A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
Thorne Colliery was a large colliery within the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster, South Yorkshire in the South Yorkshire Coalfield.
The Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster is a metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire in Yorkshire and the Humber Region of England.
South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had a population of 1.34 million in 2011. It has an area of 1,552 square kilometres (599 sq mi) and consists of four metropolitan boroughs, Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham and Sheffield. South Yorkshire was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972. Its largest settlement is Sheffield.
The South Yorkshire Coalfield is so named from its position within Yorkshire. It covers most of South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire and a small part of North Yorkshire. The exposed coalfield outcrops in the Pennine foothills and dips under Permian rocks in the east. Its most famous coal seam is the Barnsley Bed. Coal has been mined from shallow seams and outcrops since medieval times and possibly earlier.
The colliery was open between 1925 and 1956; but had operational issues including shaft water, war time crises and maintenance trouble, causing the pit to be non-productive for much of its lifespan. Production ended in 1958 due to geological problems. Unsuccessful proposals to restart production were made in the 1980s and 1990s, and in 2004 the pit pumps were turned off and the headgear demolished.
Thorne Colliery is situated upon the Thorne Moors 16 km north-east of Doncaster, next to the historical mining village of Moorends, northwest to Thorne.
Moorends is a village in the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster, on the border with Lincolnshire. It is part of the civil parish of Thorne, which lies to the south.
The first experimental borings at the site began in 1902, 9 feet (2.7 m) thick.and continued until 1908. A borehole sunk in 1904 by the Thorne Borehole Syndicate, a group of local businessmen, was proven in 1908 when the Barnsley Bed was hit at a depth of 916 yards, which was roughly
Sinking of Thorne pit was undertaken by firm of Pease & Partners of Darlington; Pease and Partners stated that work would commence as soon as possible once a temporary railway connection had been constructed; the company forecast production of 6,000 tons of coal per day to the surface (1.5 million p.a.); the estimated cost of the pit was £500,000 over ten years. Work on creating the pit began c.1909, but shortly afterwards pit water issues became apparent. After June 1910 the workings were inundated with water, and work was suspended whilst electric pumps were installed. Sinking eventually resumed again but there were considerable difficulties in the sinking process, which was highlighted at the Annual General Meeting of the Company in June 1911, though the proprietors remained optimistic of success.Sinking encountered problems again in 1912, causing suspension of works; it was announced that operations would only be resumed if royalty owners agreed to reduced payments. This issue meant only a few men were employed on the site at this time and sinking was again prolonged. Ground freezing was used during construction during 1913, with expectations of the work taking a further eighteen months to complete, with coal production after a further three years. In June 1914, it was announced that the future of Thorne Colliery was practically safe.
Pit water, mine water or mining water is water that collects in a mine and which has to be brought to the surface by water management methods in order to enable the mine to continue working.
Ground freezing is a construction technique used in circumstances where soil needs to be stabilized so it will not collapse next to excavations, or to prevent contaminants spilled into soil from being leached away. Ground freezing has been used for at least one hundred years.
The outbreak of the First World War severely impacted the construction of the pit: the German workers responsible for the freezing operations were arrested and taken to York Castle. They were released the next day and returned to Thorne where they were registered, allowing work to restart. However, a week later these workers were re-arrested, although four German workers were present at the mine in November. In June 1915 however sinking operations were suspended.
York Castle is a fortified complex in the city of York, England. It has comprised a sequence of castles, prisons, law courts and other buildings, which were built over the last nine centuries on the south side of the River Foss. The now-ruinous keep of the medieval Norman castle is commonly referred to as Clifford's Tower. Built originally on the orders of William I to dominate the former Viking city of Jórvík, the castle suffered a tumultuous early history before developing into a major fortification with extensive water defences. After a major explosion in 1684 rendered the remaining military defences uninhabitable, York Castle continued to be used as a jail and prison until 1929.
Work restarted in 1919; six months later it was reported that the water ingress had practically stopped and the resulting work was up to standard. However, the issues when sinking the pit prior to the Annual General Meeting of 1920 resulted in more delays and at this meeting the proprietors were informed it would take another three to four years to finish sinking operations.
Coal was finally reached in August 1924 at a depth of 921.5 yards (842.6 m) and was worked from January 1925. The sinking of the second pit shaft was then completed the following year which was claimed to be the deepest pit in South Yorkshire.
On 15 March 1926 however, shortly before the completion of shaft number 2, six men fell to their deaths when the Capstan engine controlling the scaffolding upon which they were working malfunctioned. It was described in local papers with headlines such as "Mysterious Mishap", as the full cause of the tragedy was unknown.It was not the first loss of life at the pit but was to be ultimately the most costly. The incident was the largest loss of life in a mine in the United Kingdom in 1926. The six men who lost their lives are as follows; Edmund Thorley, age 33 – 1st Chargeman sinker, John Hansbury, age 34 – 2nd Chargeman sinker, John William Barley, age 51 - Sinker, Charles H. Walton, aged 33 - Sinker, Ernest Clark, aged 26 - Sinker and finally John A. Reed, aged 21 - Sinker.
Immediately after the accident occurred the agent, Mr. Hoyle, proceeded to descend into the shaft to the estimated 11 ft water-level where nothing could be seen. There were some minimal markings to the shaft walls below where the platform had fallen and little damage apart from some girders which had been dislodged at the High Hazel presumably by the tumbling scaffolding ropes. Recovery operations took place and the water remaining at the bottom of the shaft was removed: some of the wreckage at the bottom of the shaft had to be removed by using oxyacetylene burners before the bodies were finally recovered. The first body was initially recovered on Wednesday 17 March 1926 and the last on Friday 19 March 1926 and by Thursday 25 March 1926 the shaft bottom was fully cleared.
As reported by the local newspaper (as reported in The Colliery Guardian on 15 March 1926.) the six men were finishing work on the second shaft when their portable platform below ground collapsed. The Capstan engine which malfunctioned was powered by a two-cylinder engine; attached to each drum however on the Capstan engine were pawls or ratchets which should have prevented the Capstan engine slipping; and the inspected machinery was found to be in order; there was no evidence to prove mechanical failure or human aberration. At the coroner's inquest the jury returned a verdict of accidental death. The given verdict had been largely influenced by a special report made regarding this accident by Mr H.M. Hudspeth, H.M. Divisional Inspector for the Yorkshire Division of Mines. The conclusion he personally produced was that the engine driver accidentally put his level into the position for lowering scaffold while the capstan drums were held by the restraining pawls. It was his recommendation that pawls should not be used on worm driven capstan engines.
Shortly following the accident Thorne pit began to produce coal at a substantial rate, with the prospects of the pit being a profitable business seeming good. Messrs Pease and Partners proposed to develop a railway from the pit to Swinefleet on the River Ouse, a plan similar to earlier proposals of 1908-10 and 1913 plans of the L&YR Company. However, there were significant objections from railway companies operating within this area and the bill proposed to the House of Lords was withdrawn on 8 May 1927.
After production had begun in both shafts there was a period of time during which Thorne was one of the most successful pits in South Yorkshire. Production ran relatively smoothly through the 1930s and 1940s, though the shaft water issue was a constant nuisance. Strained labour relations were also an issue during this period, which also affected profitability and productivity.
On 1 January 1947 (known as "Vesting Day") the coal industry was nationalised and Thorne Colliery became part of the National Coal Board (NCB). The colliery produced coal for another nine years until water issues caused its closure.
In 1956 the pit was "temporarily closed" due to flooding and faults, after which the pit was kept in maintained order. A small number of miners were made redundant on a voluntary basis and other workers were redeployed elsewhere. Initial forecasts were optimistic regarding the reopening of the pit but a series of setbacks quelled such optimism. On 31 July 1958 the Doncaster Examiner reported that "excess flood waters have again battered through tons of concrete, causing the worst setback since the pit was closed two years ago".The National Coal Board predicted that "coal would be turned at Thorne within three or four months of next year". By 1962 the predicted re-opening date had been put back to 1964 at the earliest; in November of that year it was reported that waterproofing would be completed by the following June.
In August 1966 a paper of the Mining Engineers opened with the words "Thorne Colliery was probably the most courageous coal mining enterprise undertaken in the early years of the twentieth century", going on to note the pit had a fundamental problem in the "unconformable strata" (strata geologically out of sequence), which led to excessive water flow. Shaft linings had simply failed in the pit conditions and had led in August 1958 to the failure of the No. 2 shaft. The paper proposed the installation of composite shaft linings, having an inner cylinder of steel bonded to high grade concrete able to withstand the hydrostatic pressures.
In September 1966 the Thorne Gazette noted that "the pit has been closed for ten years",Thorne Colliery remained in a state of limbo, with millions of pounds of money being invested to repair the damage.
In the 1980s the NCB began planning a £180 million restarting of production at the site.New headgear and new winding systems were erected, but the sharp decline in coal prices brought an end to the plan.
In the 1990s RJB Mining proposed to restart production,but in 2002 it was decided that the establishment of the pit was uneconomical.
In 2004 the pumps at the site were turned off and on 18 August of that year the headgear was demolished.The news of this saddened many members of the community and many watched at the site on the day of the demolition.
One of a few reminders of the Colliery today is Thorne Colliery F.C..
The site is now home to a 5 megawatt solar farm developed by RES. The construction was completed in December 2015.
The Astley Green Colliery Museum is a museum run by the Red Rose Steam Society in Astley near Tyldesley in Greater Manchester, England. Before becoming a museum, the site was a working colliery that produced coal from 1912 to 1970; it is now protected as a Scheduled Monument. The museum occupies a 15-acre (6 ha) site by the Bridgewater Canal which has the only surviving pit headgear and engine house on the Lancashire Coalfield.
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Harworth Colliery was a coal mine in the Bassetlaw area of north Nottinghamshire.
Chatterley Whitfield Colliery is a disused coal mine on the outskirts of Chell, Staffordshire in Stoke on Trent. It was the largest mine working the North Staffordshire Coalfield and was the first colliery in the UK to produce 1,000,000 tons of saleable coal in a year. The colliery and pithead baths complex are on Historic England's Heritage at Risk register due to being in very bad condition and not in use.
Dinnington Main Colliery was a coal mine situated in the village of Dinnington, near Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England.
Hatfield Colliery, also known as Hatfield Main Colliery, was a colliery in the South Yorkshire Coalfield, mining the High Hazel coal seam. The colliery was around 1 mile (1.6 km) northwest of Hatfield, South Yorkshire, adjacent north of the railway line from Doncaster to Scunthorpe northeast of Hatfield and Stainforth railway station.
The Ingleton Coalfield is in North Yorkshire, close to its border with Lancashire in north-west England. Isolated from other coal-producing areas, it is one of the smallest coalfields in Great Britain.
Tyldesley Coal Company was a coal mining company formed in 1870 in Tyldesley, on the Manchester Coalfield in the historic county of Lancashire, England that had its origins in Yew Tree Colliery, the location for a mining disaster that killed 25 men and boys in 1858.
Bedford Colliery, also known as Wood End Pit, was a coal mine on the Manchester Coalfield in Bedford, Leigh, Lancashire, England. The colliery was owned by John Speakman, who started sinking two shafts on land at Wood End Farm in the northeast part of Bedford, south of the London and North Western Railway's Tyldesley Loopline in about 1874. Speakman's father owned Priestners, Bankfield, and Broadoak collieries in Westleigh. Bedford Colliery remained in the possession of the Speakman family until it was amalgamated with Manchester Collieries in 1929.
Astley Green Colliery was a coal mine in Astley, Greater Manchester, then in the historic county of Lancashire, England. It was the last colliery to be sunk in Astley. Sinking commenced in 1908 by the Pilkington Colliery Company, a subsidiary of the Clifton and Kersley Coal Company, at the southern edge of the Manchester Coalfield, working the Middle Coal Measures where they dipped under the Permian age rocks under Chat Moss. The colliery was north of the Bridgewater Canal. In 1929 it became part of Manchester Collieries, and in 1947 was nationalised and integrated into the National Coal Board. It closed in 1970, and is now Astley Green Colliery Museum.
Parsonage Colliery was a coal mine operating on the Lancashire Coalfield in Leigh, then in the historic county of Lancashire, England. The colliery, close to the centre of Leigh and the Bolton and Leigh Railway was sunk between 1913 and 1920 by the Wigan Coal and Iron Company and the first coal was wound to the surface in 1921. For many years its shafts to the Arley mine were the deepest in the country. The pit was close to the town centre and large pillars of coal were left under the parish church and the town's large cotton mills.
Pendleton Colliery was a coal mine operating on the Manchester Coalfield after the late 1820s on Whit Lane in Pendleton, then in the historic county of Lancashire, England.
Chanters Colliery was a coal mine which was part of the Fletcher, Burrows and Company's collieries at Hindsford in Atherton, Greater Manchester, then in the historic county of Lancashire, England.
Peelwood Colliery was a coal mine operating on the Manchester Coalfield after 1883 in Shakerley, Tyldesley, Greater Manchester, then in the historic county of Lancashire, England.
Mosley Common Colliery was a coal mine originally owned by the Bridgewater Trustees operating on the Manchester Coalfield after 1866 in Mosley Common, Greater Manchester, then in the historic county of Lancashire, England. The colliery eventually had five shafts and became the largest colliery on the Lancashire Coalfield with access to around 270 million tons of coal under the Permian rocks to the south.
Bradford Colliery was a coal mine in Bradford, Manchester, England. Although part of the Manchester Coalfield, the seams of the Bradford Coalfield correspond more closely to those of the Oldham Coalfield. The Bradford Coalfield is crossed by a number of fault lines, principally the Bradford Fault, which was reactivated by mining activity in the mid-1960s.
This is a partial glossary of coal mining terminology commonly used in the coalfields of the United Kingdom. Some words were in use throughout the coalfields, some are historic and some are local to the different British coalfields.
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