Ꝥ (minuscule: ꝥ), or Þ (thorn) with stroke was a scribal abbreviation common in the Middle Ages. It was used for Old English "þæt" (Modern English "that"), as well as Old Norse "þor-", the "-þan"/"-ðan" in síðan,
Thorn or þorn is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse, Old Swedish and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English. It was also used in medieval Scandinavia, but was later replaced with the digraph th, except in Iceland, where it survives. The letter originated from the rune ᚦ in the Elder Fuþark and was called thorn in the Anglo-Saxon and thorn or thurs in the Scandinavian rune poems. Its reconstructed Proto-Germanic name is Thurisaz. It is similar in appearance to the archaic Greek letter sho (ϸ), although the two are historically unrelated.
Scribal abbreviations or sigla are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in various languages, including Latin, Greek, Old English and Old Norse. In modern manuscript editing "sigla" are the symbols used to indicate the source manuscript and to identify the copyists of a work. See Critical apparatus.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.
Unicode encodes Ꝥ as U+A764ꝤLATIN CAPITAL LETTER THORN WITH STROKE (HTML
Ꝥ), and ꝥ at U+A765ꝥLATIN SMALL LETTER THORN WITH STROKE (HTML
A thorn with a stroke on the descender also exists. The codepoints are U+A766ꝦLATIN CAPITAL LETTER THORN WITH STROKE THROUGH DESCENDER (HTML
Ꝧ), and U+A767ꝧLATIN SMALL LETTER THORN WITH STROKE THROUGH DESCENDER (HTML
F is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
N is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
O is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
P is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
R is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Wynn is a letter of the Old English alphabet, where it is used to represent the sound.
Ezh, also called the "tailed z", is a letter whose lower case form is used in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), representing the voiced postalveolar fricative consonant. For example, the pronunciation of "si" in vision and precision, or the "s" in treasure. See also Ž, the Persian alphabet letter ژ and the Cyrillic ж.
The r rotunda (ꝛ), "rounded r", is a historical calligraphic variant of the minuscule (lowercase) letter Latin r used in full script-like typefaces, especially blackletters.
L is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
Q with stroke is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from writing the letter Q with the addition of a bar through the letter's descender. The letter was used by scribes during the Middle Ages, where it was employed primarily as an abbreviation—a modern parallel of this would be abbreviating the word "and" with an ampersand (&). The letter was also used to write some modern languages. Between 1928 and 1938 it was used in the Lezgin language, but that language now uses a Cyrillic alphabet without the letter. The Dargin language was also written with ꝗ before 1938.
K with stroke is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from K with the addition of a bar through the letter.
Latin delta (ẟ) is a Latin letter similar in appearance to the Greek lowercase letter delta (δ), but derived from the handwritten Latin lowercase d. It is also known as "script d" or "insular d" and is used in medieval Welsh transcriptions for the sound represented by "dd" in Modern Welsh.
Ỽ is a letter employed in Middle Welsh texts between the 13th and 14th centuries. It represented the sounds of v, u, and w and – prior to inclusion in the Latin Extended Additional block of Unicode characters – was typically represented by the letter w in transcriptions. The Unicode code point for the capital letter is U+1EFC; that for the lower-case letter is U+1EFD.
K with stroke and diagonal stroke is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from K with the addition of bars through the ascender and the leg.
K with diagonal stroke is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from K with the addition of a diagonal bar through the leg.
V with diagonal stroke is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from V with the addition of a bar through the left stroke.
Andrew Christopher West is an English Sinologist. His first works concerned Chinese novels of the Ming and Qing dynasties. His study of Romance of the Three Kingdoms used a new approach to analyze the relationship among the various versions, extrapolating the original text of that novel.
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