± 500 years poured out 150,000,000 cubic meters of lava in the area Bergvatnsarhraun to the south of Thordarhyrna. [4]

An eruption between 1887 and 1889 had a VEI of 2. [5]

Volcanic Explosivity Index qualitative scale indicating the explosive intensity of volcanic eruptions

The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) is a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. It was devised by Chris Newhall of the United States Geological Survey and Stephen Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982.

Geology

There is a mechanical interaction between Thordarhyrna and Grimsvötn, despite these volcanoes being relatively far apart, [6] so the eruption in 1902 - 1904 was combined with an eruption from Grimsvötn and had a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 4. [7]

A fault runs (N.35°W) from Thordarhyrna towards Hamarinn, and separates two different tectonic regions. [8]

See also

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References

  1. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2011-05-24.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Figure 2.8 shows 7 volcanoes beneath the glacier
  2. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-12-21. Retrieved 2011-05-24.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Eruptions in Iceland since 1900
  3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-05-27. Retrieved 2011-05-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. "Elsevier".
  5. Surface and bedrock topography mapped by radio echo sounding