Thoros of Marash

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Thoros of Marash (also known as Thatoul) was the father of Arda of Armenia, the first queen consort of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Arda of Armenia Queen consort of Jerusalem (12th century)

Arda was the queen of the Jerusalem as the 2nd spouse of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem. She was the first Queen consort of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, as Baldwin's brother and predecessor Godfrey of Bouillon was unmarried.

Thoros' allowing Baldwin I of Jerusalem, who was then Count of Edessa to marry his daughter gave Baldwin a legitimate claim to Edessa since it was within the traditional area of Armenia.

Baldwin I of Jerusalem King of Jerusalem

Baldwin I, also known as Baldwin of Boulogne, was the first count of Edessa from 1098 to 1100, and the second crusader ruler and first king of Jerusalem from 1100 to his death. Being a younger son, he was destined for a church career, but he abandoned it and married a Norman noblewoman, Godehilde of Tosny. He received the County of Verdun in 1096, but he soon joined the crusader army of his brother, Godfrey of Bouillon and became one of the most successful commanders of the First Crusade.

County of Edessa

The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century. Its seat was the city of Edessa.

Thoros failed to pay the full dowry he had pledged. Also with Baldwin becoming King of Jerusalem, he no longer felt a need to have alliances with the Armenians. Baldwin had his marriage to Arda annulled. About the same time the forces of Edessa drove Thoros from his domain. He was then forced to flee to Constantinople and became part of an anti-Crusader faction in Constantinople advocating that the Byzantine Empire reassert its traditional hold on Armenian territories that were now held by the Crusader States.

Constantinople capital city of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, the Latin and the Ottoman Empire

Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), of the Byzantine Empire, and also of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261), until finally falling to the Ottoman Empire (1453–1923). It was reinaugurated in 324 from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, and dedicated on 11 May 330. The city was located in what is now the European side and the core of modern Istanbul.

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Principality of Antioch former country

The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade which included parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria. The principality was much smaller than the County of Edessa or the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It extended around the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, bordering the County of Tripoli to the south, Edessa to the east, and the Byzantine Empire or the Kingdom of Armenia to the northwest, depending on the date.

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Joscelin of Courtenay, Prince of Galilee and Lord of Turbessel (1115–1131) and Count of Edessa (1119–1131), ruled over the County of Edessa during its zenith, from 1118 to 1131. He maintained the large and unstable borders through his martial prowess.

Leo I, Prince of Armenia Prince of Armenia

Leo I, also Levon I or Leon I, was the fifth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” (1129/1130-1137).

Toros II the Great, also Thoros II, was the sixth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” (1144/1145–1169).

Mleh I, also Meleh I, was the eighth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” (1170–1175).

Constantine II, also Kostandin II, was the fourth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” (1129/1130).

Thoros may refer to:

The Battle of Harran took place on May 7, 1104 between the Crusader states of the Principality of Antioch and the County of Edessa, and the Seljuk Turks. It was the first major battle against the newfound Crusader states in the aftermath of the First Crusade marking a key turning point against Frankish expansion. The battle had a disastrous effect on the Principality of Antioch as the Turks regained territory earlier lost.

Morphia of Melitene, or Morfia, or Moraphia was queen of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem as the wife Baldwin II.

Adelaide del Vasto third wife of Roger I of Sicily

Adelaide del Vasto was countess of Sicily as the third spouse of Roger I of Sicily, and Queen consort of Jerusalem by marriage to Baldwin I of Jerusalem. She served as regent of Sicily during the minority of her son Roger II of Sicily from 1101 until 1112.

The Siege of Edessa took place from November 28 to December 24, 1144, resulting in the fall of the capital of the crusader County of Edessa to Zengi, the atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo. This event was the catalyst for the Second Crusade.

Constantine I or Kostandin I was the second lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains”. During his rule, he controlled the greater part of the regions around the Taurus Mountains, and invested much of his efforts in cultivating the lands and rebuilding the towns within his domain. He provided ample provisions to the Crusaders, for example during the difficult period of the siege of Antioch in the winter of 1097. He was a passionate adherent of the separated Armenian Church.

Matthew of Edessa was an Armenian historian in the 12th century from the city of Edessa. Matthew was the superior abbot of Karmir Vank', near the town of Kessoun, east of Marash (Germanicia), the former seat of Baldwin of Boulogne. He relates much about the Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia, the early Crusades, and the battles between Byzantines and Arabs for the possession of parts of northern Syria and eastern Asia Minor. Byzantine authors such as Joannes Zonaras and Anna Comnena were well versed in their particular spheres, but uninformed regarding Edessa and neighboring lands which are treated by Matthew.

Gabriel of Melitene was the ruler of Melitene. Along with Thoros of Edessa, Gabriel was a former officer of Philaretos Brachamios. Philaretos had installed Gabriel as the ruler of Melitene. Following the death of Philaretos in 1086 Melitene became completely independent of Byzantine control with the aid of the Danishmends. Eventually the Danishmends began harassing Melitene. Gabriel appealed to Bohemund I of Antioch for assistance.

Mawdud ibn Altuntash was a Turkic military leader who was atabeg of Mosul from 1109 to 1113. He organized several expeditions to reconquer lands from the Crusaders, but never succeeded.

Thoros of Edessa Armenian ruler of Edessa at the time of the First Crusade

Thoros was an Armenian ruler of Edessa at the time of the First Crusade. Thoros was a former officer (curopalates) in the Byzantine Empire and a lieutenant of Philaretos Brachamios. He was Armenian but practiced the Greek Orthodox faith.

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