Thorius pennatulus

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Thorius pennatulus
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Urodela
Family: Plethodontidae
Genus: Thorius
Species:
T. pennatulus
Binomial name
Thorius pennatulus
Cope, 1869

Thorius pennatulus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae and one of the smallest tetrapods, with adults reaching a length of about 15 to 21 millimetres (0.59 to 0.83 in). [2] It is endemic to the mountains of Veracruz, Mexico. [3]

Contents

Description

Thorius pennatulus is a very small species of salamander reaching a total length of up to 21 millimetres (0.83 in). The head is broad with a pointed snout, small nostrils and protuberant eyes. The tail and limbs are relatively long. The hands and feet are slender with short digits, the longest of which are pointed. The colour is generally pale brown with a regular pattern of darker markings on the back. [2]

Distribution and habitat

Thorius pennatulus has been found at several locations near Veracruz in Mexico at altitudes between 1,000 and 2,000 metres (3,300 and 6,600 ft). [2] It is a terrestrial species and during the day hides under rocks, in or under rotten logs or among leaf litter in banana plantations. [2] It inhabits cloud forest and lower altitude forest and is also found in damp coffee plantations. [1]

Biology

The young of Thorius pennatulus develop directly in the egg and do not have a larval stage. [1]

Status

Thorius pennatulus is listed as "Critically Endangered" by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [1] At one time it was a very common species in the limited area of forest and plantation where it is found but it underwent a large, unexplained decrease in population so that by the mid 1970s it was uncommon and since then it has continued to decline. There has been an increase in agricultural activities within its range but there is still plenty of good quality habitat remaining so its decline is a mystery. One individual was recorded in 2004 and another in 2006. [1]

Related Research Articles

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Pseudoeurycea lynchi, commonly known as the Veracruz green salamander, is a species of salamanders in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to the central Sierra Madre Oriental in Veracruz and Puebla states, Mexico.

Aquiloeurycea praecellens. commonly known as the admirable false brook salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Veracruz, Mexico. Its natural habitat is lowland tropical moist forest where it is threatened by habitat loss.

Thorius arboreus, commonly known as the arboreal minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Sierra de Juarez, Oaxaca, Mexico. The specific name arboreus, derives from the Latin word arbor, meaning tree, referring to the arboreal habitat of this species.

Thorius, also known as minute salamanders, pigmy salamanders, or Mexican pigmy salamanders, is a genus of salamanders in the family Plethodontidae. They are endemic to Mexico and found in southern Veracruz and Puebla to Guerrero and Oaxaca.

Thorius aureus, the golden thorius, is a species of salamander in the genus Thorius, the Mexican pigmy salamanders, part of the lungless salamander family. It is endemic to mountainous areas of north central Oaxaca State in Mexico. It is one of the largest Thorius species.

Thorius boreas, commonly known as the boreal thorius, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Oaxaca, Mexico, and only known from the Sierra Juárez. Its natural habitats are pine-oak and fir forests, often at forest edges. It is threatened by habitat loss (logging), although it does explain the dramatic decline that this species has seen.

Thorius dubitus, commonly known as the Acultzingo pigmy salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico where it is found in west-central Veracruz and adjacent Puebla. Its natural habitats are pine-oak cloud forests. It occurs under wood chips, logs, and rocks, and under the bark of logs and inside logs. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging, livestock, and subsistence agriculture.

Thorius grandis, commonly known as the grand minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico where it is found in west-central Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero. Its natural habitats are pine-fir and pine-oak-fir forests; it tolerates some habitat modification. It usually occurs under logs or the bark of fallen rotting logs. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging and expanding agriculture.

Thorius infernalis, commonly known as the Atoyac minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico where it is only known from its type locality in the Sierra Madre del Sur in central Guerrero. Its natural habitat is riparian vegetation along hillsides, presumably in forest. It is only known from two specimens, and it has not been seen since the early 1980s. Much of the potential habitat is already converted into coffee plantations. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by expanding agriculture and human settlements.

Thorius lunaris, commonly known as the crescent-nostriled thorius, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Pico de Orizaba, in Veracruz, Mexico, at elevations of 2,500–2,640 m (8,200–8,660 ft) asl. Its natural habitat is pine-oak forest where it occurs under the bark of stumps and fallen logs, in leaf-litter, and in piles of wood chips. This was formerly very abundant species is now very rare. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging and expanding agriculture.

Thorius magnipes is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near its type locality near Acultzingo, Veracruz. Its natural habitat is pine-oak forest. It can be found in bromeliads, leaf axils, under rocks and leaf-litter, and inside piles of wood chips. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging and agriculture.

Thorius minydemus, commonly known as the La Hoya minute salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near its type locality near La Joya, Veracruz. Its natural habitats are cloud and pine-oak forests with many bromeliads.

Thorius munificus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near its type locality near Las Vigas, Veracruz. Its natural habitats are pine-oak and pine forests, woodlands, and Arbutus forests with abundant shrubby and ericaceous plants. The species is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging, agriculture, and human settlement.

Thorius narismagnus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to the San Martin Tuxtla volcano, in the Sierra de los Tuxtlas range in southern Veracruz state, Mexico. Its common name is San Martin pigmy salamander. Natural habitats of Thorius narismagnus are lowland and intermediate tropical forests. It occurs under rotten logs and among leaf-litter, and especially under fallen bromeliads.

Thorius narisovalis is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from near its type locality, Cerro San Felipe, Oaxaca. Its natural habitats are cloud forests and mixed forests. It lives under bark or under fallen trees.

Thorius pulmonaris, commonly known as the lower cerro pigmy salamander or Cerro San Felipe salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Oaxaca, Mexico.

Thorius schmidti, commonly known as Schmidt's pigmy salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from the mountains near the village of Zoquitlán in southern Puebla, possibly also from Oaxaca. It is named after Karl Patterson Schmidt, American herpetologist.

Thorius spilogaster, commonly known as the spotted thorius, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Mexico and only known from the south and southeast flanks of Pico de Orizaba in central Veracruz, at elevations of 2,500–2,725 m (8,202–8,940 ft) asl.

Thorius troglodytes, commonly known as Taylor's pigmy salamander, is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae that is endemic to Mexico. It is found only in mountains near the village of Acultzingo (Veracruz) at elevations of 2,380–3,000 m (7,810–9,840 ft) asl.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Wake, David; Raffaelli, Jean; Hanken, James (2008). "Thorius pennatulus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Wake, David B. (2008). "Thorius pennatulus ". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
  3. Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Thorius pennatulus Cope, 1869". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 13 July 2015.