|Those firmly rooted in knowledge|
|Romanization||al-rasikhuna fi 'l-'ilm|
|Literal meaning||Those firmly rooted in knowledge|
Those firmly rooted in knowledge (Arabic :الراسخونفيالعلم) is a recurring theme in the Qur'an and Sunnah. This term is of special interest for the Shi'a.
The term and its like is used in Al-Imran [Quran 3:7] and [Quran 4:162].
This verse is a crux interpretum,in that it can be read in two ways,with a pause and without.The phrase is either the end of the sentence that precedes it,or the beginning of a new sentence. Sunni and Shi'a differ in their readings.
All those who speak truth,their hearts are firm in belief,do not commit any unlawful acts,those who are well grounded in their knowledge of Deen,their knowledge translates into their actions,does not swear or take false oaths,does not consume wealth unlawfully.
Sunni view that those firmly rooted in knowledge are the body of Muslim Jurists (Arabic : Ulema ) who interpret the Divine Law (Arabic : sharia ),deriving the Islamic Jurisprudence (Arabic : Fiqh ).
Ulema is the plural of Alim ,Arabic for knowledgeable. This connects to the Arabic for knowledge,ilm,the last word of this term:"al-rasikhuna fi 'l-'ilm"
Shi'a view those firmly rooted in knowledge to be Muhammad's household and (Arabic : Ahl al-Bayt ) himself. See Al-Imran [Quran 3:7] for some hadith in this regard.
Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence. Fiqh is often described as the human understanding and practices of the sharia, that is human understanding of the divine Islamic law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah. Fiqh expands and develops Shariah through interpretation (ijtihad) of the Quran and Sunnah by Islamic jurists (ulama) and is implemented by the rulings (fatwa) of jurists on questions presented to them. Thus,whereas sharia is considered immutable and infallible by Muslims,fiqh is considered fallible and changeable. Fiqh deals with the observance of rituals,morals and social legislation in Islam as well as political system. In the modern era,there are four prominent schools (madh'hab) of fiqh within Sunni practice,plus two within Shi'a practice. A person trained in fiqh is known as a faqīh.
Mullah is an honorific title for Sunni Muslim clergy or a Muslim mosque leader. The term is also sometimes used for a person who has higher education in Islamic theology and sharia law.
In Islam,Taqiya or Taqiyya is a precautionary dissimulation or denial of religious belief and practice in the face of persecution.
Tafsir refers to exegesis,usually of the Quran. An author of a tafsir is a mufassir. A Quranic tafsir attempts to provide elucidation,explanation,interpretation,context or commentary for clear understanding and conviction of God's will.
Al Imran is the third chapter (sūrah) of the Quran with two hundred verses (āyāt).
A faqīh is an Islamic jurist,an expert in fiqh,or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.
Maryam Bint Imran or Maryam,daughter of Imran,mother of Isa (Jesus),holds a singularly exalted place in Islam as the only woman named in the Quran,which refers to her seventy times and explicitly identifies her as the greatest of all women,stating,with reference to the angelic salutation during the annunciation,"O Mary,God has chosen you,and purified you;He has chosen you above all the women of creation." In the Quran,her story is related in three Meccan chapters and four Medinan surahs,and the nineteenth Surah titled Maryam,is named after her. The Quran refers to Mary more often than the Bible.
Esoteric interpretation of the Quran is the allegorical interpretation of the Quran or the quest for its hidden,inner meanings. The Arabic word taʾwīl was synonymous with conventional interpretation in its earliest use,but it came to mean a process of discerning its most fundamental understandings. Esoteric interpretations do not usually contradict the conventional interpretations;instead,they discuss the inner levels of meaning of the Quran.
The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran:A Contribution to the Decoding of the Language of the Koran is an English-language edition (2007) of Die syro-aramäische Lesart des Koran:Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache (2000) by Christoph Luxenberg.
The Shia view of the Qur'an differs from the Sunni view,but the majority of both groups believe that the text is identical. While some Shia disputed the canonical validity of the Uthmanic codex,the Shia Imams always rejected the idea of alteration of Qur'an's text. Only seven Shia scholars have believed in omissions in the Uthmanic codex.
Qur'anic hermeneutics is the study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of the Qur'an,the central text of Islam. Since the early centuries of Islam,scholars have sought to mine the wealth of its meanings by developing a variety of different methods of hermeneutics. Many of the traditional methods of interpretation are currently being challenged with a more modern or contemporary approach. The three primarily established typologies of tafsir are tradition (Sunni),opinion (Shi'i),and allegory (Sufi). The two main types of verses to be interpreted are Muhukmat and Mutishabihat. The traditional approach to hermeneutics within the Qur'an embodies an awareness of isnad. There are many challenges of addressing modern day human rights,women and minority groups through the traditional hermeneutical model.
Majma‘al-Bayan fi-Tafsir al-Qur'an is a tafsir by the 12th century Imami scholar and author Shaykh Tabarsi.
‘Aql,is an Arabic language term used in Islamic philosophy or theology for the intellect or the rational faculty of the soul or mind. It is the normal translation of the Greek term nous. In jurisprudence,it is associated with using reason as a source for sharia "religious law" and has been translated as "dialectical reasoning".
Various sources of Islamic Laws are used by Islamic jurisprudence to elaborate the body of Islamic law. In Sunni Islam,the scriptural sources of traditional jurisprudence are the Holy Qur'an,believed by Muslims to be the direct and unaltered word of God,and the Sunnah,consisting of words and actions attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the hadith literature. In Shi'ite jurisprudence,the notion of Sunnah is extended to include traditions of the Imams.
Nizam al-Din Hasan al-Nisaburi was a Persian Sunni Islamic Shafi'i,Ash'ari scholar,mathematician,astronomer,jurist,Qur'an exegete,and poet. His full name was Nizam al-Din Hasan ibn Mohammad ibn Hossein Qumi Nishapuri. As the genealogy in his full name shows,his grandfather was originally from the city of Qom but Nizam was born in Nishapur.
At-Tibyan Fi Tafsir al-Quran is an exegesis of the Quran in ten volumes written by Shaykh Tusi. Shaykh Tabarsi,the author of Majma' al-Bayan,admitted using this book in writing his commentary. A copy is available at the Malek Library,Tehran. This exegesis has been published along with its summary as Mukhtasar-ut-Tibyan. The author uses hadith as a major component in writing his commentary and preserves the traditions of several of Twelver Shi'i imams.
Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed). According to Muhammad Abu Zahra,Qadariyah,Jahmis,Murji'ah,Muʿtazila,Batiniyya,Ashʿarī,Māturīdī,and Aṯharīare the ancient schools of Islamic theology.
Quṭb-ud-Dīn Aḥmad Walīullāh Ibn ʿAbd-ur-Raḥīm Ibn Wajīh-ud-Dīn Ibn Muʿaẓẓam Ibn Manṣūr Al-ʿUmarīAd-Dehlawī,commonly known as Shāh Walīullāh Dehlawī,was an Islamic scholar,muhaddith,renewer,historiographer,bibliographer,theologian,and philosopher.
In Islam the Zabaniyah are the forces of hell,who torment the sinners,also called the Angels of punishment or Guardians of Hell. They are often identified with the Nineteen Angels of Hell mentioned in Quran 66:6 and 74:30 or as their subordinates. Namely they appear in Surah 96:18. Traditionally they are contrasted with the angels of mercy by their creation from fire instead of light. Some scholars regard them,nevertheless,as created from light,along with other angels.
Al-Muharrar al-Wajiz fi Tafsir al-Kitāb al-'Aziz or shortly named al-Muharrar al-Wajiz,better known as Tafsir Ibn 'Atiyya,is a classical Sunni tafsir of the Qur'an,authored by the Maliki-Ash'ari scholar Ibn 'Atiyya.