Thorvald Stauning

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Thorvald Stauning
Stauning i1920-erne.jpg
9th Prime Minister of Denmark
In office
24 April 1924 14 December 1926
Monarch Christian X
Preceded by Niels Neergaard
Succeeded by Thomas Madsen-Mygdal
In office
30 April 1929 3 May 1942
MonarchChristian X
Preceded by Thomas Madsen-Mygdal
Succeeded by Vilhelm Buhl
Personal details
Born(1873-10-26)26 October 1873
Copenhagen
Died3 May 1942(1942-05-03) (aged 68)
Copenhagen
Political party Social Democrats

Thorvald August Marinus Stauning (Danish:  [tˢoɐ̯væl ˈstæwneŋ] ; 26 October 1873 in Copenhagen – 3 May 1942) was the first social democratic Prime Minister of Denmark. He served as Prime Minister from 1924 to 1926 and again from 1929 until his death in 1942.

Copenhagen Capital of Denmark

Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218. It forms the core of the wider urban area of Copenhagen and the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road.

The Social Democrats, officially the Social Democratic Party or simply Social Democracy, is a social-democratic political party in Denmark.

Prime Minister of Denmark position

The Prime Minister of Denmark is the head of government in the Kingdom of Denmark. Before the creation of the modern office, Denmark did not initially have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the Monarch, in whom the executive authority was vested. The Constitution of 1849 established a constitutional monarchy by limiting the powers of the Monarch and creating the office of premierminister. The inaugural holder of the office was Adam Wilhelm Moltke.

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Under Stauning's leadership Denmark, like the other Western European countries, developed a social welfare state, [1] and though many of his ambitions for Social Democracy were ultimately thwarted, in his lifetime, by events beyond his control, his leadership through grave times places Stauning among the most admired of twentieth-century Danish statesmen.

The Stauning Alps, a large mountain range in Greenland, were named after him. [2]

Stauning Alps Mountain range in Greenland

The Stauning Alps are a large system of mountain ranges in Scoresby Land, King Christian X Land, northeastern Greenland. Administratively the Stauning Alps are part of the Northeast Greenland National Park zone.

Greenland Autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark

Greenland is an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, gradually settling across the island.

Biography

Stauning was trained as a cigar sorter and soon became involved with trade union activity. From 1896 to 1908 he was leader of the Cigar Sorters' Union, in 1898 – 1904 also editor of the magazine Samarbejdet (Co-operation) of the Federation of Trade Unions, and elected Member of Parliament (Folketinget) in 1906.

A trade union is an association of workers forming a legal unit or legal personhood, usually called a "bargaining unit", which acts as bargaining agent and legal representative for a unit of employees in all matters of law or right arising from or in the administration of a collective agreement. Labour unions typically fund the formal organisation, head office, and legal team functions of the labour union through regular fees or union dues. The delegate staff of the labour union representation in the workforce are made up of workplace volunteers who are appointed by members in democratic elections.

In 1910 he was elected chairman of the Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokratiet), a position he retained for almost thirty years, until 1939. After participating as Minister without Portfolio in the Cabinet of Zahle II from 1916 to 1920, he returned to government as prime minister in 1924 for the minority cabinet Cabinet of Thorvald Stauning I which would survive until 1926. His cabinet was considered ground-breaking not only as it was the first purely Social Democratic cabinet, but also because a woman, Nina Bang, was appointed Minister of Education, which attracted some international attention, as she was one of the first female ministers in the world. [3]

Nina Bang danish politician

Nina Henriette Wendeline Bang née Ellinger was a Danish social democratic politician and historian. In 1924 she was appointed Minister for Education, becoming the first female minister in an internationally recognized government. She resigned as minister in 1926.

From 1929 he led the successful coalition cabinet Cabinet of Thorvald Stauning II with the social liberal Det Radikale Venstre party that would steer Denmark out of the Great Depression, shaping a major political compromise that greatly improved the Danish economy, and also transformed the Social Democratic Party from a class party to a popular party.

Great Depression 20th-century worldwide economic depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until the late-1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline.

Economy of Denmark national economy

The economy of Denmark is a modern market economy with comfortable living standards, a high level of government services and transfers, and a high dependence on foreign trade. The economy is dominated by the service sector with 80% of all jobs, whereas about 11% of all employees work in manufacturing and 2% in agriculture. Nominal gross national income per capita was the tenth-highest in the world at $55,220 in 2017. Correcting for purchasing power, per capita income was Int$52,390 or 16th-highest globally. Income distribution is relatively equal, but inequality has increased somewhat during the last decades, however, due to both a larger spread in gross incomes and various economic policy measures. In 2017 Denmark had the seventh-lowest Gini coefficient of the 28 European Union countries. With 5,789,957 inhabitants, Denmark has the 39th largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and 60th largest in the world measured by purchasing power parity (PPP).

Under Stauning's leadership Denmark, like the other Western European countries, developed a social welfare state. It's often proposed that the long-lived coalition cabinet actively averted the communist and fascist movements that were sweeping much of Europe from developing a strong following in Denmark.

In January 1933, Stauning's government entered into what was then the most extensive settlement yet in Danish politics—the Kanslergade settlement (Danish : Kanslergadeforliget)—with the liberal party Venstre. [4] The settlement, which was named after Stauning's apartment in Kanslergade in Copenhagen, included extensive agricultural subsidies and reforms of the legislation and administration in the social sector. [5]

Stauning addresses the Rigsdagen in Christiansborg Palace on April 9th, 1940 Statsminister Th. Stauning (6045175779) (2).jpg
Stauning addresses the Rigsdagen in Christiansborg Palace on April 9th, 1940

Stauning holds a record in Danish politics, in having successfully sought re-election no less than three times (1932, 1935 (With the famous slogan "Stauning or Chaos"), 1939). However, an attempt to amend the Constitution failed in 1939, as the turnout in the referendum was insufficient to validate the result. This came as a tremendous blow to Stauning, who seemed to lose his previously sure touch for politics thereafter. He reportedly considered resigning in the wake of the referendum failure, but was persuaded to stay on. [6]

Stauning's second cabinet lasted until Operation Weserübung, the Nazi occupation of Denmark began on 9 April 1940, when the cabinet was widened to include all political parties, called the Cabinet of Thorvald Stauning III. Contrary to most other governments of the Nazi-invaded countries, King Christian X of Denmark and his government ordered the army and navy to stop fighting, and chose to remain in their country also under the occupation, which is believed to have contributed to the Nazi years being more lenient in Denmark than in other countries under Hitler's control. Stauning died in 1942, deeply depressed about the future of social democracy in a Nazi-dominated Europe.

Legacy

Like many other workers' leaders of his generation, such as Hjalmar Branting in Sweden, Stauning was a charismatic leader who played an important role in integrating Danish society after the social changes following the Industrial Revolution and common suffrage. His campaign slogan, "Stauning or Chaos," (Danish : Stauning eller Kaos) resonated in a nation undergoing a period of massive unemployment caused by the economic, social and political turmoil of its neighbors and trading partners, notably Denmark's chief trading partner Germany. The following Great Depression brought Danish unemployment to unprecedented heights. This period of widespread social malaise was fertile ground for leaders who could communicate a confident and coherent vision to the masses. Stauning was such a man for Denmark, and his popularity won the Social Democratic Party 46% of the total votes in the 1935 Folketing election, a figure never again reached by any Danish party.

He was given a state funeral in 1942, an honour normally not bestowed on Danish prime ministers. Although Denmark's relationship with Germany during World War II has been controversial, Stauning's legacy in Denmark remains positive. His popularity in the 1930s acted as a force limiting the growth of other populist parties—most importantly, the Nazi party, which remained politically insignificant. Stauning also played a major role in containing the constitutional Easter Crisis of 1920 where he brokered a deal with the king in which the monarch accepted a reduction of his own role to a merely symbolical one, avoiding any future interference in the functioning of parliamentary democracy. In return, Stauning kept the pro-republican elements of the Social Democratic Party in line, and ensured his party's political support to the continuation of the Danish monarchy. His government was also responsible for laying the foundations to the future Danish welfare state. Thorvald Stauning is featured in the video game Hearts of Iron 4.

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References

  1. Flora, Peter (16 April 1986). "Growth to Limits: The Western European Welfare States Since World War II". Walter de Gruyter. Retrieved 16 April 2018 via Google Books.
  2. "Catalogue of place names in northern East Greenland". Geological Survey of Denmark. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
  3. Skou, Kaare R. (2005). Dansk politik A-Å(in Danish). Aschehoug, pp. 110, 638-639. ISBN   87-11-11652-8.
  4. Skou, p. 367
  5. Mørch, Søren (2002). 24 statsministre(in Danish). Copenhagen: Gyldendal, p. 165. ISBN   87-02-00361-9.
  6. Kaarsted, Tage (1977). De danske ministerier 1929-1953(in Danish). Copenhagen: Nyt Nordisk Forlag, Arnold Busck, p. 94. ISBN   87-17-05104-5.
Political offices
Preceded by
Niels Neergaard
Prime Minister of Denmark
23 April 1924 – 14 December 1926
Succeeded by
Thomas Madsen-Mygdal
Preceded by
Thomas Madsen-Mygdal
Prime Minister of Denmark
30 April 1929 – 3 May 1942
Succeeded by
Vilhelm Buhl
Preceded by
Hans Pieter Hansen
Defence Minister of Denmark
31 May 1933 – 4 November 1935
Succeeded by
Alsing Emanuel Andersen
Party political offices
Preceded by
Peter Christian Knudsen
Leader of the Danish Social Democrats
1910 – 1939
Succeeded by
Hans Hedtoft