Thornel Schwartz Jr., or Thornal Schwartz Jr. (May 29, 1927, Philadelphia - December 30, 1977, Philadelphia) was an American jazz guitarist. He played electric guitar on the recordings of many Philadelphia jazz musicians, especially electronic organ players.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression. It then emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes, call and response vocals, polyrhythms and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms".
An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals. The vibration occurs when a guitar player strums, plucks, fingerpicks, slaps or taps the strings. The pickup generally uses electromagnetic induction to create this signal, which being relatively weak is fed into a guitar amplifier before being sent to the speaker(s), which converts it into audible sound.
Schwartz is known as Thornel on recording titles and in standard jazz reference works, but Gary W. Kennedy of The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz notes that Schwartz spelled his own and his father's name "Thornal" on his social security application.Schwartz attended the Landis Institute for piano, but became known as a jazz guitarist starting in the 1950s. He was Freddie Cole's guitarist early in the decade, then worked with Jimmy Smith and Johnny Hammond Smith later in the decade. In the 1960s he recorded with Larry Young (musician), Jimmy Forrest, Charles Earland, Byrdie Green, Sylvia Syms and extensively with Jimmy McGriff, and in the 1970s with Groove Holmes.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." In the United States, this is usually called welfare or a social safety net, especially when talking about Canada and European countries.
James Oscar Smith was an American jazz musician whose albums often charted on Billboard magazine. He helped popularize the Hammond B-3 organ, creating a link between jazz and 1960s soul music.
Larry Young was an American jazz organist and occasional pianist. Young pioneered a modal approach to the Hammond B-3. However, he did also play soul jazz, among other styles.
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With Jimmy Forrest
With Jimmy McGriff
A Bag Full of Soul is an album by American jazz organist Jimmy McGriff featuring performances recorded in 1966 and originally released on the Solid State label.
The Worm is an album by American jazz organist Jimmy McGriff featuring performances recorded in 1968 and originally released on the Solid State label.
Let's Stay Together is an album by American jazz organist Jimmy McGriff featuring performances recorded in 1966 and 1972 and released on the Groove Merchant label.
With Johnny "Hammond" Smith
All Soul is an album by jazz organist Johnny "Hammond" Smith recorded for the New Jazz label in 1959.
That Good Feelin' is an album by jazz organist Johnny "Hammond" Smith recorded for the New Jazz label in 1959.
Gettin' Up is an album by jazz organist Johnny "Hammond" Smith recorded for the Prestige label in 1967.
With Jimmy Smith
A New Sound... A New Star... is the debut album by American jazz organist Jimmy Smith featuring performances recorded in 1956 and released on the Blue Note label. The album was rereleased on CD combined with Smith's following two LP's A New Sound A New Star: Jimmy Smith at the Organ Volume 2 and The Incredible Jimmy Smith at the Organ.
A New Sound A New Star: Jimmy Smith at the Organ Volume 2 is the second album by American jazz organist Jimmy Smith featuring performances recorded in 1956 and released on the Blue Note label. The album was rereleased on CD combined with Smith's debut LP A New Sound... A New Star... and the following The Incredible Jimmy Smith at the Organ.
The Incredible Jimmy Smith is the third album by American jazz organist Jimmy Smith featuring performances recorded in 1956 and released on the Blue Note label. The album was rereleased on CD combined with Smith's previous two LP's A New Sound... A New Star... and A New Sound A New Star: Jimmy Smith at the Organ Volume 2.
With Sylvia Syms
With Larry Young
Testifying is the debut album led by jazz organist Larry Young which was recorded in 1960 and released on the New Jazz label.
Young Blues is the second album led by jazz organist Larry Young which was recorded in 1960 and released on the New Jazz label.
Groove Street is an album by jazz organist Larry Young which was recorded in 1962 and released on the Prestige label.
Jerome Richardson was an American jazz musician, tenor saxophonist, and flute player, who also played soprano sax, alto sax, baritone sax, clarinet, bass clarinet, alto flute and piccolo. He played with Charles Mingus, Lionel Hampton, Billy Eckstine the Thad Jones/Mel Lewis Big Band, Kenny Burrell, and later with Earl Hines' small band.
Richard Arnold "Groove" Holmes was an American jazz organist who performed in the hard bop and soul jazz genre. He is best known for his 1965 recording of "Misty".
Kenneth Earl Burrell is an American jazz guitarist known for his work on the Blue Note label. His collaborations with Jimmy Smith produced the 1965 Billboard Top Twenty hit album Organ Grinder Swing. He has cited jazz guitarists Charlie Christian and Django Reinhardt as influences, along with blues guitarists T-Bone Walker and Muddy Waters.
Charles Earland was an American jazz organist.
Eugene McDuff, known professionally as "Brother" Jack McDuff or "Captain" Jack McDuff, was an American jazz organist and organ trio bandleader who was most prominent during the hard bop and soul jazz era of the 1960s, often performing with an organ trio. He is also credited with giving guitarist George Benson his first break.
Bernard Lee "Pretty" Purdie is an American drummer, considered an influential and innovative funk musician. He is known for his precise musical time keeping and his signature use of triplets against a half-time backbeat: the "Purdie Shuffle." He was inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 2013.
Shirley Scott was an American jazz organist.
George Duvivier was an American jazz double-bassist.
James Harrell McGriff was an American hard bop and soul-jazz organist and organ trio bandleader.
Seldon Powell was an American soul jazz, swing, and R&B tenor saxophonist and flautist born in Lawrenceville, Virginia.
Melvin Sparks was an American soul jazz, hard bop and jazz blues guitarist. He recorded a number of albums for Prestige Records, later recording for Savant Records. He appeared on several recordings with musicians including Lou Donaldson, Sonny Stitt, Leon Spencer and Johnny Hammond Smith.
Forrest Fire is an album by saxophonist Jimmy Forrest recorded in 1960 and released on the New Jazz label.
Lonnie Smith, styled Dr. Lonnie Smith, is an American jazz Hammond B3 organist who was a member of the George Benson quartet in the 1960s. He recorded albums with saxophonist Lou Donaldson for Blue Note before being signed as a solo act. He owns the label Pilgrimage.
Jimmy Ponder was an American jazz guitarist.
James Howard Smith is an American jazz drummer. Smith studied at the Al Germansky School for Drummers in his home town of Newark from 1951–54, then attended the Juilliard School in 1959–60. He began his professional career in New York City around this time.
Donald Orlando "Duck" Bailey was an American jazz drummer.