Thorne system

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A system of plant taxonomy, the Thorne system of plant classification was devised by the American botanist Robert F. Thorne (1920–2015) in 1968, [1] and he continued to issue revisions over many years (1968–2007). [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]


Some versions of the system are available online. The Bioinformatics Working Group Center for the Study of Digital Libraries at Texas A&M University lists the March 1999 version [9] (and other classification systems). [10] James Reveal's course lecture notes (1999) also gives an account of the Thorne system at that time, with an extensive listing of synonyms, both nomenclatural and taxonomic, for each name in the system [11] together with several other classification systems. [12]

For a discussion of the various suffixes used for superorders (-floraevs.-anae), see Brummitt 1992, [13] and Thorne 1992. [5] In this latter paper, Thorne sets out his reasons for abandoning -florae for -anae, following contemporary practice.

1968 System



1992 System

The 1992 system lists 69 orders and 440 families




2007 System

The 2007 system lists 12 subclasses, 35 superorders, 87 orders, 40 suborders, and 472 families. It uses the suffixes given in the following example.

Class Magnoliopsida ("Angiospermae") - 12 subclasses

Subclasses (12)

Note: Monocotyledons are represented here by 3 separate subclasses 3–5 [14]

Related Research Articles

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Nymphaeales order of plants

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Magnoliopsida class of plants

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LiliopsidaBatsch is a botanical name for the class containing the family Liliaceae. It is considered synonymous with the name monocotyledon. Publication of the name is credited to Scopoli : see author citation (botany). This name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Liliaceae by the termination -opsida.

The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants. It was developed by Arthur Cronquist in a series of monographs and texts, including The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants and An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981).

Proteales Order of flowering plants

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<i>Austrobaileya</i> species of plant

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Nelumbonaceae family of plants

Nelumbonaceae is a family of aquatic flowering plants. Nelumbo is the sole extant genus, containing Nelumbo lutea, native to North America, and Nelumbo nucifera, widespread in Asia.. At least four other genera, Nelumbites, Exnelumbites, Paleonelumbo, and Nelumbago, are known from fossils.

Trimeniaceae family of plants

Trimeniaceae is a family of flowering plants recognized by most taxonomists, at least for the past several decades. It is a small family of one genus, Trimenia, with eight known species of woody plants, bearing essential oils. The family is subtropical to tropical and found in Southeast Asia, eastern Australia and on several Pacific Islands.

One of the modern systems of plant taxonomy, the Dahlgren system was published by monocot specialist Rolf Dahlgren in 1975 and revised in 1977, and 1980. However, he is best known for his two treatises on monocotyledons in 1982 and revised in 1985. His wife Gertrud Dahlgren continued the work after his death.

A system of plant taxonomy, the Takhtajan system of plant classification was published by Armen Takhtajan, in several versions from the 1950s onwards. It is usually compared to the Cronquist system. It admits paraphyletic groups.

Commelinids important clade of plants (In APG II and III)

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Liliidae is a botanical name at the rank of subclass. Circumscription of the subclass will vary with the taxonomic system being used ; the only requirement being that it includes the family Liliaceae.

A 20th-century system of plant taxonomy, the Reveal system of plant classification was drawn up by the American botanist James Reveal (1941-2015). The system was published online in 1997 in ten parts as lecture notes comparing the major systems in use at that time. Subsequently, Reveal became an author with the consensus Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) on the APG II 2003 and APG III 2009 processes. Although this largely supplanted the earlier and competing systems, he collaborated with Robert Thorne on his system (2007), and subsequently continued to develop his own system.

Lilianae superorder of plants

Lilianae is a botanical name for a superorder of flowering plants. Such a superorder of necessity includes the type family Liliaceae. Terminations at the rank of superorder are not standardized by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), although the suffix -anae has been proposed.

James L. Reveal American botanist

James Lauritz Reveal was a U.S. botanist best known for his contributions to the genus Eriogonum and for his work on suprageneric names. His website, at, also presents material on plant taxonomy including the Reveal system. He published extensively on North American flora, was a member of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, and was one of the authors of the APG II and APG III classifications.

Magnoliids clade of flowering plants

Magnoliids are a group of flowering plants. Until recently, the group included about 9,000 species, including magnolias, nutmeg, bay laurel, cinnamon, avocado, black pepper, tulip tree and many others. That group is characterized by trimerous flowers, pollen with one pore, and usually branching-veined leaves.

Robert Folger Thorne American botanist

Dr. Robert F. Thorne was an American botanist. He was Taxonomist and Curator Emeritus at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden and Professor Emeritus at Claremont Graduate University in Claremont, California. His research has contributed to the understanding of the evolution of flowering plants.

Magnoliidae <i>sensu</i> Chase & Reveal

Magnoliidae is a subclass of Equisetopsida in the sense used by Mark W. Chase and James L. Reveal in their 2009 article "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III." This subclass comprises the angiosperms or flowering plants.


  1. 1 2 Thorne 1968.
  2. Thorne 1976.
  3. Thorne 1977.
  4. Thorne 1983.
  5. 1 2 Thorne 1992a.
  6. Thorne 1992b.
  7. Reveal 1999a.
  8. Thorne & Reveal 2007.
  9. Robert F. Thorne. 1992. Classification and Geography of Flowering Plants. Botanical Review 58: 225-348 as updated December, 1992 and March, 1999. Source for March 1999 in Reveal (1999a)
  10. Texas A&M Flowering Plant Gateway
  11. Reveal 1999b.
  12. Reveal 1999c.
  13. Brummitt 1992, pp. 770–776.
  14. Singh 2019, p. 260.


Works by Thorne