Thottam Pattu (Malayalam : തോറ്റം പാട്ട്) is a vocal ballad sung just before performing the Theyyam ritual. These are played in Theyyam temples before the commencement of Theyyam Art. Thottam Pattu is invocative. This is a mythological belief that by performing this ritual, the performer will be possessed by divine spirits. Thottam Pattu, the ritualistic songs which accompany the performance elaborate the legends related to the deities. Percussions such as Chenda and Thudi accompany the songs. Usually drummer men or make-up men or both of them perform the Thottam pattu by singing during the make-up.
Malayalam literature comprises those literary texts written in Malayalam, a South-Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala.
The Malayali people are a Dravidian ethnic group originating from the present-day state of Kerala in India, occupying its southwestern Malabar coast. They are identified as native speakers of the Malayalam language. The state of Kerala was created in 1956 through the States Reorganisation Act. Prior to that, since the Middle Ages existed the Kingdom of Cochin, the Kingdom of Travancore and the Malabar District of the Madras Presidency. The Malabar District was annexed by the British through the Third Mysore War (1790–92) from Tipu Sultan. Before that, the Malabar District was under the Zamorins of Calicut since the Middle Ages.
The music of Kerala has a long and rich history. It is not the same as Malayalam poetry although most of it is poetry driven. Kerala has a rich tradition in Carnatic music. Songs formed a major part of early Malayalam literature, which traces its origin to the 9th century CE. The significance of music in the culture of Kerala can be established just by the fact that in Malayalam language, musical poetry was developed long before prose. With the development of music in the region, different branches were formed out of it. The most basic branches are classical music which is primarily Carnatic music oriented, and popular music which includes film songs and album songs.
Theyyam is a popular ritual form of worship in Kerala, India, predominantly in the Kolathunadu area and also in South Canara and Kodagu of Karnataka as a living cult with several thousand-year-old traditions, rituals and customs. The performers of Theyyam belong to the lower caste community in ancient caste structure formed by Namboothiri brahmins in Kerala, and have an important position in Theyyam. The people of these districts consider Theyyam itself as a channel to a God and they thus seek blessings from Theyyam. A similar custom is followed in the Mangalore region of neighbouring Karnataka known as Bhuta Kola.
Parassinikadavu Muthappan temple is a temple, located at Parassinikadavu in Anthoor Municipality on the banks of the Valapattanam river about 10 km from Taliparamba and 16 km from Kannur City in Kannur District, Kerala. Principal deity of the temple is Sree Muthappan, whose divinity is presented as a ritualistic theyyam enactment in two versions called Thiruvappana and Vellattam. According to the local tradition the presiding deity is a manifestation of Lord Shiva.
Sree Muthappan is a deity commonly worshiped in the Kannur, Kasargod region of Kerala and Coorg region of Karnataka in India.Muthappan is worshiped as a single deity but he is considered as the personification of two divine figures— the Thiruvappana or Valiya Muttapan(Vishnu) and the Vellatom or Cheriya Muttapan(Shiva).
The culture of Kerala has developed over the past millennia, influences from other parts of India and abroad. It is defined by its antiquity and the organic continuity sustained by the Malayali people. Modern Kerala society took shape owing to migrations from different parts of India and abroad throughout Classical Antiquity.
Edakkad is part of the Kannur Municipal Corporation in Kannur District of Kerala state, in southern India.
Kokkallur is a village in Balussery Panchyat in Kozhikode district. People of this area earns their lives by farming. A higher secondary school, village office, Gramin Bank, and telephone cxchange are the main government establishments. When India was under British power,Kachery of British Police was situated near by area. This Kachery was burnt by freedom fighters in freedom struggle movement. This place is now known as Kachery kunnu.
Kuzhal pattu is a form of traditional temple music practised in the Kerala state of India. It centers on the use of the kuzhal, a double reed wind instrument, and is typically performed at temple festivals.
Sree Andalurkavu is a famous and prominent temple in Andalur in Dharmadam village of Kannur district, North Kerala. This old temple is in the name of Lord Rama and the main festival is celebrated in mid-February: the first week of the month "Kumbam" of the Malayalam calendar.
North Malabar refers to the geographic area of southwest India covering the state of Kerala's present day Kasaragod and Kannur Districts, the Mananthavady taluk of Wayanad District, the taluk of Vatakara in the Kozhikode District of Kerala and the entire Mahé Sub-Division of the Union Territory of Puducherry.
Theeyaattam also known as Theeyaattu (Tīyāttu) is a traditional dance form. There were two types of Theeyaattam - Bhadrakali Theeyaattu and Ayyappan Theeyaattu. Bhadrakali Theeyattu is performed by Theeyaattunnis whereas Ayyappan Theeyaattu is performed by Tīyyādi Nambiars (Ambalavasi).
Kanhangad Ramachandran is an Indian Singer and Music Director from Kannur, Kerala. He was born to Shri. C. K Panicker bhagavathar, the great exponent of Classical Music in the Carnatic tradition of South India, and Smt. Naniyamma.
Padayani, also called Padeni, is a traditional folk dance and a ritual art from the central portion of the Indian state of Kerala. A ceremonial dance involving masks, it is an ancient ritual performed in Bhagavati temples. The dance is performed in honor of Bhadrakaali. Meaning, a 'row of warriors', Padayani is an art form that blends music, dance, theatre, satire, facial masks, and paintings. It is part of worship of Bhadrakali and is staged in temples dedicated to the goddess from mid-December to mid-May. Padayani is unique to central Travancore, comprising the Pathanamthitta district of Kerala. Padayani is regarded as a remnant of the Dravidian forms of worship that existed before the advent of Brahmanism.
Neeliyar Bhagavathi is a Theyyam ritual conducted in the northern part of Kerala, India. The term Neeliyar Bhagavathi refers to the goddess of the Mangattuparamba Neeliyar temple; the ritual is mainly performed in this temple. This Theyyam is usually performed in the evening, during sunset. The goddess Neeliyar Bhagavathi has temples dedicated to her in different parts of Kannur including Cherukunnu, Eranjikkal, Mathamangala, etc. This particular Theyyam is performed by the Vannan caste. A few musical instruments, like Chenda are used during the performance.
The Udukku, also known as Udukkai,, is an Indian traditional percussion instrument of Tamil origin, once popular in Tamil Nadu Kerala, and north and east parts of Sri Lanka, similar to Damaru and Edakka, larger than the former but smaller than the latter.
The British had considerable impact on the culture of Thalassery. As an ancient trade center, the trading and business relations that existed with the Europeans and the Arabs brought people and ideas from many other lands. The Christian missionaries and the educational reforms they brought played an important role in transforming society. The migration to Travancore during Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan's invasion was another factor, resulting in less social distance between upper and lower castes from the 18th to mid-20th centuries. This effect did not reach the Travancore Cochin area, which was not under the Madras Presidency, where inequality was greater.
Gandharvanpattu is a ritual artform in North Kerala. This ritual is mainly performed by Vannan. There is five theyyams called Rudhirakkali, Varavakkali, Devathe, Mekkkaruvaal, Gandharvan in gandharvanpattu. This ritual is performed for the blessing of bhootam. The ritual is performed in the style of kalam pattu in Kavu. In past times this artform is performed on the houses where pregnant women live to eliminate different kinds of badha(ghost). Pulluvaveena and Pulluvakkudam are also used in Gandharvan Pattu.
Sree Madiyan Koolom Temple is located near Kanhangad, Kasaragod District of the Kerala State. It is one of the most prominent Hindu temples in Kasargod district which dates back as old as 500 years, dedicated to the main deity 'Kshetrapalakan' Eswaran and mother Goddess known as Kalarathri Amma (Bhadrakali).
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