Thorvald Stoltenberg

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Thorvald Stoltenberg
Thorvald Stoltenberg 2009.jpg
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
3 November 1990 2 April 1993
Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland
Preceded by Kjell Magne Bondevik
Succeeded by Johan Jørgen Holst
In office
9 March 1987 16 October 1989
Prime MinisterGro Harlem Brundtland
Preceded by Knut Frydenlund
Succeeded byKjell Magne Bondevik
Minister of Defence
In office
8 October 1979 14 October 1981
Prime Minister Odvar Nordli
Gro Harlem Brundtland
Preceded by Rolf A. Hansen
Succeeded by Anders Sjaastad
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
In office
1 January 1990 3 November 1990
Preceded by Jean-Pierre Hocké  [ de ]
Succeeded by Sadako Ogata
President of the Norwegian Red Cross
In office
1998–2008
Preceded by Astrid Nøklebye Heiberg
Succeeded by Sven Mollekleiv
Norwegian Ambassador to the United Nations
In office
1989–1990
Preceded by Tom Vraalsen
Succeeded byMartin Huslid
Personal details
Born(1931-07-08)8 July 1931
Oslo, Norway
Died13 July 2018(2018-07-13) (aged 87)
Oslo, Norway
Political party Labour
Spouse(s) Karin Heiberg
Children Camilla
Jens
Nini

Thorvald Stoltenberg (8 July 1931 – 13 July 2018) was a Norwegian politician and diplomat. He served as Minister of Defence from 1979 to 1981 and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1987 to 1989 and again from 1990 to 1993 in two Labour governments.

Contents

From 1989 to 1990 he served as the Norwegian ambassador to the UN. In 1990, he became the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees but served only one year before he rejoined the Norwegian government. [1] In 1992, Stoltenberg, together with nine Baltic Ministers of Foreign Affairs and an EU commissioner, founded the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) and the EuroFaculty. [2] In 1993 appointed Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for the former Yugoslavia and UN Co-Chairman of the Steering Committee of the International Conference on the former Yugoslavia. Thorvald Stoltenberg was also the UN witness at the signing of Erdut Agreement.

In 2003 he was appointed chairman of the board of International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA). Between 1999 and 2008 he was President of the Norwegian Red Cross, the only president to serve three terms. He was also a member of the Trilateral Commission, and held a seat on their Executive Committee.[ citation needed ]

At the local level, Stoltenberg was elected to the Oslo City Council in 2015. [3]

Stoltenberg was born in Oslo.[ citation needed ]

Youth

In his youth Stoltenberg became heavily involved in the organization of Hungarian refugees fleeing the invading Soviet Army in 1956. In one particular situation, evacuating refugees by boat in the middle of the night, he jumped into the strong currents, risking his own life to save one of the boats. One of the other rescuers, future famous American journalist Barry Farber called this the greatest act of courage he has ever seen in his life. Stoltenberg himself kept the story a secret, until Farber in December 2006 revealed it on the Norwegian talk-show Først & sist .[ citation needed ]

Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG)

In "May 1993, the UN's co-chair at the International Conference on the former Yugoslavia, Th. Stoltenberg was appointed Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG). As such, he acted as head of the UN mission in the former Yugoslavia and served as the first point of contact for the Department of Peacekeeping Operations in New York. All contacts between UNPROFOR in Zagreb and the UN in New York had to run via his office (...) Mr Stoltenberg was responsible for the coordination of all UNPROFOR operations, which also entailed assessments of the political implications of operational decisions as well as the actions of the conflicting parties. In practice, this combination of tasks was impossible to juggle. A serious conflict is said to have occurred between Thorvald Stoltenberg and General Wahlgren's successor, General J. Cot of France". [4]

Cot disagreed with Stoltenberg about the latter's role as SRSG, and at the end of 1993 the two tasks were again split up. Stoltenberg stayed on as co-chair of the peace negotiations in Geneva on behalf of the UN, and on 1 January 1994 the Japanese diplomat Y. Akashi was appointed SRSG responsible for all UNPROFOR operations in the former Yugoslavia. It was he who negotiated with the authorities of the conflicting parties. [5]

Political views

Lobbying for changes in drug policy

In 2010, Stoltenberg has led a commission whose primary purpose was to recommend changes in Norwegian drug policy to improve the situation of hard drug addicts. The question of heroin prescription was one of the most controversial topics evaluated by the commission set up by Bjarne Håkon Hanssen. The commission concluded in June 2010 that Norway should start trials with heroin prescription, in addition to making several other changes to its drug policy. [6] [7] He also joined an international campaign for a less punitive drug policy, the Global Commission on Drug Policy, consisting of, among others, former Latin American leaders. [8] [9] [10] [11]

Sanctions against Israel

In 2010, together with 25 other elder statesmen, Stoltenberg sent a letter to EU leaders and the heads of government of the EU countries, demanding sanctions against Israel for its violations of international law. His co-signatories included Javier Solana, Felipe González, Romano Prodi, Lionel Jospin and Mary Robinson. [12] [13]

Private life

He married Karin Heiberg (1931–2012) in 1957. Their son, Jens Stoltenberg (born 1959), followed him into politics and served as Prime Minister of Norway from 2000 to 2001 and from 2005 to 2013, and is the current NATO Secretary-General. They also had two daughters, Camilla (born 1958), a medical researcher and administrator, and Nini (1963–2014) whose heroin addiction has been much publicized.[ citation needed ] Stoltenberg died on 13 July 2018 at the age of 87 after a short illness. [14] [15] [16]

Related Research Articles

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Naser Orić

Naser Orić is a former Bosnian military officer who commanded Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH) forces in the Srebrenica enclave in eastern Bosnia surrounded by Bosnian Serb forces, during the Bosnian War.

Yugoslav Wars Series of wars fought in Yugoslavia from 1991 to 2001

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Bosnian War 1992–1995 armed conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Srebrenica massacre Massacre of over 8,000 Muslim Bosniaks in Srebrenica region during the Bosnian War

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United Nations Protection Force

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Operation Deliberate Force

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Z-4 Plan

The Z-4 Plan was a proposed basis for negotiations to end the Croatian War of Independence with a political settlement. It was drafted by Peter W. Galbraith, Leonid Kerestedjiants and Geert-Hinrich Ahrens on behalf of a mini-Contact Group comprising United Nations envoys and diplomats from the United States, Russia and the European Union. The co-chairs of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, David Owen and Thorvald Stoltenberg, were closely involved in the political process surrounding the plan. The document was prepared in the final months of 1994 and early 1995 before being presented to Croatian President Franjo Tuđman and the leaders of the self-declared Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK) on 30 January 1995. Tuđman was displeased with the proposal, but accepted it as a basis for further negotiations. However, the RSK authorities even refused to receive the document before UNPROFOR mandate status was resolved. According to later reactions, RSK leadership was not satisfied with the plan.

Thom Karremans

Colonel Thomas Jakob Peter Karremans was the commander of Dutchbat troops in Srebrenica at the time of the Srebrenica massacre during Bosnian War. Dutchbat had been assigned to defend the Bosniak enclave made the U.N. "safe area", but it failed to prevent the Serbs from taking the city.

Dutchbat

Dutchbat was a Dutch battalion under the command of the United Nations in operation United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR). It was hastily formed out of the emerging Air Mobile Brigade of the Royal Netherlands Armed Forces between February 1994 and November 1995 to participate in peacekeeping operations in the former Yugoslavia. It was tasked to execute United Nations Security Council Resolution 819 in the Bosniak Muslim enclaves and the designated UN "safe zone" of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War.

Nini Stoltenberg was a Norwegian television personality and sister of Jens Stoltenberg, former prime minister of Norway, and Camilla Stoltenberg, the director-general of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. She was, however, better known as a drug addict, and has been cited as such by Norwegian media on numerous occasions. She has often been depicted as an unofficial spokesperson for Norwegian drug users. Stoltenberg was part of a 12-member group of expert advisers on drug policies for the second cabinet Bondevik (2001–2005).

Siege of Srebrenica 1992 - 1995 siege during the Bosnian War

The Siege of Srebrenica was a three-year siege of the town of Srebrenica in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina which lasted from April 1992 to July 1995 during the Bosnian War. Initially assaulted by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and the Serbian Volunteer Guard (SDG), the town was encircled by the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) in May 1992, starting a brutal siege which was to last for the majority of the Bosnian War. In June 1995, the commander of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH) in the enclave, Naser Orić, left Srebrenica and fled to the town of Tuzla. He was subsequently replaced by his deputy, Major Ramiz Bećirović.

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Wegger Christian Strømmen

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Emir Suljagić is a Bosnian journalist and politician who is currently the Director of the Srebrenica Genocide Memorial. He served as Minister of Education of Sarajevo Canton from 13 January 2011 until 29 February 2012 and was also Deputy minister of Defense from 31 March 2015 to 10 December 2015.

12 April 1993 Srebrenica shelling

On 12 April 1993, the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) launched an artillery attack against the town of Srebrenica, in eastern Bosnia, which left 56 dead and 73 seriously wounded, among whom were 14 children dead in a school playground. The attack came following the suspension of cease-fire talks, hours before NATO would implement a no-fly zone according to an UN resolution. VRS officials had previously told UNHCR representatives that the VRS would shell the town within two days unless it surrendered.

Hasan Nuhanović is a Bosniak survivor of the Srebrenica genocide who campaigns "For truth and justice" on behalf of other survivors and relatives of the victims. Hasan, the former U.N. interpreter for Dutch peacekeepers who were stationed in Srebrenica in 1995, at the end of the Bosnian war, has been battling the Dutch state in civil court for nine years. Finally, in July 2011, he won on appeal against the Dutch Government with court stating the Dutchbat are to blame for handing over his family members to forces of Ratko Mladić who is currently being tried in The Hague. His entire immediate family - mother, father and brother - were murdered by the Bosnian Serb Army and its allies from Serbia proper, when they were handed over to them by Dutch UN soldiers after seeking refuge in the UN protection force base at Potočari following the fall of the town of Srebrenica in July 1995. Bosnian investigative journalist Dragan Stanimirović nicknamed him the “Elie Wiesel of Bosnia", in a reference to another activist survivor of genocide. His story, Zbijeg, was published in Bosnian in 2012 and in English as The Last Refuge: A True Story of War, Survival and Life Under Siege in Srebrenica in 2019.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1004

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Eirik Øwre Thorshaug is a former Norwegian politician for the Labour Party.

References

  1. "ISAD UNHCR Fonds 13 Records of the Office of the High Commissioner" Archives 11 December 2009.
  2. Kristensen, Gustav N. 2010. Born into a Dream. EuroFaculty and the Council of the Baltic Sea States. Berliner Wissentshafts-Verlag. ISBN   978-3-8305-1769-6.
  3. Dette er Oslos bystyre for 2015 – 2019 Aftenposten (in Norwegian)
  4. "Srebrenica: a 'safe' area – Part II – Dutchbat in the enclave" (PDF). Netherlands Institute for War Documentation.
  5. "Srebrenica: a 'safe' area – Part II – Dutchbat in the enclave" (PDF). Netherlands Institute for War Documentation.
  6. Norwegian commission recommends drug policy reform. ENCOD.org. Retrieved on 22 June 2011.
  7. "Anbefaler heroin-behandling" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 22 June 2011.
  8. Ex-World Leaders Form Global Drug Policy Commission. StopTheDrugWar.org. Retrieved on 22 June 2011.
  9. "Commission makes recommendations for tackling opioid crisis in North America". The Global Commission on Drug Policy. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  10. AFP: Personalities urge new ways to tackle drug abuse. Globalcommissionondrugs.org. 25 January 2011. Retrieved on 22 June 2011.
  11. "Who are the Stoltenbergs?". TalkingDrugs. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  12. Stoltenberg krever sanksjoner mot Israel, Fagforbundet
  13. Krever sanksjoner mot Israel, ABC Nyheter
  14. "Norwegian political giant Thorvald Stoltenberg dies aged 87". 13 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  15. "Norway mourns a 'national grandpa'". www.newsinenglish.no. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  16. Dimmen, Sofie Dege. "Thorvald Stoltenberg er død". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 13 July 2018.
Political offices
Preceded by
Rolf Arthur Hansen
Minister of Defence
1979–1981
Succeeded by
Anders Sjaastad
Preceded by
Knut Frydenlund
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1987–1989
Succeeded by
Kjell Magne Bondevik
Preceded by
Kjell Magne Bondevik
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1990–1993
Succeeded by
Johan Jørgen Holst
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Tom Vraalsen
Ambassador of Norway to the United Nations
1989–1990
Succeeded by
Martin Huslid
Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
Astrid Nøklebye Heiberg
President of the Norwegian Red Cross
1998–2008
Succeeded by
Sven Mollekleiv