Thorichthys is a genus of cichlids. It is found in Atlantic slope of Middle America from Chachalacas River area in Mexico, south to the Motagua River drainage in Guatemala and Honduras. They have somewhat pointy heads and stripes down their body, and tend to inhabit slow-moving or standing water. The best-known species is Thorichthys meeki, the firemouth cichlid. Members of Thorichthys do not exceed 17 cm (6.7 in), making them popular aquarium fish. They are most closely related to Salvin's cichlid of the genus Trichromis.
A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.
Cichlids are fish from the family Cichlidae in the order Cichliformes. Cichlids were traditionally classed in a suborder, Labroidei, along with the wrasses (Labridae), in the order Perciformes but molecular studies have contradicted this grouping. The closest living relatives of cichlids are probably the convict blennies and both families are classified in the 5th edition of Fishes of the World as the two families in the Cichliformes, part of the subseries Ovalentaria. This family is both large and diverse. At least 1,650 species have been scientifically described, making it one of the largest vertebrate families. New species are discovered annually, and many species remain undescribed. The actual number of species is therefore unknown, with estimates varying between 2,000 and 3,000.
Middle America is a region in the mid-latitudes of the Americas. In southern North America, it usually comprises Mexico, the nations of Central America, and the Caribbean. In northern South America, it usually comprises Colombia and Venezuela. The Caribbean is occasionally excluded from the region, and the Guianas are infrequently included.
There are currently 9 recognized species in this genus:
Albert Karl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther FRS, also Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf Günther, was a German-born British zoologist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist. Günther is ranked the second-most productive reptile taxonomist with more than 340 reptile species described.
Charles Tate Regan FRS was a British ichthyologist, working mainly around the beginning of the 20th century. He did extensive work on fish classification schemes.
Franz Steindachner was an Austrian zoologist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist. He published over 200 papers on fishes and over 50 papers on reptiles and amphibians Steindachner described hundreds of new species of fish and dozens of new amphibians and reptiles. At least seven species of reptile have been named after him.
The firemouth cichlid is a species of cichlid fish native to Central America. They occur in rivers of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, south through Belize and into northern Guatemala.
Geophagus is a genus of cichlids that mainly live in South America as far south as Argentina and Uruguay, but a single species, G. crassilabris is from Panama. They are found in a wide range of freshwater habitats. They are part of a group popularly known as eartheaters and mostly feed by picking up mouthfuls of sand to sift out food items such as invertebrates, plant material and detritus. The largest species reach up to 28 cm (11 in) in standard length. They are often kept in aquariums.
Paraneetroplus is a genus of cichlids native to rivers in Central America.
Theraps is a genus from the cichlidae family. It is found in Atlantic slope rivers of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala, to lowland tributaries of the Río Motagua drainage in Honduras.
Vieja is a genus of fish from the family Cichlidae. The geographic distribution of the genus is limited to Pacific slope of Middle America from Río Tequistlán in Mexico south to Lago Coatepeque in El Salvador, Atlantic slope of Middle America from Río Chachalacas in Mexico to Río Chagres in Panama. Only Vieja maculicauda extends south past northern Middle America.
Archocentrus is a genus of cichlid fishes from Central America. It formerly included 7 of the species now included in the genus Cryptoheros, as well as the convict cichlid, now included in the genus Amatitlania. The Rainbow Cichlid, Archocentrus multispinosus, was temporarily included in the genus Archocentrus but is now back in its original genus Herotilapia.
Amphilophus is a genus of cichlid fishes from Central America, ranging from southern Mexico to Panama. The genus currently contains 23 species, including several that are well-known from the aquarium trade. However, studies led by Oldrich Říčan in 2008 and 2016 suggested that several species within Amphilophus should be moved to the genus Astatheros. Species proposed to be moved to Astatheros in 2008 were A. alfari, A. altifrons, A. bussingi, A. diquis, A. longimanus, A. macracanthus, A. margaritifer, A. rhytisma, A. robertsoni and A. rostratus. Further genetic studies led Říčan to put A. macracanthus in Astatheros, but to put A. alfari, A. altifrons, A. bussingi, A. diquis, A. longimanus, A. rhytisma, A. robertsoni and A. rostratus within the genus Cribroheros. Říčan's study suggests that the Astatheros species are more closely related to the Jack Dempsey and rainbow cichlid than to the remaining Amphilophus species.
Herichthys is a small genus of cichlid fishes. Most are endemic to Mexico, but H. cyanoguttatus is also found in southern Texas, and has been introduced to central Texas and Florida. In 2015, the genus was split, and 7 species moved into Nosferatu.
The Salvin's cichlid, also known as the yellow-belly cichlid or tricolored cichlid, is a species of the family Cichlidae. It is found in rivers of the Atlantic slope of southern Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala.
Tomocichla is a genus of cichlids native to the Atlantic slope of Middle America from the Río Escondido drainage in Nicaragua to the rivers of Bocas del Toro, Panama.
Talamancaheros sieboldii, also known as the Siebold's cichlid is a species of cichlid found in fast-moving waters on the Pacific slope of Central America in Panama.
Cryptoheros is a small genus of cichlid fishes from Central America and southeast Mexico. The genus formerly contained 9 species that had been included within the genus Archocentrus. The convict cichlid has sometimes been placed within the genus Cryptoheros as well, but is now considered a member of the genus Amatitlania. Several other species such as Amatitlania septemfasciata and Amatitlania sajica had also once been included within Cryptoheros.
Heroini is a fish tribe from the Cichlasomatinae subfamily in the cichlid family. All cichlids native to the Greater Antilles, United States, Mexico and northern Central America are members of this tribe. It also includes most cichlid species in southern Central America and several species from South America. A large percentage of its species were formerly placed in the genus Cichlasoma, but have since been moved to other genera.
Vieja maculicauda also known as the blackbelt cichlid, is a cichlid fish species native to Central America from Southern Mexico to Panama.
Maskaheros is a genus of cichlids. It is found in Atlantic slope of Mexico and Guatemala in the Coatzacoalcos and Usumacinta River drainages.
Kihnichthys ufermanni, the Usumacinta cichlid, is a species of cichlid found in Middle America. This species occurs the Pasión River system, a tributary to the Usumacinta River in Petén, Guatemala. This species is the only known member of its genus. The generic name honours the Guatemalan ichthyologist Herman A. Kihn while the specific name honours the German aquarist, and friend of Robert Allgayer's, Alfred Ufermann who died in 2000.
Rheoheros is a genus of cichlids. It is found in Atlantic slope of Mexico and Guatemala in the Grijalva-Usumacinta River system.
The Montecristo cichlid is a species of cichlid found in Middle America. This species occurs the Atlantic slope of Mexico and Guatemala in the Usumacinta River drainage. This species is the only known member of its genus.
Chiapaheros grammodes is a species of cichlid found in Middle America. It is found in Atlantic slope of Mexico and western Guatemala in the Río Grijalva drainage. This species is the only known member of its genus.
Mesoheros is a genus of cichlids. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; Atrato River flowing into the Atlantic, San Juan, Baudó and Patia Rivers to Esmeraldas and Tumbes Rivers flowing into the Pacific.
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