Thornsbury Bailey Brown

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Thornsbury Bailey Brown
Born(1829-05-15)May 15, 1829
DiedMay 22, 1861(1861-05-22) (aged 32)
Fetterman, West Virginia
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branchGrafton Guards militia (Union Army)
Years of service1861
Battles/wars American Civil War

Thornsbury Bailey Brown (May 15, 1829 – May 22, 1861) of Taylor County, Virginia (now West Virginia) is generally considered the first Union soldier killed by a Confederate soldier during the American Civil War. Brown, a member of a Virginia militia or volunteer company which supported the Union with the grade of private, was killed by a member of a Virginia militia or volunteer company which supported the Confederacy at Fetterman, Virginia (now West Virginia) on May 22, 1861. The members of both companies were from the same general vicinity of Taylor County.

Taylor County, West Virginia U.S. county in West Virginia

Taylor County is a county in the U.S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,895. Its county seat is Grafton. The county was formed in 1844. and named for Senator John Taylor of Caroline.

Union (American Civil War) United States national government during the American Civil War

During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states and four border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America, also known as "the Confederacy" or "the South".

American Civil War Internal war in the U.S. over slavery

The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights in order to uphold slavery.



On May 22, 1861, two members of the Grafton Guards, [1] Lieutenant Daniel Wilson and Private Thornsbury [2] Bailey Brown went from Grafton, Virginia to a rally in Pruntytown, Virginia to recruit men for the Union army. When they returned that evening, they encountered three members of a Virginia militia company with Confederate sympathies, George E. Glenn, Daniel W. S. Knight, and William Reese of the Letcher Guards, [3] who were on picket duty at the Fetterman Bridge. The Letcher Guards would become a company of the Confederate 25th Virginia Infantry Regiment. [4] The bridge was located at the crossing of the Northwestern Turnpike with the tracks of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The pickets ordered Wilson and Brown to halt. Brown responded, possibly at Wilson's order to test the Confederates, [5] by firing his pistol. The shot injured Knight's ear. Knight, and perhaps his two companions, [6] then fired at Brown and killed him. According to the official and more generally accepted story, T. Bailey Brown thus became the first Union combat death of the American Civil War, or perhaps more precisely, the first Union soldier to be killed by a Confederate soldier during the Civil War.

Grafton, West Virginia City in West Virginia, United States

Grafton is a city in — and the county seat of — Taylor County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 5,164 at the 2010 census. Both of West Virginia's national cemeteries are located in Grafton. Mother's Day was founded in Grafton on May 10, 1908 and the city is home to the International Mother's Day Shrine.

Pruntytown, West Virginia Unincorporated community in West Virginia, United States

Pruntytown is an unincorporated community at the junction of the Northwestern Turnpike and U.S. Route 250 in Taylor County, West Virginia, USA. It is the site of the former West Virginia Industrial Home for Boys, now the Pruntytown Correctional Center.

Fetterman, West Virginia Unincorporated community in West Virginia, United States

Fetterman is an unincorporated community or populated place located in Taylor County, West Virginia. The elevation is 1,024 feet (312 m). Fetterman appears on the Grafton U.S. Geological Survey Map. Taylor County is in the Eastern time zone (UTC-5) and in postal zip code 26354. Fetterman was one of the early settlements in what became Taylor County, Virginia,. It was located at the crossing of the Tygart Valley River by the Northwestern Turnpike.

Other early deaths of Union soldiers

At the Fort Sumter surrender ceremony, on April 14, 1861, Union Private Daniel Hough was killed and Private Edward Galloway was mortally wounded when a Union cannon or shells near the cannon accidentally exploded while the Union garrison was giving a cannon fire salute to the American flag. These deaths were accidents, however, and were not due to enemy fire. [7] The famous death of the first Union Army officer to be killed during the war, Union Colonel Elmer E. Ellsworth, who was killed at Alexandria, Virginia while taking down a secessionist flag by hotel owner James W. Jackson, who was a Confederate sympathizer, occurred two days later than the incident in which Brown was killed, May 24, 1861. Assuming the incident at Fetterman was not a battle, the first Union soldier to be killed in battle was a Private Saintclair of the 2d U.S. Cavalry Regiment who was killed at the Battle of Fairfax Court House (June 1861) on June 1, 1861. [8] The web site of a Civil War re-enactor group states with respect to the picket duty performed by the regiment in the early days of the war, and obviously with reference to the Battle of Arlington Mills, also on June 1, 1861: "21-year-old Henry S. Cornell of Company G, a member of Engine Co. 13, was killed and another man wounded one night on the picket line." [9] Eighteen Union soldiers were killed at the Battle of Big Bethel on June 10, 1861.

Battle of Fort Sumter bombardment of Fort Sumter, immediate cause and first battle of the American Civil War

The Battle of Fort Sumter was the bombardment of Fort Sumter near Charleston, South Carolina by the South Carolina militia, and the return gunfire and subsequent surrender by the United States Army, that started the American Civil War. Following the declaration of secession by South Carolina on December 20, 1860, its authorities demanded that the U.S. Army abandon its facilities in Charleston Harbor. On December 26, Major Robert Anderson of the U.S. Army surreptitiously moved his small command from the vulnerable Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island to Fort Sumter, a substantial fortress built on an island controlling the entrance of Charleston Harbor. An attempt by U.S. President James Buchanan to reinforce and resupply Anderson using the unarmed merchant ship Star of the West failed when it was fired upon by shore batteries on January 9, 1861. South Carolina authorities then seized all Federal property in the Charleston area except for Fort Sumter.

Elmer E. Ellsworth US Army officer (1837-1861)

Elmer Ephraim Ellsworth was a law clerk and United States Army soldier who was the first conspicuous casualty and the first Union officer to die in the American Civil War. He was killed while removing a Confederate flag from the roof of the Marshall House inn in Alexandria, Virginia.

James W. Jackson American secessionist

James W. Jackson was an ardent secessionist and the proprietor of the Marshall House, an inn located in the city of Alexandria, Virginia, at the beginning of the American Civil War. He is known for flying a large Confederate flag atop his inn that was visible to President Abraham Lincoln from Washington, D.C. and for killing Col. Elmer Ellsworth in an incident that marked the first conspicuous casualty and the first killing of a Union officer in the Civil War. Jackson was killed immediately after he killed Ellsworth. While losing their lives, both gained fame as martyrs to their respective causes.

Questions about combat status

At least two accounts add an aspect to the story of Brown's death which has raised questions about its combat status or even whether it was war related. The first account states that at an earlier date Brown had turned Knight over to the sheriff for stealing a cow. [10] This may suggest a personal motive for the shooting and call into question whether Knight's killing of Brown was in fact combat related or perhaps was instead a matter of revenge. [11] Another account states that Knight had vowed revenge at the time of his earlier arrest and that at the confrontation on May 22, 1861 Brown was agitated that a known trouble-maker such as Knight was blocking his path. [12] [13] Regardless of the technicalities of transfer of militia units to Union and Confederate forces or whether the confrontation of Brown with Knight was a combat situation or had a personal aspect, Brown and Knight encountered each other as soldiers, at least militia, for their respective causes and Brown was the first Northern or Union supporting soldier to be killed by a Southern or Confederate supporting soldier in the Civil War.

Aftermath and reburial

The Confederates took Brown's body to their camp and their commander, Colonel George A. Porterfield at first refused to return the body. When they learned of this refusal to return Brown's body, a group of the Union-oriented Grafton Guards militia company, under Captain George R. Latham, started for the Confederate camp in order to take the body by force if necessary when it was met by a group of Confederates who were returning the body to Grafton. [14] Initially, Brown was buried in a family plot. [15]

George A. Porterfield Confederate States Army colonel

George Alexander Porterfield was a junior officer of United States forces in the Mexican–American War, colonel, in the Confederate States Army during the first year of the American Civil War and longtime banker in Charles Town, West Virginia after the war. He was in command of Confederate forces at Philippi in northwestern Virginia, later West Virginia, when they were surprised and routed, though with only a few soldiers wounded or captured, by Union Army forces on June 3, 1861 near the beginning of the Civil War. After serving in staff and temporary field positions for 11 more months, Porterfield resigned from the Confederate Army because he lost his position in a regimental election. In 1871 he helped found a bank at Charles Town, West Virginia which he served for many years. At his death, he was the third-last surviving veteran officer of the Mexican–American War.

George R. Latham Union United States Army officer

George Robert Latham was a 19th-century Virginia farmer, lawyer and politician who helped found the state of West Virginia during the American Civil War, during which he served as a colonel in the Union Army. He later served one term in the United States House of Representatives representing West Virginia's 2nd congressional district(1864-1866), as well as became U.S. Consul in Melbourne, Australia (1867-1870) before returning to West Virginia to farm and hold various civic offices.

Brown's body was moved to the Grafton National Cemetery in Grafton, West Virginia in June, 1903. [15] A 12-foot-high obelisk commemorating Private Brown as the first Union combat casualty of the war was placed on his grave in the national cemetery in 1928 by the Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War and a marker also was placed near the spot where he died.

Grafton National Cemetery United States historic place

Grafton National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery located in Grafton, West Virginia. It encompasses a total of 3.2 acres (1.3 ha). Along with West Virginia National Cemetery, it is one of two United States Department of Veterans Affairs national cemeteries in West Virginia, both of which are located in Grafton. The first interments took place in 1867 for casualties of the American Civil War in West Virginia.

West Virginia U.S. state in the United States

West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States, and is also considered to be a part of the Mid-Atlantic Southeast Region. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, and Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, and is ranked 38th in population. The capital and largest city is Charleston.


  1. The Grafton Guards were commanded by Captain George R. Latham. They became Company B of the 2nd West Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment (originally 2d (U.S.) Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment). They were mustered into the Union Army at Wheeling on May 25, 1861, three days after Brown's death. Brown had been mustered into the Grafton Guards on May 20, 1861. Hannings, Bud. Every Day of the Civil War: A Chronological Encyclopedia. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2010. ISBN   978-0-7864-4464-9. Retrieved May 19, 2011. p. 44
  2. Spelled in some sources as Thornsberry Bailey Brown. Occasionally, the 's' has been left out of both versions of his first name.
  3. The Letcher Guards were commanded by Captain John A. Robinson.
  4. Lang, Theodore F. Loyal West Virginia from 1861 to 1865. Baltimore: The Deutsch Publishing Company, 1895. OCLC   779093. Retrieved May 4, 2011. p. 211
  5. Johnson, Clint. Touring Virginia's and West Virginia's Civil War Sites. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair, 1999. ISBN   0-89587-184-X. Retrieved May 11, 2011. p. 79
  6. Several accounts state Brown was struck in the chest by three bullets, although some accounts say Knight fired a pistol rather than a musket which may have allowed him to fire more than one shot. Lang, p. 211 says Knight fired an old flintlock musket filled with slugs, which could have enabled him to inflict three wounds on Brown with one shot.
  7. It is likely that one or more other Union soldiers had died by accident or of disease between April 14, 1861 and May 22, 1861, but again, these would not have been combat deaths. Colonel Abraham S. Vosburgh of the 71st New York Infantry Regiment, for example, died of a pulmonary complaint in Washington, D.C. on May 20, 1861. Several Union soldiers were killed in rioting in Baltimore, Maryland and St. Louis, Missouri just after the fall of Fort Sumter and well before May 22, 1861 but these soldiers were not killed by uniformed Confederate soldiers or combatants or otherwise in battle. So their deaths too have not been considered combat deaths. The June 1, 1861 issue of Harper's Weekly,, retrieved May 10, 2011, identified Luther C. Ladd, a Massachusetts Volunteer killed April 19, 1861 as the first of four soldiers of the Sixth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment to die in rioting at Baltimore that day. Addison Otis Whitney and Charles Taylor of the Sixth Massachusetts Infantry also were killed in Baltimore on April 19, 1861 and Corporal Sumner Needham was mortally wounded and died 8 days later. Five members of the unarmed and out-of-uniform Washington Brigade from Pennsylvania died in rioting in Baltimore later on the same day.
  8. Moore, ed., Frank. The Rebellion Record: A Diary of American Events. 11 volumes. Volume 1, pp. 321–322. New York: G.P. Putnam, D. Van Nostrand, 1861-1863; 1864-68. OCLC   2230865. Retrieved May 13, 2011
  9. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2007-12-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. Poland, Jr., Charles P. The Glories Of War: Small Battle And Early Heroes Of 1861. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2006. ISBN   1-4184-5973-9. p. 249
  11. Johnson, 1999, p. 79
  12. Lesser, W. Hunter. Rebels At The Gate: Lee and McClellan On The Front Line Of A Nation Divided. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks, Inc., 2004. ISBN   1-57071-747-8. Retrieved May 10, 2011. p. 53
  13. Yet another point mentioned in questioning Brown's status as a Union army combat casualty is that the Grafton Guards were not officially mustered into the Union Army until May 25, 1861, three days after his death, when they were enrolled at Wheeling, Virginia as Company B of the 2d (U.S.) Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment. Brown would not have been wearing a regular Union Army uniform on May 22, 1861. He may have been wearing a militia uniform or even civilian clothes at the time of the incident. Johnson, 1999, p. 79. Yet, when Colonel Benjamin F. Kelley with his 1st Virginia (U.S.) Infantry Regiment, including the Grafton Guards, left Wheeling for Grafton, even they were clad in blue jeans and work clothes. Lesser, 2004, p. 57
  14. Poland, 2006, pp. 249–250
  15. 1 2 Poland, 2006, p. 250

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