|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Location||Kazanlak, Stara Zagora Province, Bulgaria|
|Criteria||Cultural: (i), (iii), (iv)|
|Inscription||1979 (3rd session)|
|Area||0.0155 ha (1,670 sq ft)|
|Buffer zone||7.09 ha (763,000 sq ft)|
The Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak (Bulgarian : Казанлъшка гробница, Kazanlǎška grobnica) is a vaulted-brickwork "beehive" (tholos) tomb near the town of Kazanlak in central Bulgaria.
The tomb is part of a large royal Thracian necropolis in the Valley of the Thracian Rulers near their ancient capital of Seuthopolis in a region where more than a thousand tombs of kings and members of the Thracian aristocracy can be found.
It comprises a narrow corridor and a round burial chamber, both decorated with murals representing a Thracian couple at a ritual funeral feast.The monument dates back to the 4th century BCE and has been on the UNESCO protected World Heritage Site list since 1979. The murals show horses and a gesture of farewell, in which the seated couple grasp each other's wrists in a moment of tenderness and equality (according to Lyudmila Zhivkova—a view that is not shared by all specialists). The paintings are Bulgaria's best-preserved artistic masterpieces from the Hellenistic period.
To preserve the sensitive paintings, the tomb is not open to the public; a full-size replica was built nearby.
The seated woman of the murals is depicted on the reverse of the Bulgarian 50 stotinki coin issued in 2005.
Fresco is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid ("wet") lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the dry-powder pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the plaster, the painting becomes an integral part of the wall. The word fresco is derived from the Italian adjective fresco meaning "fresh", and may thus be contrasted with fresco-secco or secco mural painting techniques, which are applied to dried plaster, to supplement painting in fresco. The fresco technique has been employed since antiquity and is closely associated with Italian Renaissance painting.
Tourism in Bulgaria is a significant contributor to the country's economy. Situated at the crossroads of the East and West, Bulgaria has been home to many civilizations - Thracians, Greeks, Romans, Eastern Romans or Byzantines, Slavs, Bulgars, and Ottomans. The country is rich in tourist sights and historical artifacts, scattered through a relatively small and easily accessible territory. Bulgaria is internationally known for its seaside and winter resorts.
A beehive tomb, also known as a tholos tomb, is a burial structure characterized by its false dome created by corbelling, the superposition of successively smaller rings of mudbricks or, more often, stones. The resulting structure resembles a beehive, hence the traditional English name.
The Thracians were an Indo-European people who inhabited large parts of Eastern and Southeastern Europe in ancient history. Thracians resided mainly in the Balkans, but were also located in Asia Minor and other locations in Eastern Europe.
A kurgan is a type of tumulus constructed over a grave, often characterized by containing a single human body along with grave vessels, weapons and horses. Originally in use on the Pontic-Caspian steppe, kurgans spread into much of Central Asia and Eastern, Southeast, Western and Northern Europe during the 3rd millennium BC.
A number of ancient civilizations, including the Thracians, Ancient Greeks, Scythians, Celts, Ancient Romans, Goths, Slavs, Varangians and the Bulgars have left their mark on the culture, history and heritage of Bulgaria. Due to this great variety of influences, Bulgaria has adopted many unusual traditions, including nodding to mean "no" and shaking head for when you mean "yes". Thracian artifacts include numerous temples, tombs, golden treasures and ancient rites and rituals, while ancient Bulgars have left traces of their heritage in statehood, early architecture, music and dances. Thracian rituals such as the Tryphon Zarezan which is dedicated to Saint Tryphon of Campsada, Kukeri and Martenitza are to this day kept alive in the modern Bulgarian culture. The oldest treasure of worked gold in the world, dating back to the 5th millennium BC, comes from the site of the Varna Necropolis.
Kazanlak is a Bulgarian town in Stara Zagora Province, located in the middle of the plain of the same name, at the foot of the Balkan mountain range, at the eastern end of the Rose Valley. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Kazanlak Municipality.
The Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari is 2.5 km southwest of the village of Sveshtari, Razgrad Province, which is 42 km northeast of Razgrad, in northeast Bulgaria.The tomb is probably the grave of Dromichaetes who was a king of the Getae on both sides of the lower Danube around 300 BC, and his wife, the daughter of King Lysimachus who was a general and diadochus of Alexander the Great. The tomb is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Seuthopolis was an ancient hellenistic-type city founded by the Thracian king Seuthes III between 325–315 BC and the capital of the Odrysian kingdom.
Lala Şahin Pasha was the first Beylerbey of Rumelia. He was the teacher (lala) of Sultan Murad I, and when Murad succeeded the throne, Şahin led the Ottoman campaign of Thrace. In 1360, he took Didymoticho, and in 1362, Adrianople, which afterwards served as the Ottoman seat of throne as Edirne. In 1364, he took Boruj and Plovdiv. He was one of commanders in Battle of Maritsa (1371). As of 1382 he ruled in Sofia. He was decisively defeated by Prince Lazar of Serbia at the Battle of Pločnik (1385–86). He was badly defeated by the Bosniaks in the Battle of Bileća on August 27, 1388. Lala Shahin probably die in 1389 in Kazanlak, Bulgaria where still there is an old mausoleum /turbe/ in park "Tulbeto", near the famous Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak. Later the remains of Lala Shahin was removed from Kazanlak tomb to onother one in his homelands near Bursa, Turkey.
Maglizh is a town in Stara Zagora Province, South-central Bulgaria. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Maglizh Municipality. As of December 2009, the town has a population of 3,426 inhabitants.
Seuthes III was ruler of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from c. 331 BC to c. 300 BC.
Koprinka is a reservoir and dam in the Rose Valley, central Bulgaria.
Kran is a town in central Bulgaria. It is located just south of the Balkan Mountains and is administratively part of Kazanlak Municipality, Stara Zagora Province. Kran was an important castle of the Second Bulgarian Empire in the 13th–14th century. Among the local sights are a conserved ancient Thracian tomb, a much older Thracian sanctuary and the ruins of the medieval fortress.
The Aleksandrovo tomb is a Thracian burial mound and tomb excavated near Aleksandrovo, Haskovo Province, South-Eastern Bulgaria, dated to c. 4th century BCE.
The Tomb of Seuthes III is located near Kazanlak, Bulgaria. Seuthes III was the King of the Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace from c. 331 to c. 300 BC and founder of the nearby Thracian city of Seuthopolis.
The Thracian tomb at Shushmanets Mound is a masterpiece of Thracian architecture. Located in the Valley of the Thracian Rulers, it was built as a temple in the 4th century BC and later used as a tomb.
The Valley of the Thracian Rulers is a popular name which was made public by the archaeologist Georgi Kitov and describes the extremely high concentration and variety of monuments of the Thracian culture in the Kazanlak Valley. It is believed that there are over 1500 tumuli in the region, with only 300 being researched so far.
Lyuba Ognenova-Marinova was a pioneering Bulgarian archaeologist. She was the first underwater archaeologist in the country and headed the investigations of the ancient Thracian city of Nesebar. She became one of the leading Bulgarian researchers specializing in ancient and Thracian archeology, authoring over 100 scientific publications. She served on the faculty of Sofia University and as a senior researcher at the National Archaeological Museum in Sofia.
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