The Thousand Islands – Frontenac Arch region or the Frontenac Axis is an exposed strip of Precambrian rock in Canada and the United States that links the Canadian Shield from Algonquin Park with the Adirondack Mountain region in New York, an extension of the Laurentian mountains of Québec. The Algonquin to Adirondacks region, which includes the Frontenac Axis or Arch, is a critical linkage for biodiversity and resilience, and one with important conservation potential.The axis separates the St. Lawrence Lowlands and the Great Lakes Lowlands. It has many distinctive plant and animal species. It is one of four ecoregions of the Mixedwood Plains.
The Thousand Islands in the Saint Lawrence River have a distinctive flora and fauna and are a part of the biological corridor.
The bedrock is mostly gneiss, granite, and marble, more than a billion years old.The Frontenac terrain is the youngest of the Ontario portions of the arch, dated at 1.2 billion years old. These rocks were once part of a large mountain chain of the ancient supercontinent of Rodinia. There is also a meteor crater near Holleford, where the shield meets the limestone plains of southeastern Ontario.
The area is distinctive for having tree species typically found further south, and reaching their northern limits.One example is pitch pine ( Pinus rigida ). Shallow soils and recurring fire have also produced unusual fire barren communities. These provide habitat for rare plants, such as bear oak ( Quercus ilicifolia ) and deerberry ( Vaccinium stamineum ), as well as rare animals, such as the five-lined skink ( Plestiodon fasciatus ) and gray rat snake ( Pantherophis spiloides ). There is high bird diversity, including the cerulean warbler, considered nationally endangered owing to the destruction of forests. Although the most important factor producing the fauna and flora is likely the bed rock, the moderating effect of the Great Lakes may also be factor. Also, some northern species extend their range south, drawn by the rugged granite landscapes of the Canadian Shield.
The basic ecosystem type of the area is temperate deciduous forest. The area has a long history of logging, which has depleted these forests of larger trees. Settlement tends to have occurred in the areas of deeper soil, and fire has particularly influenced the uplands. Reference to the forest descriptions of early surveyors has documented decline in species such as hemlock, which were preferentially removed for leather tanning.Criteria for restoring these forests have been established, and include increased tree size, spring ephemeral abundance, and coarse woody debris. Pollen cores from Lanark County provide information about longer term trends in forest cover.
There is a wide array of wetlands, ranging from larger marshes along the St. Lawrence river, to smaller marshes and bogs along water courses, and large numbers of beaver ponds. The cycles in vegetation in beaver ponds contribute to further wetland diversity; depending upon the amount of beaver activity, there may be open water, marsh, wet meadows or shrub thickets.Some lakes in the area, such as Bob's Lake, also support uncommon species of turtles, such as the map turtles and Blanding's turtles. Where there is marble bedrock, or other sources of calcium, fens may arise. These often have unusual calcium dependent wetland plants.
A southern portion of this region was designated a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 2002, the Frontenac Arch Biosphere Reserve.Within this biosphere reserve is the relatively small St. Lawrence Islands National Park. Although it is small, it has many Frontenac Arch species mentioned above, including deerberry, Blanding's turtle, and five-lined skinks. Further north, there is still a large gap in the ecological link to Algonquin Park. In this gap are smaller parks such as Frontenac Provincial Park and Bon Echo Provincial Park.
The Ottawa River is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. It is named in honour of the Algonquin word 'to trade', as it was the major trade route of Eastern Canada at the time. For most of its length, it defines the border between these two provinces. It is a major tributary of the St. Lawrence River and the longest river in Quebec.
Thousand Islands National Park, formerly known as the St. Lawrence Islands National Park, is located on the 1000 Islands Parkway in the Thousand Islands Region of the Saint Lawrence River. The islands are actually the worn-down tops of ancient mountains. This region, the Frontenac Axis, connects the Canadian Shield from Algonquin Park in Ontario to the Adirondack Mountains in New York.
Beckwith is a township in eastern Ontario, Canada. It is located in Lanark County on the Mississippi River. It is located within Canada's National Capital Region.
The Mississippi River is a tributary of the Ottawa River in Eastern Ontario, Canada which has no relation with the Mississippi River in the United States. It is 200 kilometres (120 mi) in length from its source at Mackavoy Lake, has a drainage area of 4,450 square kilometres (1,720 sq mi), and has a mean discharge of 40 cubic metres per second (1,400 cu ft/s). There are more than 250 lakes in the watershed.
Lanark County is a county located in the Canadian province of Ontario. Its county seat is Perth, which was first settled in 1816. Most European settlements of the county began in 1816, when Drummond, Beckwith and Bathurst townships were named and initially surveyed. The first farm north of the Rideau was cleared and settled somewhat earlier, in 1790. The county took its name from the town of Lanark in Scotland. Nearly all the townships were named after British public and military figures from the era of early settlement.
Drummond/North Elmsley is a township in eastern Ontario, Canada in Lanark County. It is situated on the north shore of the Rideau River between the town of Perth and the town of Smiths Falls. It is a predominantly rural municipality. The township offices are located in the hamlet of Port Elmsley.
Killbear Provincial Park is a provincial park located on Georgian Bay in the Parry Sound District of Ontario, near the town of Nobel. Killbear combines sandy beaches typical of the Great Lakes with the rock ridges and pines of the Canadian Shield.
The Queen Elizabeth II Wildlands Provincial Park is a provincial park in south-central Ontario, Canada, between Gravenhurst and Minden. The park, named for Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, is 33,505 hectares in size, making it the second largest park south of Algonquin Park, but it has a fragmented shape as a result of many private lands within its boundary.
The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands, or simply St. Lawrence Lowlands, is a physiographic region of Canada that comprises a section of southern Ontario bounded on the north by the Canadian Shield and by three of the Great Lakes—Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario—and extends along the Saint Lawrence River to the Strait of Belle Isle and the Atlantic Ocean. The lowlands comprise three sub-regions that were created by intrusions from adjacent physiographic regions—the West Lowland, the Central Lowland, and the East Lowland. The West Lowland includes the Niagara Escarpment, extending from the Niagara River to the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island. The Central Lowland stretches between the Ottawa River and the Saint Lawrence River. The East Lowland includes Anticosti Island, Îles de Mingan, and extends to the Strait of Belle Isle. It is one of the most densely populated, prosperous, and productive regions in Canada. Major urban areas include Quebec City, Montreal, Trois-Rivières, Saint-Hyacinthe, Cornwall, Ontario, Brockville, Ottawa/Gatineau, and Pembroke. The Lowland is in the traditional territories of the Mohawk, the Algonquian and Iroquoian peoples, and the Cree. The Lowlands were covered by surficial deposits left by ice sheets following the Pleistocene glaciations. It is the smallest of Canada's seven physiographic regions—the Canadian Shield, the Hudson Bay Lowland, the Arctic Lands, the Interior Plains, the Cordillera, and the Appalachian Uplands—distinguished by topography and geology. The boundaries of the area largely reflect that of the Mixedwood Plains Ecozone, the smallest of Canada's fifteen terrestrial ecozones.
Westmeath Provincial Park is a provincial park on the Ottawa River in Renfrew County, Ontario, Canada. Located on the section of the river known as Bellows Bay, it features a long sandy beach and an active sandspit. It is one of the most pristine sand dune and wetland complexes along the southern Ottawa River.
Paul A. Keddy is a Canadian ecologist. He has studied plant population ecology and community ecology in wetlands and many other habitats in eastern Canada and Louisiana, United States.
Mississippi Lake is a lake in Lanark County in Ontario, Canada. Ontario's Mississippi River flows northeast and north through the lake. Several small creeks including Cranberry Creek, McCrearys Creek, and McGibbon Creek drain into the lake from adjoining forest and agricultural land. The lake is distinctive for having one side that is part of the Canadian shield, while the other is mostly limestone. The lake is a remnant of the old Champlain Sea, which flooded eastern Ontario at the end of last ice age. The former shoreline of the sea can still be traced inland from the north shore of the lake.
The Burnt Lands is an alvar between Almonte and Ottawa near Upper Huntley, Ontario, Canada. It probably obtained its name from one of the forest fires that swept the area during early European settlement.
The Eastern Great Lakes and Hudson Lowlands region extends along the south shores of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River to Lake Champlain, and south down the Hudson River. It is primarily within the state of New York, with smaller portions in Vermont, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. In the north it meets the Mixedwood Plains Ecozone of Canada. It is mostly temperate deciduous forest and agricultural land.
The Mixedwood Plains Ecozone is the Canadian ecozone with the most southern extent, covering all of southwestern Ontario, and parts of central and northeastern Ontario and southern Quebec along the Saint Lawrence River. It was originally dominated by temperate deciduous forest growing mostly on limestone covered by glacial till. It is the smallest ecozone in Canada, but it includes the country's most productive industrial and commercial region, and is home to nearly half of Canada's population, including its two largest cities, Toronto, Ontario and Montreal, Quebec. Hence, little of the original forest cover remains, making protection of the remaining forests a high conservation priority. This ecozone includes two regions described by J.S. Rowe in his classic Forest Regions of Canada: the entire Deciduous Forest Region, and the southern portions of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Forest Region. In the province of Ontario, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources maps this area as Site Regions 6E and 7E.
Gould Lake Conservation Area is a rural conservation area located in the Canadian Shield northwest of the community of Sydenham in the Township of South Frontenac, Frontenac County, in eastern Ontario, Canada. The area was created to manage water resources, preserve wildlife habitat, and provide recreational and educational opportunities, and is managed by the Cataraqui Region Conservation Authority. The conservation area contains much of Gould Lake.
The Algonquin to Adirondacks Collaborative (A2A) is an environmental NGO, a registered charity, and a not-for-profit multi-national. This network of partners works together to connect lands and people from Algonquin Provincial Park in Ontario, Canada to the Adirondacks in New York State. The Algonquin to Adirondacks region represents a critical link for biodiversity and resilience in North America.
The Frontenac Arch Biosphere Reserve is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve located in southeastern Ontario, Canada. The biosphere reserve was designated in 2002, and is one of 16 biosphere reserves in Canada. The Frontenac Arch Biosphere operates primarily within a 2,700 km2. region from Brockville to Kingston, extending north to Verona and Perth.
The Keddy Nature Sanctuary consists of approximately one square mile of forest and wetland on the very edge of the Canadian shield, just an hour west of Ottawa on the east side of Lanark County, in Ontario, Canada. It is mostly second growth temperate deciduous forest, interspersed with wetlands and beaver ponds, as well as sedge-dominated rock-ridges. A central ridge has more than twenty hectares of hemlock forest. There are also old fields that remain from pastures created in the previous century. Parts of this property, as well as adjoining lands, are designated as the Scotch Corners Provincially Significant Wetland. The property is one of several protected by the Mississippi Madawaska Land Trust.
Scotch Corners Wetland is a provincially significant wetland complex located in Lanark County, Ontario, Canada. The 202 hectares area has a wide array of wetland types including swamps, marshes, vernal pools, beaver ponds and seepage areas. It forms the headwaters of several creeks that drain into Mississippi Lake.