|Those firmly rooted in knowledge|
|Arabic||الراسخون في العلم|
|Romanization||al-rasikhuna fi 'l-'ilm|
|Literal meaning||Those firmly rooted in knowledge|
Those firmly rooted in knowledge (Arabic : الراسخون في العلم) is a recurring theme in the Qur'an and Sunnah. This term is of special interest for the Shi'a.
The term and its like is used in Al-Imran [Quran 3:7] and [Quran 4:162].
The Quran, also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah). It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature. Slightly shorter than the New Testament, it is organized in 114 chapters — not according to when they were revealed, but according to length of surahs under the guidance of divine revelation. Surah are subdivided into verses.
This verse is a crux interpretum, in that it can be read in two ways, with a pause and without.The phrase is either the end of the sentence that precedes it, or the beginning of a new sentence. Sunni and Shi'a differ in their readings.
Crux is a term applied by palaeographers, textual critics, bibliographers, and literary scholars to a point of significant corruption in a literary text. More serious than a simple slip of the pen or typographical error, a crux is difficult or impossible to interpret and resolve. Cruxes occur in a wide range of pre-modern texts, printed and manuscript.
All those who speak truth, their hearts are firm in belief, do not commit any unlawful acts, those who are well grounded in their knowledge of Deen, their knowledge translates into their actions, does not swear or take false oaths, does not consume wealth unlawfully.
Dīn is an Arabic word with three general senses: judgment, custom, and religion. It is used by both Arab Muslims and Christians. In Islam, the word refers to the way of life Muslims must adopt to comply with divine law, encompassing beliefs, character and deeds. The term appears in the Quran 98 times with different connotations, including in the phrase yawm al-din, generally translated as Day of Judgment.
Sunni view that those firmly rooted in knowledge are the body of Muslim Jurists (Arabic : Ulema ) who interpret the Divine Law (Arabic : sharia ), deriving the Islamic Jurisprudence (Arabic : Fiqh ).
Sharia, Islamic law or Sharia law is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations. The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim fundamentalists and modernists.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law. Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most general form and provide a deeper understanding of legal reasoning, legal systems, legal institutions, and the role of law in society.
Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence. Fiqh is often described as the human understanding of the sharia, that is human understanding of the divine Islamic law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah. Fiqh expands and develops Shariah through interpretation (ijtihad) of the Quran and Sunnah by Islamic jurists (ulama) and is implemented by the rulings (fatwa) of jurists on questions presented to them. Thus, whereas sharia is considered immutable and infallible by Muslims, fiqh is considered fallible and changeable. Fiqh deals with the observance of rituals, morals and social legislation in Islam as well as political system. In the modern era, there are four prominent schools (madh'hab) of fiqh within Sunni practice, plus two within Shi'a practice. A person trained in fiqh is known as a faqīh.
Ulema is the plural of Alim , Arabic for knowledgeable. This connects to the Arabic for knowledge, ilm, the last word of this term: "al-rasikhuna fi 'l-'ilm"
‘Ilm is the Islamic term for knowledge.
Shi'a view those firmly rooted in knowledge to be Muhammad's household and (Arabic : Ahl al-Bayt ) himself. See Al-Imran [Quran 3:7] for some hadith in this regard.
Ḥadīth in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. and within that religion the authority of hadith as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Qur'an. Scriptural authority for hadith comes from the Quran which enjoins Muslims to emulate Muhammad and obey his judgments. While the number of verses pertaining to law in the Quran is relatively few, hadith give direction on everything from details of religious obligations, to the correct forms of salutations and the importance of benevolence to slaves. Thus the "great bulk" of the rules of Sharia are derived from hadith, rather than the Qur'an.
Islamic eschatology is the aspect of Islamic theology concerning ideas of life after death, matters of the soul, and the "Day of Judgement," known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah or Yawm ad-Dīn. The Day of Judgement is characterized by the annihilation of all life, which will then be followed by the resurrection and judgment by God. It is not specified when al-Qiyamah will happen, but according to prophecy elaborated by hadith-literature, there are major and minor signs that will foretell its coming. Multiple verses in the Qur'an mention the Last Judgment.
Ijtihad is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question. It is contrasted with taqlid. According to classical Sunni theory, ijtihad requires expertise in the Arabic language, theology, revealed texts, and principles of jurisprudence, and is not employed where authentic and authoritative texts are considered unambiguous with regard to the question, or where there is an existing scholarly consensus (ijma). Ijtihad is considered to be a religious duty for those qualified to perform it. An Islamic scholar who is qualified to perform ijtihad is called a mujtahid.
Mullah is derived from the Arabic word مَوْلَى mawlā, meaning "vicar", "master" and "guardian". However, used ambiguously in the Quran, some publishers have described its usage as a religious title as inappropriate. The term is sometimes applied to a Muslim man, educated in Islamic theology and sacred law. In large parts of the Muslim world, particularly Iran, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Eastern Arabia, Turkey and the Balkans, Central Asia, the Horn of Africa and other parts of South Asia, it is the name commonly given to local Islamic clerics or mosque leaders.
In Islam, Taqiya or Taqiyya is a precautionary dissimulation or denial of religious belief and practice in the face of persecution. Another term for this concept, kitmān, has a more specific meaning of dissimulation by silence or omission.
Tafsir is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an. An author of a tafsir is a mufassir. A Qur'anic tafsir attempts to provide elucidation, explanation, interpretation, context or commentary for clear understanding and conviction of God's will.
A faqīh is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.
Mary, the mother of Jesus (Isa), holds a singularly exalted place in Islam as the only woman named in the Quran, which refers to her seventy times and explicitly identifies her as the greatest of all women, stating, with reference to the angelic saluation during the annunciation, "O Mary, God has chosen you, and purified you; He has chosen you above all the women of creation." In the Quran, her story is related in three Meccan chapters and four Medinan chapters, and the nineteenth chapter of the scripture, titled "Mary", is named after her. The Quran refers to Mary more often than the New Testament.
Esoteric interpretation of the Quran, taʾwīl (تأويل), is the allegorical interpretation of the Quran or the quest for its hidden, inner meanings. It was a synonym of conventional interpretation in its earliest use, but it came to mean a process of discerning its most fundamental understandings. Esoteric interpretations do not usually contradict the conventional interpretations; instead, they discuss the inner levels of meaning of the Quran.
The Shia view of the Qur'an differs from the Sunni view, but the majority of both groups believe that the text is identical. While some Shia disputed the canonical validity of the Uthmanic codex, the Shia Imams always rejected the idea of alteration of Qur'an's text. Only seven Shia scholars have believed in omissions in the Uthmanic codex.
A famous recorded oral tradition among Muslims is about comment made by Imran ibn Husain, one of the companions of Muhammad and a Narrator of hadith. The comment was regarding the prohibition of Mut'ah, a word with several meanings. It is used in both Nikah mut'ah and Mut'ah of Hajj.
Qur'anic hermeneutics is the study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of the Qur'an, the sacred text of Islam. Since the early centuries of Islam, scholars have sought to mine the wealth of its meanings by developing a variety of different methods of hermeneutics. Many of the traditional methods of interpretation are currently being challenged with a more modern or contemporary approach. The three primarily established typologies of tafsir are tradition (Sunni), opinion (Shi'i), and allegory (Sufi). The two main types of verses to be interpreted are Muhukmat and Mutishabihat. The traditional approach to hermeneutics within the Qur'an embodies an awareness of isnad. There are many challenges of addressing modern day human rights, women and minority groups through the traditional hermeneutical model.
Majma‘ al-Bayan fi-Tafsir al-Qur'an is a tafsir by the 12th century Imami scholar and author Shaykh Tabarsi.
‘Aql, is an Arabic language term used in Islamic philosophy or theology for the intellect or the rational faculty of the soul or mind. It is the normal translation of the Greek term nous. In jurisprudence, it is associated with using reason as a source for sharia "religious law" and has been translated as "dialectical reasoning".
Various sources of sharia are used by Islamic jurisprudence to elaborate the body of Islamic law. The scriptural sources of traditional Sunni jurisprudence are the Qur'an, believed by Muslims to be the direct and unaltered word of God, and the Sunnah, consisting of words and actions attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the hadith literature. Shi'ite jurisprudence extends the notion of Sunnah to include traditions of the Imams.
Prophets in Islam are individuals who Muslims believe were sent by God to various communities in order to serve as examples of ideal human behavior and to spread God's message on Earth. Some prophets are categorized as messengers, those who transmit divine revelation through the intercession of an angel. Muslims believe that many prophets existed, including many not mentioned in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states: "There is a Messenger for every community". Belief in the Islamic prophets is one of the six articles of the Islamic faith.
At-Tibyan Fi Tafsir al-Quran is an exegesis of the Quran in ten volumes written by Shaykh Tusi. Shaykh Tabarsi, the author of Majma' al-Bayan, admitted using this book in writing his commentary. A copy is available at the Malek Library, Tehran. This exegesis has been published along with its summary as Mukhtasar-ut-Tibyan. The author uses hadith as a major component in writing his commentary and preserves the traditions of several of Twelver Shi'i imams.
Createdness refers to the heretical Islamic doctrinal position that the Qur’an was created, rather than having always existed and thus being "uncreated". In the Muslim world the opposite point of view — that the Quran is uncreated — is the accepted stand among the majority Sunni Muslims while minority sects Shia Twelvers and Zaydi, and the Kharijites believe the Quran is created.
Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed). According to Muhammad Abu Zahra, Qadariyah, Jahmis, Murji'ah, Muʿtazila, Batiniyya, Ash'ari, Maturidi, Athari are the ancient schools of aqidah.
The majority of Islamic commentators do not believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib is explicitly mentioned in the Quran. However, many verses of the Quran have been interpreted, by both Shia and Sunni scholars, as referring to Ali.
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