The Thorpe–Ingold effect, gem-dimethyl effect, or angle compression is an effect observed in chemistry where large substituents favor ring closure and intramolecular reactions. The effect was first reported by Beesley, Thorpe, and Ingold in 1915 as part of a study of cyclization reactions.It has since been generalized to many areas of chemistry.
The comparative rates of lactone formation (lactonization) of various 2-hydroxybenzenepropionic acids illustrate the effect. The placement of an increasing number of methyl groups accelerates the cyclization process.
One application of this effect is addition of a quaternary carbon (e.g., a gem-dimethyl group) in an alkyl chain to increase the reaction rate and/or equilibrium constant of cyclization reactions. An example of this is an olefin metathesis reaction:
One proposed explanation for this effect is that the increased size of the substituents increases the angle between them. As a result, the angle between the other two substituents decreases. By moving them closer together, reactions between them are accelerated. It is thus a kinetic effect.
The effect also has some thermodynamic contribution as the in silico strain energy decreases on going from cyclobutane to 1-methylcyclobutane and 1,1-dimethylcyclobutane by a value between 8 kcal/moleand 1.5 kcal/mole. A noteworthy example of the Thorpe-Ingold effect in supramolecular catalysis is given by diphenylmethane derivatives provided with guanidinium groups. These compounds are active in the cleavage of the RNA model compound HPNP. Substitution of the methylene group of the parent diphenylmethane spacer with cyclohexylidene and adamantylidene moieties enhances catalytic efficiency, with gem dialkyl effect accelerations of 4.5 and 9.1, respectively.
In organic chemistry, an electrophile is an electron pair acceptor. Electrophiles are positively charged or neutral species having vacant orbitals that are attracted to an electron rich centre. It participates in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair in order to bond to a nucleophile. Because electrophiles accept electrons, they are Lewis acids. Most electrophiles are positively charged, have an atom that carries a partial positive charge, or have an atom that does not have an octet of electrons. They appear to attract electrons as well and seem to behave as though they are partially empty. These partially empty substances thus require an electron rich center, and thus they are filled. Electrophiles can be observed as electron-sensitive or photo-sensitive.
Intramolecular in chemistry describes a process or characteristic limited within the structure of a single molecule, a property or phenomenon limited to the extent of a single molecule.
A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is trivalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge (in at least one significant resonance form). Absent π delocalization, carbanions assume a trigonal pyramidal, bent, or linear geometry when the carbanionic carbon is bound to three (e.g., methyl anion), two (e.g., phenyl anion), or one (e.g., acetylide anion) substituents, respectively. Formally, a carbanion is the conjugate base of a carbon acid:
Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules. Steric effects complement electronic effects, which usually dictate shape and reactivity. Steric effects result from repulsive forces between overlapping electron clouds. Steric effects are widely exploited in applied and academic chemistry.
In chemistry, a molecule experiences strain when its chemical structure undergoes some stress which raises its internal energy in comparison to a strain-free reference compound. The internal energy of a molecule consists of all the energy stored within it. A strained molecule has an additional amount of internal energy which an unstrained molecule does not. This extra internal energy, or strain energy, can be likened to a compressed spring. Much like a compressed spring must be held in place to prevent release of its potential energy, a molecule can be held in an energetically unfavorable conformation by the bonds within that molecule. Without the bonds holding the conformation in place, the strain energy would be released.
The Simmons–Smith reaction is an organic cheletropic reaction involving an organozinc carbenoid that reacts with an alkene to form a cyclopropane. It is named after Howard Ensign Simmons, Jr. and Ronald D. Smith. It uses a methylene free radical intermediate that is delivered to both carbons of the alkene simultaneously, therefore the configuration of the double bond is preserved in the product and the reaction is stereospecific.
A 1,2-rearrangement or 1,2-migration or 1,2-shift or Whitmore 1,2-shift is an organic reaction where a substituent moves from one atom to another atom in a chemical compound. In a 1,2 shift the movement involves two adjacent atoms but moves over larger distances are possible. In the example below the substituent R moves from carbon atom C2 to C3.
In organic chemistry, transannular strain is the unfavorable interactions of ring substituents on non-adjacent carbons. These interactions, called transannular interactions, arise from a lack of space in the interior of the ring, which forces substituents into conflict with one another. In medium-sized cycloalkanes, which have between 8 and 11 carbons constituting the ring, transannular strain can be a major source of the overall strain, especially in some conformations, to which there is also contribution from large-angle strain and Pitzer strain. In larger rings, transannular strain drops off until the ring is sufficiently large that it can adopt conformations devoid of any negative interactions.
Sir Christopher Kelk Ingold was a British chemist based in Leeds and London. His groundbreaking work in the 1920s and 1930s on reaction mechanisms and the electronic structure of organic compounds was responsible for the introduction into mainstream chemistry of concepts such as nucleophile, electrophile, inductive and resonance effects, and such descriptors as SN1, SN2, E1, and E2. He also was a co-author of the Cahn–Ingold–Prelog priority rules. Ingold is regarded as one of the chief pioneers of physical organic chemistry.
Ring-closing metathesis, or RCM, is a widely used variation of olefin metathesis in organic chemistry for the synthesis of various unsaturated rings via the intramolecular metathesis of two terminal alkenes, which forms the cycloalkene as the E- or Z- isomers and volatile ethylene.
A carbonate ester (organic carbonate or organocarbonate) is an ester of carbonic acid. This functional group consists of a carbonyl group flanked by two alkoxy groups. The general structure of these carbonates is R1O(C=O)OR2 and they are related to esters R1O(C=O)R and ethers R1OR2 and also to the inorganic carbonates.
In the study of conformational isomerism, the Gauche effect is an atypical situation where a gauche conformation is more stable than the anti conformation (180°).
A fenestrane in organic chemistry is a type of chemical compound with a central quaternary carbon atom which serves as a common vertex for four fused carbocycles. They can be regarded as spiro compounds twice over. Because of their inherent strain and instability, fenestranes are of theoretical interest to chemists. The name—proposed in 1972 by Vlasios Georgian and Martin Saltzman—is derived from the Latin word for window, fenestra. Georgian had intended that "fenestrane" solely referred to [220.127.116.11]fenestrane, whose skeletal structure looks like windows, and Kenneth B. Wiberg called that specific structure "windowpane". The term fenestrane has since become generalized to refer to the whole class of molecules that have various other ring-sizes. Georgian recommended rosettane for the class, based on the structural appearance as a rosette of flowers.
Allylic strain in organic chemistry is a type of strain energy resulting from the interaction between a substituent on one end of an olefin with an allylic substituent on the other end. If the substituents are large enough in size, they can sterically interfere with each other such that one conformer is greatly favored over the other. Allyic strain was first recognized in the literature in 1965 by Johnson and Malhotra. The authors were investigating cyclohexane conformations including endocyclic and exocylic double bonds when they noticed certain conformations were disfavored due to the geometry constraints caused by the double bond. Organic chemists capitalize on the rigidity resulting from allylic strain for use in asymmetric reactions.
In coordination chemistry the bite angle is the ligand–metal–ligand bond angle of coordination complex containing a bidentate ligand. This geometric parameter is used to classify chelating ligands, including those in organometallic complexes. It is most often discussed in terms of catalysis, as changes in bite angle can affect not just the activity and selectivity of a catalytic reaction but even allow alternative reaction pathways to become accessible.
In organic chemistry, the Baker–Nathan effect is observed with reaction rates for certain chemical reactions with certain substrates where the order in reactivity cannot be explained solely by an inductive effect of substituents.
In organometallic chemistry, a metallacycle is a derivative of a carbocyclic compound wherein a metal has replaced at least one carbon center; this is to some extent similar to heterocycles. Metallacycles appear frequently as reactive intermediates in catalysis, e.g. olefin metathesis and alkyne trimerization. In organic synthesis, directed ortho metalation is widely used for the functionalization of arene rings via C-H activation. One main effect that metallic atom substitution on a cyclic carbon compound is distorting the geometry due to the large size of typical metals.
In chemistry, solvent effects are the influence of a solvent on chemical reactivity or molecular associations. Solvents can have an effect on solubility, stability and reaction rates and choosing the appropriate solvent allows for thermodynamic and kinetic control over a chemical reaction.
Tris(oxazolinyl)borate compounds are a class of tridentate ligands; often abbreviated ToR, where R is the substituent on the oxazoline ring. Most commonly the substituent is either a methyl, propyl, tert-butyl or hydrogen. The formation of anionic boron backbone with addition of a phenyl group on boron allows the ligand to strongly bind to the metal center. It results in a more robust complex.
Trifluoronitrosomethane is a toxic halomethane. Its distinctive deep blue colour is unusual for a gas.