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|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
3 November 1990 –2 April 1993
|Prime Minister||Gro Harlem Brundtland|
|Preceded by||Kjell Magne Bondevik|
|Succeeded by||Johan Jørgen Holst|
9 March 1987 –16 October 1989
|Prime Minister||Gro Harlem Brundtland|
|Preceded by||Knut Frydenlund|
|Succeeded by||Kjell Magne Bondevik|
|Minister of Defence|
8 October 1979 –14 October 1981
|Prime Minister|| Odvar Nordli |
Gro Harlem Brundtland
|Preceded by||Rolf A. Hansen|
|Succeeded by||Anders Sjaastad|
|United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees|
1 January 1990 –3 November 1990
|Preceded by||Jean-Pierre Hocké|
|Succeeded by||Sadako Ogata|
|President of the Norwegian Red Cross|
|Preceded by||Astrid Nøklebye Heiberg|
|Succeeded by||Sven Mollekleiv|
|Norwegian Ambassador to the United Nations|
|Preceded by||Tom Vraalsen|
|Succeeded by||Martin Huslid|
|Born||8 July 1931|
|Died||13 July 2018 87) (aged|
|Children|| Camilla |
Thorvald Stoltenberg (8 July 1931 – 13 July 2018) was a Norwegian politician and diplomat. He served as Minister of Defence from 1979 to 1981 and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1987 to 1989 and again from 1990 to 1993 in two Labour governments.
From 1989 to 1990 he served as the Norwegian ambassador to the UN. In 1990, he became the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees but served only one year before he rejoined the Norwegian government.In 1992, Stoltenberg, together with nine Baltic Ministers of Foreign Affairs and an EU commissioner, founded the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) and the EuroFaculty. In 1993 appointed Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for the former Yugoslavia and UN Co-Chairman of the Steering Committee of the International Conference on the former Yugoslavia. Thorvald Stoltenberg was also the UN witness at the signing of Erdut Agreement.
In 2003 he was appointed chairman of the board of International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA). Between 1999 and 2008 he was President of the Norwegian Red Cross, the only president to serve three terms. He was also a member of the Trilateral Commission, and held a seat on their Executive Committee.[ citation needed ]
At the local level, Stoltenberg was elected to the Oslo City Council in 2015.
Stoltenberg was born in Oslo.[ citation needed ]
In his youth Stoltenberg became heavily involved in the organization of Hungarian refugees fleeing the invading Soviet Army in 1956. In one particular situation, evacuating refugees by boat in the middle of the night, he jumped into the strong currents, risking his own life to save one of the boats. One of the other rescuers, future famous American journalist Barry Farber called this the greatest act of courage he has ever seen in his life. Stoltenberg himself kept the story a secret, until Farber in December 2006 revealed it on the Norwegian talk-show Først & sist .[ citation needed ]
In "May 1993, the UN's co-chair at the International Conference on the former Yugoslavia, Th. Stoltenberg was appointed Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG). As such, he acted as head of the UN mission in the former Yugoslavia and served as the first point of contact for the Department of Peacekeeping Operations in New York. All contacts between UNPROFOR in Zagreb and the UN in New York had to run via his office (...) Mr Stoltenberg was responsible for the coordination of all UNPROFOR operations, which also entailed assessments of the political implications of operational decisions as well as the actions of the conflicting parties. In practice, this combination of tasks was impossible to juggle. A serious conflict is said to have occurred between Thorvald Stoltenberg and General Wahlgren's successor, General J. Cot of France".
Cot disagreed with Stoltenberg about the latter's role as SRSG, and at the end of 1993 the two tasks were again split up. Stoltenberg stayed on as co-chair of the peace negotiations in Geneva on behalf of the UN, and on 1 January 1994 the Japanese diplomat Y. Akashi was appointed SRSG responsible for all UNPROFOR operations in the former Yugoslavia. It was he who negotiated with the authorities of the conflicting parties.
In 2010, Stoltenberg has led a commission whose primary purpose was to recommend changes in Norwegian drug policy to improve the situation of hard drug addicts. The question of heroin prescription was one of the most controversial topics evaluated by the commission set up by Bjarne Håkon Hanssen. The commission concluded in June 2010 that Norway should start trials with heroin prescription, in addition to making several other changes to its drug policy.He also joined an international campaign for a less punitive drug policy, the Global Commission on Drug Policy, consisting of, among others, former Latin American leaders.
In 2010, together with 25 other elder statesmen, Stoltenberg sent a letter to EU leaders and the heads of government of the EU countries, demanding sanctions against Israel for its violations of international law. His co-signatories included Javier Solana, Felipe González, Romano Prodi, Lionel Jospin and Mary Robinson.
He married Karin Heiberg (1931–2012) in 1957. Their son, Jens Stoltenberg (born 1959), followed him into politics and served as Prime Minister of Norway from 2000 to 2001 and from 2005 to 2013, and is the current NATO Secretary-General. They also had two daughters, Camilla (born 1958), a medical researcher and administrator, and Nini (1963–2014) whose heroin addiction has been much publicized.[ citation needed ] Stoltenberg died on 13 July 2018 at the age of 87 after a short illness.
Jens Stoltenberg is a Norwegian politician who has been serving as the 13th secretary general of NATO since 2014. A member of the Labour Party, he was Prime Minister of Norway from 2000 to 2001 and from 2005 to 2013.
Naser Orić is a former Bosnian military officer who commanded Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH) forces in the Srebrenica enclave in eastern Bosnia surrounded by Bosnian Serb forces, during the Bosnian War.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of separate but related ethnic conflicts, wars of independence, and insurgencies fought in the former Yugoslavia from 1991 to 2001, which led to the breakup of the Yugoslav federation in 1992. Its constituent republics declared independence, despite unresolved tensions between ethnic minorities in the new countries, fueling the wars.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. The war is commonly seen as having started on 6 April 1992, following a number of violent incidents earlier in the year. The war ended on 14 December 1995. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of Herzeg-Bosnia and Republika Srpska, proto-states led and supplied by Croatia and Serbia, respectively.
The Srebrenica massacre, also known as the Srebrenica genocide, was the July 1995 genocide of more than 8,000 Bosniak Muslim men and boys in and around the town of Srebrenica in July 1995, during the Bosnian War.
The United Nations Protection Force, was the first United Nations peacekeeping force in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav Wars. The force was formed in February 1992 and its mandate ended in March 1995, with the peacekeeping mission restructuring into three other forces.
Operation Deliberate Force was a sustained air campaign conducted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), in concert with the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) ground operations, to undermine the military capability of the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS), which had threatened and attacked UN-designated "safe areas" in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War with the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, precipitating the intervention. The shelling of the Sarajevo market place on 28 August 1995 by the VRS is considered to be the immediate instigating factor behind NATO's decision to launch the operation.
The Z-4 Plan was a proposed basis for negotiations to end the Croatian War of Independence with a political settlement. It was drafted by Peter W. Galbraith, Leonid Kerestedjiants and Geert-Hinrich Ahrens on behalf of a mini-Contact Group comprising United Nations envoys and diplomats from the United States, Russia and the European Union. The co-chairs of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, David Owen and Thorvald Stoltenberg, were closely involved in the political process surrounding the plan. The document was prepared in the final months of 1994 and early 1995 before being presented to Croatian President Franjo Tuđman and the leaders of the self-declared Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK) on 30 January 1995. Tuđman was displeased with the proposal, but accepted it as a basis for further negotiations. However, the RSK authorities even refused to receive the document before UNPROFOR mandate status was resolved. According to later reactions, RSK leadership was not satisfied with the plan.
Colonel Thomas Jakob Peter Karremans was the commander of Dutchbat troops in Srebrenica at the time of the Srebrenica massacre during Bosnian War. Dutchbat had been assigned to defend the Bosniak enclave made the U.N. "safe area", but it failed to prevent the Serbs from taking the city.
Dutchbat was a Dutch battalion under the command of the United Nations in operation United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR). It was hastily formed out of the emerging Air Mobile Brigade of the Royal Netherlands Armed Forces between February 1994 and November 1995 to participate in peacekeeping operations in the former Yugoslavia. It was tasked to execute United Nations Security Council Resolution 819 in the Bosniak Muslim enclaves and the designated UN "safe zone" of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War.
Nini Stoltenberg was a Norwegian television personality and sister of Jens Stoltenberg, former prime minister of Norway, and Camilla Stoltenberg, the director-general of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. She was, however, better known as a drug addict, and has been cited as such by Norwegian media on numerous occasions. She has often been depicted as an unofficial spokesperson for Norwegian drug users. Stoltenberg was part of a 12-member group of expert advisers on drug policies for the second cabinet Bondevik (2001–2005).
The Siege of Srebrenica was a three-year siege of the town of Srebrenica in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina which lasted from April 1992 to July 1995 during the Bosnian War. Initially assaulted by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and the Serbian Volunteer Guard (SDG), the town was encircled by the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) in May 1992, starting a brutal siege which was to last for the majority of the Bosnian War. In June 1995, the commander of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH) in the enclave, Naser Orić, left Srebrenica and fled to the town of Tuzla. He was subsequently replaced by his deputy, Major Ramiz Bećirović.
Cedric Henry Reid Thornberry was a Northern Irish international lawyer and Assistant-Secretary-General of the United Nations, for which he worked for 17 years. He spent most of his United Nations service in international peace keeping in Cyprus, the Middle East, the former Yugoslavia and Somalia.
Wegger Christian Strømmen is a Norwegian diplomat and politician who is Political Director of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Emir Suljagić is a Bosnian journalist and politician who is currently the Director of the Srebrenica Genocide Memorial. He served as Minister of Education of Sarajevo Canton from 13 January 2011 until 29 February 2012 and was also Deputy minister of Defense from 31 March 2015 to 10 December 2015.
On 12 April 1993, the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) launched an artillery attack against the town of Srebrenica, in eastern Bosnia, which left 56 dead and 73 seriously wounded, among whom were 14 children dead in a school playground. The attack came following the suspension of cease-fire talks, hours before NATO would implement a no-fly zone according to an UN resolution. VRS officials had previously told UNHCR representatives that the VRS would shell the town within two days unless it surrendered.
Hasan Nuhanović is a Bosniak survivor of the Srebrenica genocide who campaigns "For truth and justice" on behalf of other survivors and relatives of the victims. Hasan, the former U.N. interpreter for Dutch peacekeepers who were stationed in Srebrenica in 1995, at the end of the Bosnian war, has been battling the Dutch state in civil court for nine years. Finally, in July 2011, he won on appeal against the Dutch Government with court stating the Dutchbat are to blame for handing over his family members to forces of Ratko Mladić who is currently being tried in The Hague. His entire immediate family - mother, father and brother - were murdered by the Bosnian Serb Army and its allies from Serbia proper, when they were handed over to them by Dutch UN soldiers after seeking refuge in the UN protection force base at Potočari following the fall of the town of Srebrenica in July 1995. Bosnian investigative journalist Dragan Stanimirović nicknamed him the “Elie Wiesel of Bosnia", in a reference to another activist survivor of genocide. His story, Zbijeg, was published in Bosnian in 2012 and in English as The Last Refuge: A True Story of War, Survival and Life Under Siege in Srebrenica in 2019.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1004, adopted unanimously on 12 July 1995, after recalling all resolutions on the situation in the former Yugoslavia, the Council, acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, demanded that Bosnian Serb forces withdraw from the safe area of Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina and respect the safety of personnel from the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR). The resolution was passed during the Srebrenica massacre.
Anne Mulder is a Dutch politician and former civil servant. A member of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD), he served in the House of Representatives from 2010 to 2020, where he focused on matters of health care insurance, prevention and pharmaceutics. Since 2020, he has been an alderman of The Hague.
Eirik Øwre Thorshaug is a former Norwegian politician for the Labour Party.
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Rolf Arthur Hansen
| Minister of Defence |
| Minister of Foreign Affairs |
Kjell Magne Bondevik
Kjell Magne Bondevik
| Minister of Foreign Affairs |
Johan Jørgen Holst
| Ambassador of Norway to the United Nations|
|Non-profit organization positions|
Astrid Nøklebye Heiberg
| President of the Norwegian Red Cross |