Thorndon Park Chapel

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Thorndon Park Chapel (The Petre Chapel)
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West end of Thorndon Park Chapel
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Thorndon Park Chapel (The Petre Chapel)
Location in Essex
Coordinates: 51°35′55″N0°19′48″E / 51.5987°N 0.3301°E / 51.5987; 0.3301
OS grid reference TQ 615 914
LocationThorndon Park, near Ingrave, Essex
CountryEngland
Denomination Roman Catholic
Website Historic Chapels Trust
History
StatusPrivate chapel
Founder(s) Lord Petre
Dedicated1857
Architecture
Functional status Redundant
Heritage designationGrade II*
Designated20 February 1976
Architect(s) William Wardell
Architectural typeChapel
Style Gothic Revival
Specifications
Materials Ragstone with freestone dressings, tiled roofs

Thorndon Park Chapel (The Petre Chapel) is a former Roman Catholic private chapel situated in Thorndon Park, near the grounds of Thorndon Hall near Ingrave, Essex, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building, [1] and is under the care of the Historic Chapels Trust. [2]

Thorndon Hall Grade I listed building in the United Kingdom

Thorndon Hall is a Georgian Palladian country house within Thorndon Park, Ingrave, Essex, England, approximately two miles south of Brentwood and 25 miles (40 km) from central London.

Ingrave village in the United Kingdom

Ingrave is a village in the borough of Brentwood in Essex, England. It is situated on and around the A128 road, 2 miles (3.2 km) southeast of the town of Brentwood. Together with the adjoining village of Herongate, it forms the Herongate and Ingrave civil parish.

Essex County of England

Essex is a county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, and London to the south-west. The county town is Chelmsford, the only city in the county. For government statistical purposes Essex is placed in the East of England region.

Contents

History

The chapel was built as a private chantry chapel and mausoleum for the Roman Catholic Petre family who lived in Thorndon Hall. [1] [2] It was built in about 1850, [1] and dedicated in 1857. [2] The architect was William Wardell. Having become redundant and subject to decay and deterioration, the chapel was given to the Trust by Lord Petre in 2010. [2]

A chantry or obiit was a form of trust fund established during the pre-Reformation medieval era in England for the purpose of employing one or more priests to sing a stipulated number of masses for the benefit of the soul of a specified deceased person, usually the donor who had established the chantry in his will, during a stipulated period of time immediately following his death. It was believed such masses would speed the deceased's soul through its undesirable and indeterminate period in Purgatory onwards to eternal rest in Heaven. Once the soul had reached Heaven the ideal state for the Christian human soul had been attained, and the saying of masses would serve no further function. Thus the concept of Purgatory was central to the perceived need for chantries. Chantries were commonly established in England and were endowed with lands, rents from specified properties and other assets by the donor, usually in his will. The income from these assets maintained the chantry priest.

Mausoleum Monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people

A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb, or the tomb may be considered to be within the mausoleum.

Baron Petre

Baron Petre, of Writtle, in the County of Essex, is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1603 for Sir John Petre. His family has since been associated with the county of Essex. He represented Essex in parliament and served as Lord Lieutenant of Essex. Lord Petre was the son of Sir William Petre, Secretary of State to Henry VIII, Mary I, Edward VI and Elizabeth I. Sir William acquired Ingatestone Hall and the surrounding manor from Henry for the full market value after it had been surrendered to the King by Barking Abbey during the Suppression of the Monasteries.

Architecture

Constructed in Kentish ragstone with freestone dressings, the chapel has a tiled roof. Its architectural style is Decorated. [2] The plan of the chapel is L-shaped in three bays, with a vestry and a bellcote on the south side. On the sides of the chapel are buttresses and two-light windows. At the west end is an arched doorway, with carvings in the spandrels, above which is a large three-light window containing curvilinear tracery. The east window is similar. The bellcote is attached to the south wall and consists of an octagonal stair turret, an octagonal highly decorated bell stage with lancet bell openings, and a pyramidal roof. Inside the church is an elaborately decorated roof, including gilded angels. Around the walls of the chapel are the Stations of the Cross on stone panels. The stone altar is integrated into the east wall, with a richly carved reredos above it. Some of the stained glass was made by Hardman, but has been moved into storage. [2]

Rag-stone Work done with stones that are quarried in thin pieces

Rag-stone is a name given by some architectural writers to work done with stones that are quarried in thin pieces, such as Horsham Stone, sandstone, Yorkshire stone, and the slate stones, but this is more properly flag or slab work. By rag-stone, or Kentish rag, near London, is meant an excellent material from the neighborhood of Maidstone. It is a very hard limestone of bluish-grey colour, and peculiarly suited for medieval work. It is often laid as uncoursed work, or random work, sometimes as random coursed work and sometimes as regular ashlar. Ragstone, a dull grey stone, is still quarried on an industrial scale close to the Kent Downs AONB. It has traditionally been used within the AONB as a road stone, cobble or sett and a walling block. Although difficult to ‘dress’ with a regular face it has been used as rectangular blocks for the construction of walls and buildings and was very popular for the construction of 19th-century churches. More frequently, owing to the difficult and variable nature of the stone, it is seen as irregular and self-faced irregular blocks in walling. Due to its irregular shape, as with flint, ragstone has been set within brick quoins and bands. ‘Spalls’, fist sized irregular chips of ragstone, have been used to surface paths but modern usage of ragstone is as a general construction aggregate, including fill for gabions and loose or partly binding gravels.

A freestone is a stone used in masonry for molding, tracery and other replication work required to be worked with the chisel. Freestone, so named because it can be freely cut in any direction, must be fine-grained, uniform and soft enough to be cut easily without shattering or splitting. Some sources, including numerous nineteenth century dictionaries, say that the stone has no grain, but this is incorrect. Oolitic stones are generally used, although in some countries soft sandstones are used; in some churches an indurated chalk called clunch is employed for internal lining and for carving. Some believe that freemason originally meant one who is capable of carving freestone.

Bay (architecture) space defined by the vertical piers, in a building

In architecture, a bay is the space between architectural elements, or a recess or compartment. Bay comes from Old French baee, meaning an opening or hole.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Historic England, "Chantry chapel and mausoleum, Thorndon Park (1293260)", National Heritage List for England , retrieved 18 June 2012
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chantry Chapel and Burial Ground, Thorndon Park, Historic Chapels Trust, archived from the original on 9 August 2011, retrieved 18 June 2012