Thracian language

Last updated
Region Bulgaria, European Turkey, parts of Southern Serbia, parts of the region of Macedonia (including Paeonia), regions in Northern Greece, small parts of Albania, parts of Romania, parts of Bithynia in Anatolia. Probably also spoken in parts of Dardania.
Extinct 6th century AD [1]
Greek (limited use)
Language codes
ISO 639-3 txh
Glottolog thra1250

The Thracian language ( /ˈθrʃən/ ) is an extinct and poorly attested language, spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians. The linguistic affinities of the Thracian language are poorly understood, but it is generally agreed that it was an Indo-European language with satem features.


A contemporary, neighboring language, Dacian is usually regarded as closely related to Thracian. However, there is insufficient evidence with respect to either language to ascertain the nature of this relationship.

The point at which Thracian became extinct is a matter of dispute. However, it is generally accepted that Thracian was still in use in the 6th century AD: Antoninus of Piacenza wrote in 570 that there was a monastery in the Sinai, at which the monks spoke Greek, Latin, Syriac, Egyptian, and Bessian – a Thracian dialect. [2] [3] [4] [5]

Other theories about Thracian remain controversial. A classification put forward by some linguists, such as Harvey Mayer, suggests that Thracian (and Dacian) belonged to the Baltic branch of Indo-European. [6] However, this theory has not achieved the status of a general consensus among linguists. These are among many competing hypotheses regarding the classification and fate of Thracian. [7]

Geographic distribution

The Thracian language or languages were spoken in what is now Bulgaria, [8] [9] Romania, North Macedonia, Northern Greece, European Turkey and in parts of Bithynia (North-Western Asiatic Turkey).

Modern-day Eastern Serbia is usually considered by paleolinguists to have been a Daco-Moesian language area. Moesian (after Vladimir Georgiev et al.) is grouped with the Dacian language.

Remnants of the Thracian language

Limits of the (southern) Thracian linguistic territory according to Ivan Duridanov, 1985 ThracianLanguageMap.jpg
Limits of the (southern) Thracian linguistic territory according to Ivan Duridanov, 1985

Little is known for certain about the Thracian languages, since no phrase beyond a few words in length has been satisfactorily deciphered, and the sounder decipherments given for the shorter phrases may not be completely accurate. Some of the longer inscriptions may indeed be Thracian in origin but they may not reflect actual Thracian language sentences, but rather jumbles of names or magical formulas. [10]

Enough Thracian lexical items have survived to show that Thracian was a member of the Indo-European language family and that it was a satemized language by the time it is attested. Besides the aforementioned inscriptions, Thracian is attested through personal names, toponyms, hydronyms, phytonyms, divine names, etc. and by a small number of words cited in Ancient Greek texts as being specifically Thracian. [11] [ unreliable source? ]

Other ancient Greek lexical items were not specifically identified as Thracian by the ancient Greeks but are hypothesized by paleolinguists as being or probably being of Thracian origin. Other lexical items are hypothesized on the basis of local anthroponyms, toponyms, hydronyms, oronyms, etc. mentioned in primary sources (see also List of ancient cities in Thrace and Dacia, List of Dacian plant names).

Below is a table showing both words cited as being Thracian in classical sources, and lexical elements that have been extracted by paleolinguists from Thracian anthroponyms, toponyms, etc. In this table the closest cognates are shown, with an emphasis on cognates in Bulgarian, Albanian, Baltic, Slavic, Greek, and substratum and/or old-layer words in the Eastern Romance languages: Romanian, Aromanian, et cetera. See also the List of reconstructed Dacian words.

Significant cognates from any Indo-European language are listed. However, not all lexical items in Thracian are assumed to be from the Proto-Indo-European language, some non-IE lexical items in Thracian are to be expected.

There are 23 words mentioned by ancient sources considered explicitly of Thracian origin and known meaning. [12]

WordMeaningAttested byCognates
ἄσα (asa)colt’s (young asses/horses) foot ( Bessi )Dioskurides Lit. dial. asỹs ‘horse-tail, Equisetum’, Latv. aši, ašas ‘horse-tail, sedge, rush’. The -a ending resembles the Slavic singular genitive = osła, осла (aswa) ("the asses"). Compare The Sanskrit name अश्व (Aśvā) ("horse") derived from the Indo-Iranian root *aćua- (cf. Avestan aspā), from which also descends the Lithuanian name Ašvieniai [13] and the English ass ("donkey"). Also the Pol. pośpiech , pospieszać ("to hurry [by feet]") may be the proto-Iranian form of asp ("horse") often used by Śaka in names, e.g. Vishtaspa, Sparethra. Derived terms include not only Bessi but also Asy/Assy , Ossetians , Aśina , Asud , Iassy ... all referring to the turkicized and mankurtized equestrian Massagetae , possibly related to the Getae living among the Thracians.
βόλινθος (bólinthos, vólinthos) Aurochs, and maybe European bison AristotleProto-Slavic *volъ ("ox"). Pre-Greek, according to Robert S. P. Beekes 2010: 225. The current toponym Волинь (Wołyń, Volhynia) ("the land of the volinthos") perfectly resembles this archaic name. βόλινθος thus refers to βόλος (Volos) , related to Aryan वॡ βόλο (Vala) , also related to Nešili (नसतय Nā́satyā, Hittite) Illuyanka (probably of Villuyanka, compare Wiluša ). Toponyms of Wolin (Volin), Волосов Овраг (Volosov Ravine) , Во́лосово (Volosovo) , Велестово (Velestovo) , Велестово, ЦГ (Velestovo, CG) , Veles , Velež , Wallachia (Valachia) and eventually also Volcae and Wales refer to this root. The Hellenic cognate is Ταύρος (Tauros) represented by the Celtic Tarvos Trigaranus .

The ancient mythology of bull (or serpent/dragon) protecting the underworld waters (Aurochs and European bison protecting their moist pastures), e.g. βόλος (Volos) - वॡ βόλο (Vala) - [V]illuyanka - Tarvos Trigaranus , seems to last for at least 40 millennia - compare Wollunqua of the Aboriginal Australians or Wagyl of the Noongar and their use of Boomerang, which was found also in the Obłazowa Cave in Poland and among relics of Ancient Egypt, hence the root resembles also the root of "moisture" - both coming from the root vo (wo) of "water": the Russian hydronym Volga (Волга) derives from Proto-Slavic *vòlga "wetness, moisture", which is preserved in many Slavic languages, including Ukrainian volóha (воло́га) "moisture", Russian vlaga (влага) "moisture", Bulgarian vlaga (влага) "moisture", Czech vláha "dampness", Serbian vlaga (влага) "moisture", Croatian vlaga "moisture", Slovene vlaga "moisture", and Macedonian vlaga "moisture", Polish wilgoć "moisture" among others. [14] The letter β has double phonetic value of b and v (w), also Sanskrit and are often confused, hence voł = bull.

βρία (bría, vría)unfortified villageHesychius, compare the Toponyms Πολτυμβρία, Σηλυ(μ)μβρία, and Βρέα in Thrace.Compared to Greek ῥίον (ríon; "peak, foothills") and Tocharian A ri, B riye ("town") as if < *urih₁-. Alternatively, compare Proto-Celtic *brix- ("hill"). In Slavic languages and Breton (mainly Venetic - Vannetais of Bro Gwened) similar words are used for fringes брѣгъ , brieg , brzeg , Breizh , Brest or obstacles on fringes, of the percepted by eyes or accessible horizon, e.g. walls, woods, hills, mountains, riffs, cliffs, shores e.t.c. Related to perimeter .
βρίζα (bríza, vríza)ryeGalenPerhaps of Eastern origin, compare Greek ὄρυζα (oriza), Sanskrit व्रीहिvrīhí- ("rice").
βρυνχός (brynkhós, vrynkhós)guitar or similar string instrumentCompared with Slavic *bręčati "to ring". May also refer to an instrument being played by both hands - в руках (v rukhach), w rękach (v reunkhach), compare Sanskrit रेखाrekhā ("handrail", "line", "row", "stroke") and वीणा (vīṇā) ("Veena").
βρῦτος (brŷtos, vrŷtos)beer of barleymanyMay refer to Old Church Slavonic в корꙑто (v koryto) ("in the trough") implying the method by which the beer was produced. Germanic *bruþa- ("broth"), Old Irish bruth ("glow"), Latin dēfrŭtum ("must boiled down"). [lower-alpha 1] The root *ryti describes the simplest method of producing such containers - nominative koryto .
dinupula, si/nupylawild melonPseudoapuleusLithuanian šùnobuolas, lit. ("dog’s apple"), or with Slavic *dynja ("melon"). Compare Silesian nupel ("nipple"). Obviously a juicy fruit, which requires sucking.
γέντον (génton, žénton)meatHerodian., Suid., HesychFrom Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰn̥-tó-s, from *gʷʰen- ("to kill", "to slaughter"). Compare Proto-Indo-Aryan *źʰatás, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *ǰʰatás, Polish [za]rżnięto ([za]rźʰnénto, [za]rgnénto) ("slaughtered"), from [za]rżnąć or, without the z- prefix, the Sanskrit हत hatá ("hit, killed"). Compare Pol. żęto (žento) ("scythed, harvested, slaughtered") with the suffix -n for toponym, would still be (Sanskrit ) in Polish.
καλαμίνδαρ (kalamíndar)plane-tree (Edoni)Hesych.Compare the late pomidor .
κη̃μος (kêmos)a kind of fruit with folliclePhot. Lex.
κτίσται (ktístai) Ctistae StraboMaybe akin to the affirmative term Ktoś archaic Ktojsi ("Somebody"). Apparently the Hellenic term Μελινοφάγοι (Melinofagoi) ("Melinophagi") is also referring to them.
μίδνη (midne)villageinscription from RomeLatvian mītne ("a place of stay").
Πολτυμ(βρία) (poltym-bría)board fence, a board tower, fenced hill, palissadeCompare Slavic płot ("board fence") made most often of plain / flat wooden boards, also Slavic palisada ("palissade") made of massive poles / logs. Derivates include Old Norse spjald ("board"), Old English speld ("wood, log"). See above description for βρία.
ῥομφαία (rhomphaía)broadswordmanyCompared with Latin rumpō ("to rupture"), Slavic: Russian разрубать, Polish rąbać ("to hack", "to chop", "to slash"), Polish rębajło (rhembhaiwo) ("eager swordsman"), Serbo-Croatian rmpalija ("bruiser").
σκάλμη (skálmē)knife, short swordSoph. y Pollux, Marcus Anton., Hesych., Phot. LAlbanian shkallmë ("sword"), Old Norse skolm ("short sword, knife"). Compare skalpel .
σκάρκη (skárkē)a silver coinHesych., Phot. Lex.Compare Polish skarb and Proto-Slavic *sьrebro .
σπίνος (spínos)a kind of stone? or rather woodArist.Derived from Proto-Slavic and PIE *pьňь ("trunk", "core") with the genitive prefix s- ("from the trunk"). Compare pindel - an ancient Aryan offerings ritual involving tree hollows, practiced also by Lud (Luwians) and Nešili (नसतय Nā́satyā, Hittites), the southern neighbours of Thracians - and also pine and derived names Pindar and Spinoza .
τορέλλη (toréllē)a refrain of lament mourn songHesych.Compare to Polish treny ("sorrowful lamentations") derived from trele ("birds songs", "trill") and also used as name Trela , Sanskrit ध्रणति (dhráṇati) ("to sound"), Latin drēnsō, and Old English drān (English drone). Confer also θρέομαι (thréomai) ("I cry aloud, shriek"). Robert S. P. Beekes argues for a Pre-Greek origin.
ζαλμός (zalmós)animal hidePorphyr.The German Saum (ζαλμ, Zaлm with Slavic л / ł pronounced close to uu or w) ("hem") obviously acquired during the Gothic invasion is directly derived of the Thracian ζαλμός (zalmós) made of fur or hide to reinforce the fringes of fabric (hemp, linen) clothing.
ζειρά (zeira)long robe worn by Arabs and ThraciansHdt., Xen., Hesych.Maybe connected as means of protection to Polish zerkać or rather its alternative form zierać ("to peep"). Another etymology may be connected to drzeć or rather its form zdzierać ("to tear", "to wear down"). There is also an expression - zadziera kiecę - which roughly means [he/she] "lifts" skirt/frock.
ζελᾶ (zelâ), also ζῆλα (zêla), ζηλᾱς (zelās)winemanyCompared with Greek χάλις (khális; "unblended wine") and κάλιθος (kálithos; "wine"). Apparently wine blended with zěla ("herbs"), from *zelьje ("herb") root with the plural or genitive suffix -a.
ζετραία (zetraía)potPolluxA pot used for *zacier (zaťěr) ("[brewing] mash"), from zetrzeć (zetřeť) ("to shred", "to grind", "to rub off"). Again root of the shredded / grinded mash with the plural (for sorts) or genitive suffix -a. The German Getraide is, contrary to other theories, derived from ζετραία, most probably acquired during the invasion by Goths, Heruli e.t.c.
zibythidesthe noble, most holy oneHesych.Lith. žibùtė ("shining"). Maybe the Slavic / Sarmatian / Iranian "from" prefix z- / zy- / zi- Bithynia and -es personal suffix. In Bithynia and in Chaldia east of it lived many Aryan Magi of the House of Suren, who were also active in Chaldea and are almost exclusively associated with the later. They also taught in Thrace and Illyria and introduced minting to Europe. They visited and managed many sacred grooves of Svarog (Surya) and Perun (Indra) across prehistoric Europe. Most of their Scythian guards stationed in Scythia Minor, eastern Thrace. The region of Bytom (Spyra, Sperun, Pernus) with its silvermines and Firenze (Peruzzi) are their last stays. Unfortunately the Etruscan line became corrupted by Romans and Langobards. Illyrian coinage, pl:Denar Princes Polonie and Iakšas coinage of Polabian Slavs (see Polabian language) are just some examples. Eventually they managed the foundation of the Commonwealth of Samo, Great Moravia, Poland, Duchy of Kopanica and of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

An additional 180 Thracian words have been reconstructed. [12]

The proposed Thracian words in the Ancient Greek lexicon are not numerous. They include the parth- element in Parthenon;[ citation needed ]balios ("dappled"; < PIE *bhel-, "to shine", Bul. bel/bial (бял) "white" or bljaskav 'bright, shiny'; Pokorny also cites Illyrian as a possible source, the non-Greek origin is argued on phonological grounds), bounos, "hill, mound". [16]

The Thracian horseman hero was an important figure in Thracian religion, mythology, and culture. Depictions of the Thracian Horseman are found in numerous archaeological remains and artifacts from Thracian regions. From the Duvanlii ring and from cognates in numerous Indo-European languages, mezēna is seen to be a Thracian word for "horse", deriving from PIE *mend-. Another Thracian word for "horse" is hypothesized, but it looks certain, there is no disagreement among Thracologists: aspios, esvas, asb- (and some other variants; < PIE *ekwo , the Thracian showing a satem form similar to Sanskrit áśva-, "horse", Avestan aspa, "horse", Ossetic jäfs, Prussian aswinan ‘mare milk’, Lithuanian ašvíenis ‘stallion’, ašvà, dial. ešvà ‘mare’ [17] ), from outaspios, utaspios, an inscription associated with the Thracian horseman. Ut- based on the PIE root word ud- (meaning "up") and based on several Thracic items, would have meant "upon", "up", and utaspios is theorized to have meant "On horse(back)", parallel to ancient Greek ephippos (epi-hippos). [18]

The early Indo-European languages had more than one word for horse; for example Latin had equus from PIE *ekwo- and mannus ("a pony") from another IE root, later receiving cabalus as a loanword.

In many cases in current Thracology, there is more than one etymology for a Thracian lexical item. For example, Thracian Diana Germetitha (Diana is from Latin while the epithet Germetitha is from Thracian) has two different proposed etymologies, "Diana of the warm bosom" (Olteanu; et al.?) or "Diana of the warm radiance" (Georgiev; et al.?). In other cases, etymologies for the Thracian lexical items may be sound, but some of the proposed cognates are not actually cognates, thus confusing the affinity of Thracian.


The following are the longest inscriptions preserved. The remaining ones are mostly single words or names on vessels and other artifacts.

Ezerovo inscription

The Ring of Ezerovo, found in 1912 Golden ring Ezerovo mound BG Ancient Thrace period.jpg
The Ring of Ezerovo, found in 1912

Only four Thracian inscriptions of any length have been found. The first is a gold ring found in 1912 in the village of Ezerovo (Plovdiv Province of Bulgaria); the ring was dated to the 5th century BC. [19] On the ring an inscription is found written in a Greek script and consisting of 8 lines, the eighth of which is located on the edge, the rim, of the rotating disk; it reads without any spaces between: ΡΟΛΙΣΤΕΝΕΑΣΝ / ΕΡΕΝΕΑΤΙΛ / ΤΕΑΝΗΣΚΟΑ / ΡΑΖΕΑΔΟΜ / ΕΑΝΤΙΛΕΖΥ / ΠΤΑΜΙΗΕ / ΡΑΖ // ΗΛΤΑ

as Dimitar Dechev (Germanised as D. Detschew) separates the words thus [20] [21] ΡΟΛΙΣΤΕΝΕΑΣ ΝΕΡΕΝΕΑ ΤΙΛΤΕΑΝ ΗΣΚΟ ΑΡΑΖΕΑ ΔΟΜΕΑΝ ΤΙΛΕΖΥΠΤΑ ΜΙΗ ΕΡΑ ΖΗΛΤΑ i.e. Rolisteneas Nerenea tiltean ēsko Arazea domean Tilezypta miē era zēlta proposing the following translation:

I am Rolisteneas, a descendant of Nereneas; Tilezypta, an Arazian woman, delivered me to the ground.

Kyolmen inscription

A second inscription, hitherto undeciphered, was found in 1965 near the village of Kyolmen, Varbitsa Municipality, dating to the sixth century BC. Written in a Greek alphabet variant, it is possibly a tomb stele inscription similar to the Phrygian ones; Peter A. Dimitrov's transcription thereof is: [22]




Duvanlii inscription

A third inscription is again on a ring, found in Duvanlii, Kaloyanovo Municipality, next to the left hand of a skeleton. It dates to the 5th century BC. The ring has the image of a horseman with the inscription surrounding the image. It is only partly legible (16 out of the initial 21):



ēuziē.....dele / mezēnai

The meaning of the inscription is 'Horseman Eusie protect!'

If this reading is correct, the Thracian word mezenai might be cognate to Illyrian Menzanas (as in "Juppiter/Jove Menzanas" 'Juppiter of the foals' or 'Juppiter on a horse'); [25] Albanian mëz 'foal'; Romanian mînz 'colt, foal'; Latin mannus 'small horse, pony'; [26] [27] Gaulish manduos 'pony' (as in tribe name Viromandui [28] 'men who own ponies'). [lower-alpha 2]


The Thracian language in linguistic textbooks is usually treated either as its own branch of Indo-European, or is grouped with Dacian, together forming a Daco-Thracian branch of IE. Older textbooks often grouped it also with Illyrian or Phrygian. The belief that Thracian was close to Phrygian is no longer popular and has mostly been discarded. [30] The Thraco-Illyrian grouping has also been called into question.[ citation needed ] Daco-Thracian or Thraco-Dacian is the main hypothesis.[ citation needed ]

No definite evidence has yet been found that demonstrates that Thracian or Daco-Thracian belonged on the same branch as Albanian or Baltic or Balto-Slavic or Greco-Macedonian or Phrygian or any other IE branch. For this reason textbooks still treat Thracian as its own branch of Indo-European, or as a Daco-Thracian/Thraco-Dacian branch.

The generally accepted clades branched from the Proto-Indo-European language are, in alphabetical order, the Proto-Albanian language, Proto-Anatolian language, Proto-Armenian language, Proto-Balto-Slavic language, Proto-Celtic language, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Greek language, Proto-Indo-Iranian language, Proto-Italic language, and the Proto-Tocharian language. Thracian, Dacian, Phrygian, Illyrian, Venetic, and Paeonian are fragmentarily attested and cannot be reliably categorized.

Language/difference according to Duridanov (1985)
Changeo > ar > ir, ur (or)
l > il, ul (ol)
m > im, um (om)
n > in, un (on)
kʷ, gʷ, gʷʰ
> k, g (k), g
ḱ, ǵ, ǵʰ
> s (p), z (d)
p, t, k
> pʰ, tʰ, kʰ
b, d, g
> p, t, k
bʰ, dʰ, gʰ
> b, d, g
sr > strtt, dt > st
Dacian +++++--++-
Balto-Slavic +++++--+-/++
Pelasgian ++++++++ ? ?
Albanian ++-+/-+/---+--
Germanic +++---+++-
Indo-Iranian +--+/-+--+/--+/-
Greek ---------+
Phrygian ----++++- ?
Armenian ----+++-- ?
Italic -+--------
Celtic -------+--
Hittite +-----++ ? ?
Tocharian +/------++- ?
Divergent sound-changes in Paleo-Balkan languages according to Georgiev (1977) [31]
*r̥, *l̥riur (or), ur (ol)al
*n̥, *m̥aunan
*TTTA (aspirated)TA

Note: Asterisk indicates reconstructed IE sound. M is a cover symbol for the row of voiced stops (mediae), T for unvoiced stops (tenues) and TA for aspirated stops (tenues aspiratae). ∅ indicates zero, a sound that has been lost.

Divergent sound-changes in Dacian and Thracian according to Duridanov (1985) [32]
*b, *d, *gb, d, gp, t, k
*p, *t, *kp, t, kph, th, kh
ä (a)ē
*e (after consonant)iee
*dt (*tt)sst

Thraco-Dacian has been hypothesized as forming a branch of Indo-European along with Baltic. [33]

For a large proportion of the 300 Thracian geographic names there are cognates within the Baltic toponymy, most similarities between Thracian and Balto-Slavic personal and geographic names were found, especially Baltic. According to Duridinov the "most important impression make the geographic cognates of Baltic and Thracian" "the similarity of these parallels stretching frequently on the main element and the suffix simultaneously, which makes a strong impression". According to him there are occasional similarities between Slavic and Thracian because Slavic is related to Baltic, while almost no lexical similarities within Thracian and Phrygian were found. [34] This significant relatedness show close affinity and kinship of Thracian with Baltic.

The following table shows the cognate Thracian and Baltic place names, [12] some Polish and related Lechitic names from the transitional area of the ancient Veneti-Eneti along the Amber Road were added:

Thracian place Lithuanian place Latvian place Old Prussian place Polish / Lechitic placecognates
Alaaiabria Alajà Lith. aléti ‘to be flooded’
Altos Altis
Antisara Sarija Sarape
Armonia Armona, Armenà Lith. armuõ, -eñs ‘a swamp, bog’, arma ‘the same’
Armula Armuliškis lit. arma ‘mud’
Arpessas Varpe, Varputỹs, Várpapievis Warpen, Warpunen Latv. vārpats ‘whirlpool’; Lith. varpýti (-pa, -pia) ‘to dig’
Arsela Arsen Arsio, Arse Ursynów May refer to multiple etymologies: ursa ("she-bear"), अर्थ artha (arəθa) ("true meaning", "truthfulness", "honesty", "integrity", "wealth", "prosperity"), some other word derived from अश्व (Aśvā) ("horse"), or rather its back like the English arse or some combination based on selo , e.g. ("village of the honest people", "prosperious hamlet", "wealthy residences", "river of wealth"). The -a ending denotes a plural or feminine form. In Taunus there is Urselbach , originally probably Arsela (compare Ašarya near mines in Harz and Ašaperk in Vindelicia) from आशा āśā́ ("hope", "desire", "prospect") and/or aṣ̌a (the Zarathuštrian concept of "truth") next to antique goldmines of the zibythides of Bithynia, Apaša, Sparda, Sparte, Aśa and Chaldia (goldmines, e.g. near Speri) referred above known for their Golden hats.
AspynthosLatv. apse; Old-Pruss. abse; Lith. apušẽ
Atlas Adula
Asamus aśman- ‘stone’; Lit. ašmuo, ašmenys, also derived from आशा āśā́ ("hope", "desire", "prospect") and/or aṣ̌a (the Zarathuštrian concept of "truth") - the gem or any kind of [precious] stone being totally "integer", "truthfull" and "honest" not changing "itself", "equal" to "oneself", withstanding interference and passing of time, "promising" "wealth", therefore being object of "desire" from samъ , सम sam , also "hymns" were composed about its multiple aspects and "weapons" साम sām were made of it. The "weapons" of "wrath" were called in Avestan aēšma and so eventually the terminus aēšma-daēva Lat. Deus Asmodeus was born. The name Osama, Arsenius but also Arya and Siddhartha may be related. The names around the Thracian river Asamus incl. Yantra point to the presence of Sarmatians, probably Zychy (Zyx) (House of Zyx - Zy- "from" + x or Sanskr. short for क्षत्रिय kṣatriya kšatrija xšaθra (Varńa caste), "ruler, authority, satrap, voivode") who were not only guards of the Solar dynasty, e.g. Iakšaku of Andhra Pradeś but also of their European kinsmen, the aforementioned zibythides known as Sperun, Spyra, Pernus e.t.c.. The Yantras of Zyx or their Sindi followers carved in stone have been discovered on Crimea.
Vairos Vaira Lit. vairus ‘diverse’
Baktunion Batkunu kaimas
Beres Bẽrė, Bėrẽ, Bėr-upis, Bėrupė Bēr-upe, Berēka Bieruń, Beroun, Pěrno Lit. bėras, Latv. bęrs ‘brown, swarthy’, Pol. apparently germanized P>B form of original Pieruń / Pěroun (sanctuary of Perun - Perkūnas - Perkwunos)
Bersamae Berezina, Brest Brześć, Brest (incl. Brest of the Veneti in Armorica), Brest (Dravěnopołabski), Brzózki (multiple entries), Brzeziny (multiple entries), Břest, Brest (ancient settlement), Brest (Merošina), Brest (depopulated), Brest (repopulated) Lith. béržas; Latv. bẽrzs; Old-Pruss. berse, Pol. brzoza ‘birch’

The Breton language Brezhoneg, Pol. przybrzeżny less the przy- prefix, of the Veneti, Namnęti and their Samožony of Armorica was considered by the Norman invaders a "tongue of the Dacians", in contrast to the "tongue of the Romans" used by the Gauls and even already by the Franks. Toponyms derived from brzeg , e.g. Brzeg do not appear in the listing, however close to brzoza they may sound.

Veleka Velėkas Łęg (multiple entries), Wieluń, Wylewa, Wysieka Lit. velėklės ‘place in the water’, Pol. łęg ‘flood-meadow, riparian forest‘, wylewa ‘overflows, spills over‘, wycieka present tense 3rd person singular ‘leaks out‘, wysiąka ‘leaks out‘ (less intensive)
Bolba bria Balvi, Bàlvis, Bolva Lith. Bálvis 'a lake'; Old-Pruss. Balweniken
Brenipara Brenna (Brennabor), Branibor / Braniborsko, Brenna, Brenno, Brenica, Brenik, Brennik (multiple entries), Brynica (multiple entries), Branew (Thracians among settlers), Branica (multiple entries) Messapian brendon, Latv. briedis ‘deer’, Pol. Branibor ‘the protecting forest/woods’
Calsus Kalsi, Kalsiņš, Kals-Strauts ‘dry stream’ Kalisz Latv. kalst, kaltēt ‘dry’, the town Kalisz already mentioned by Ptolemy
Chalastra chałastra, hałastra Lith. sravà ‘a stream’; Latv. strava ‘stream, torrent’, Pol. hałastra ‘a disorderly crowd, stream of peoples, mob’, chałtura ‘an ad hoc job, unprepared performance (often of low quality), a forced slaverish work’, chała ‘substandard, poor quality, worthless’ - so the toponym may mean a "worthless stream" (muddy or poisonous water)
Daphabae Lith. dãpas ‘a flood’; Old-Pruss. ape ‘river’
Dingion Dingas, Dindze, Dingupite Dinge Dynów Latv. dinga ‘a plant’ and ‘fertile place’
Dimae Dūmė Dūmis Dumen Dukla (Scythian settlement since 2nd millennium BCE)Lit. dūmas ‘dark (for beef)’; Latv. dūms ‘dark-brown’
Egerica Vegerė Vedzere
Ereta Veretà
Gesia Gesavà Dzêsiens Gesaw Gąsiek, Rzeszów?Latv. dzēse ‘heron’, Pol. gęś ‘goose’, Gesia (Gęsia) in Pol. genitive ‘of the goose’, Gąsiek nominative from gęś+zasieki ‘fenced goose’, compare Gusle and Duzagaš Pol. duża gęś ‘big goose’ - apparently a certified poultry weight found among "Kassite deities". Gęsia seems to be one of the most popular IE words.
Ginula Ginuļi Ginulle Goniądz Latv. g'inis, g'inst ‘to spoil’, Pol. ginąć ‘to get lost, to perish’, compare Engl. gone
Armonia Armona Lit. armuo, -ens ‘quagmire’
Iuras Jūra, Jūrė, Jūrupis Jura Lit. and Latv. jūra ‘sea’
Kabyle Kabile Cabula
KallindiaGalindo, Galinden, Galynde Golina, Goleniów, Gołdap, Gołańcz Galindai, Lit. galas ‘end’
Kapisturia Kaplava Kapas-gals Kappegalin Kopanica (multiple entries)

Latv. kãpa, kãpe ‘long mountainous strip, dune, slope’; Lith. kopà ‘sandy hill’, Pol. directly from kopa ‘heap, pile’, from kopati ‘to dig’, e.g. kop+pernik ‘dig+rock/stone’ Kopernik ‘rock digger, miner’ > Copper ‘dugout/mined rock’, Kopa is still the original Venetic name of the main mountain massive of the Hallstatt culture

Kurpisos, Kourpissos Kurpų kámas, Kurpulaukis Kazūkurpe, Kurpesgrāvis, Kurpkalns Kurpie Lit. kurpti ‘to dig', Pol. kierpce (kurpś) - archaic mocassinss called in Romania opincă
Kersula Keršuliškių kaimas Lit. keršulis ‘pigeon’
Knishava Knisà Knīsi, Knīši, Knīsukalns Knyszyn Lith. knìsti ‘to dig, to rummage’
Kypsela Kupšeliai Kupšeļi Kutno?
Lingos Lingė, Lingenai Lingas, Lingi, Lingasdikis Lingwar Lędziny, Leżajsk, Legnica,Lit. lengė 'valley’
Markellai Markẽlis, Markelỹne Marken Marki (mesolithic settlement)Lit. marka ‘pit’, merkti ‘dunk’
Meldia Meldė, Meldínis Meldine, Meldini Mildio, Mildie Zhemait. Melьdəikvirshe, Melьdəinəi, Lith. meldà, méldas ‘marsh reed’; Latv. meldi ‘reed’
Mygdonia Mūkė Mukas Myszków, Myšno Zhemait. river Muka, Mukja, Pol. mysz ‘mouse’ (the same in Iranian languages) is cognate rather with Moesia, another region of Thrace and Mysia across Propontis. Mygdonia is rather akin to ‘land of heroes’ or more precisely ‘land, that gives men/(heroes)’
Ostophos Uõstas, Ũstas Uostupe, Ũostup Ustup (part of Zakopane), Ústup, Puszczykowo Lit. pušynas ‘spurs forest’, Pol. ostęp (regional: ustup) ‘wilderness’, ‘section set aside’, compare pustynia ‘desert’, pustkowie ‘wasteland’
Paisula Paišeliai Paissyn Pasłęk, Pasym Lit. paišai ‘soot’
Palae Palà Połczyn-Zdrój, Pelpin, Pełczyce, Poltava Lit. palios ‘swamp'
Palnma Palminỹs, Palmajos káimas Paļmuota Palmiry Lit. palios ‘swamp'
Panion Panewniki Old-Pruss. pannean ‘swamp, quagmire’, Pol. panew (panewka) ‘frying pan, flash pan, socket’, compare Panis, Punics, Pan, Pan (god), Pannonia...
Pannas Panyen Panewniki Old Pruss. pannean ‘quagmire’, Pol. panew (panewka) ‘frying pan, flash pan, socket’, compare Panis, Punics, Pan, Pan (god), Pannonia..., Gothic fani
Pautalia Paũtupis Pauteļi, Pautupīte, Pautustrauts Pauta, Pauten Puck, Pułtusk, Puławy Lith. putà, pl. pùtos ‘foam, froth’, putóti ‘to foam’; Latv. putas ‘foam’
Pizos Pisa ęzęrs Pissa, Pissen, Pisse, Pysekaym, Piselauk Pyskowice Latv. pīsa ‘swamp’
Praizes Limne Praustuvė Praga Lith. praũsti (prausiù, -siaũ) ‘to wash’, prausỹnės ‘washing’; Latv. prauslât ‘to spray, to sprinkle’, Pol. prać ‘to wash, to beat’
Pusinon Pusyne, Pušinė, Pušyno káimas Pušinė Pszczyna Lit. pušynas ‘spurs forest’, Zhemait. Pushina 'a stream', Pushine 'meadows', Pol. pszczoła ‘bee’, an animal living on the meadows
Pupensis vicus(village) Pupių káimas, Pupinė Pupa Pupkaym, Paupayn Latinized vicus for ‘village', Lit. and Latv. pupa 'beans', kaimas 'village'(cf. Bobov Dol)
Purdae Porden, Purde Zhemait. Purdjaknisə Popelьki
Raimula Raimoche Lith. ráimas ‘motley, particoloured’
Rhakule Rãkija, Rakavos káimas Roklawken, Rocke Raciąż, Racibórz Lith. ràkti, rankù, rakiaũ ‘to dig out, unearth’; Latv. rakt, rùoku ‘to dig’, rakņât ‘to dig’
Rhamae Rãmis, Ramùne Rāmava Ramio, Rammenflys Rumia (populated since 6th century BC)Lit. ramus ‘quiet’
Rhodope Mountains Rudupe Rudawy, Rudawy, Rudohoří, Rudnik, Ruda Śląska, Rudno, Rudniki, Rudnia e.t.c.Zhemait. Rudupja, Rudupə, Rudupi, Lith. rùdas ‘reddish, ruddy, dark yellow’, Lith. ùpė ‘river’, Pol. directly from ruda ‘ore, mineral’
RhusionRusse, Russien, Rusemoter Lith. rūsỹs (and rúsas) ‘a pit for potatoes; cellar, basement’; Latv. rūsa ‘a pit’
Rumbodona Rum̃ba, Rum̃ba, Rum̃b, Rum̃bas, Rumbai Porąbka, Zaręby, Rębaczów e.t.c.Latv. rum̃ba ‘waterfall, river rapids’; Lith. rum̃bas, rùmbas, rumbà ‘periphery’, Pol. rąbać ‘to chop, to hew, to fell, to cut down’
Sarte Sar̃tė, Sartà Sār̃te, Sārtupe Zhemait. Sarta, Sarti, Lit. sartas ‘red (horse)’; Latv. sarts ‘ruddy’
Scretisca Skretiškė Zakręt Lit. skretė ‘circle’, Pol. skręcić się ‘to twist, to turn’ + the suffix -się ‘-oneself’
Seietovia Sietuvà, Siẽtuvas Zhemait. Setuva, Lit. sietuva ‘whirlpool’
Sekina Šėkinė Siekierki, Sieczka Lith. šėkas ‘recently mowed down grass, hay’; Latv. sêks ‘the same’, Pol. siekiera, sieczka directly from sekyra ‘axe’ and sěťi ‘to chop, cut, mow’ - from those roots derived also the Aryan name शक, शाक, Śaka, Śāka of the ‘Scythians‘ and of any kind of ‘chopped herbs/vegetables‘ and also of the Engl. ‘Scythe‘ and everything ‘Scottish‘. Via the proto-Celto-Scythian Iakšas and Kaśśu with the help of chariots and ships of the Panis, Pany (gemstone, ores, fabrics, fragrants, ghee and pan traders) and Pany (of their western colony) those and many other words, customs and inventions (Amber, Iškur, Sugar, Mead, Chariot, Bearing, Lathe, Industry, Wrought iron...) of proto-Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian origin entered Mesopotamia, Arabia, Ancient Egypt, Kingdom of Kush etc., see Scythopolis.

Some IE languages and dialects render शक, शाक, Śaka, Śāka as Saka, Sákai, Sacae, Sieka-, Siepa- (also variant Sierp, Serbi, Serboi...), Csaka, Caka, Ćaka (Ciaka-, Ciacha-), Čaka (Czaka-, Chaka-) related to the Scythians of Haraxvaitī / Haravati, Čechy (Czechy), Česko (Czesko-)... and Romance-Celto-Germanic borrowings (most from Magyarized version Csák) include Shaka, Shako, Sakko, Sacco, Sjako, Sciaccò, Chacó, Checo, Tchéqu, Tschako, Tschecho, Tsjech. The name Tesla (Cieśla) (‘carpenter‘) has similar roots. Another prominent शक, शाक, Śaka, Śāka name used in Sogdia and Europe, incl. ancient Thrace and Škudra is Škoda (‘archer‘).

Serme Sermas May be connected to Sarmatians, most probably to Siraces, who traded with Ancient Egypt and Syria or to Zychy (Zyx, Zichi…), Zakaryans of Armenia, House of Zik of the Seven Great Houses of Iran and finally the kidnapped by Nogais young Zych of Zychia who established the Burji dynasty of Egypt) who protected Thacians, Dacians, Kotyni, Speroi e.t.c. from the invasion of the Roman Empire, annihilated the Roman Legio XXI Rapax in battle [35] [36] [37] until Trajan crushed their forces. Legio XXII Deiotariana was then sent to subdue Kingdom of Pontus, Kingdom of Armenia (both partners of the Iazyges), Judea, Egypt and Nubia.
Silta Šiltupis Siltie, Siltums, Siltine Lit. šiltas ‘warm, nice’; Latv. sìlts ‘warm’
Skaptopara, Skalpenos, Skaplizo Skalbupis, Skalbýnupis, Skalbstas, Skaptotai, Skaptùtis Toporów Lith. skãplis ‘a type of axe’; Lith. skaptúoti ‘to cut, to carve', Pol. topór a special kind of siekiera ‘axe’ - a ‘cutting axe’ using asymmetric cutting edge
Skarsa Skarsin, Skarsaw Skoczów Lith. sker̃sas ‘transverse, oblique, slanting’, Sker̃sė, Sker̃s-upỹs, Sker̃sravi, Pol. directly from skakati ‘to hop, to leap’
Scombros Lith. kumbrỹs, kum̃bris ‘hill, top of a mountain; small mountain’; Latv. kum̃bris ‘hump, hunch’
Spindea Spindžių káimas, Spindžiùs Spindags Lit. spindžius, spindis, 'clearing'; Latv. spindis ‘spark’
Stambai Strũobas, Struõbas Lit. stramblys ‘cob’; Old-Pruss. strambo ‘stubble-field’
Strauneilon Strūnelė, Strūnà Lit. sr(i)ūti ‘flow’
Strymon Stryj, Strumień, Czerwony Strumień, Strumień Godowski e.t.c.Lit. sraumuo ‘stream’, Pol. strumień ‘stream’
Strauos Strėva Strawa, Strawka (rivers)Latv. strava, Lit. srava ‘course’, Pol. strawa ‘food, fodder’ also ‘costs, expenses’ - ’something that vanishes’ or precisely ’something that is being digested’ but also ’something that traces (a path)’, obviously names of small streams and a source of Celtic and English etymology of ‘trace’
Suitula Svite Świecie Lit. švitulys ‘light’, Pol. światło ‘light’, świecić ‘to light’, świt ‘dawn’, Świtula ‘the dawning one’ (feminine)
Souras Sūris, Sūrupė, Sūupis Sure Soła, Solina, Solinka, Wisła (Vysoła), (Wesoła)Lit. sūras ‘salty’, Pol. direct from solь ‘salt’, (Wesoła may have a different etymology veselъ ‘merry’)
Succi Šukis Sukas, Sucis Sucha (multiple entries)Pol. suchy ‘dry’, susi (akin to Succi) is the masculine plural nominative form
Tarpodizos Tárpija Târpi, Tārpu pļava Tarnów, , Tarnowola, Tarnowskie Góry, Tarnowo (multiple entries)Lith. tárpas ‘an interstice’ and ‘a gap, a crack’; Zhemait. Tarpu kalьne, Tarpdovdəi
Tarporon Poronin Lith. tárpas ‘an interstice’, Pol. ronić ‘to shed, to moult‘, poronić ‘to miscarry‘, compare Perkwunos - Perun - Tarḫunz - Tarchon - Taranis. Maybe a syncretism Tar(hun/ḫunz/chon/anis)-Poron(Perun) ? Something abrupt, shocking, hard... ?
Tarpyllos Terpìnė, Tárpija Cierplewo, Cierpisz, Łańcut County, Cierpisz, Ropczyce-Sędziszów County, Cierpięta (multiple entries), Cierpigórz (multiple entries), Cierpice (multiple entries)Pol. cierpienie ‘suffering, anguish‘, cierpliwość ‘patience‘
Tirsai Tirza Tirskaymen Lith. tir̃štis ‘density, thickness’ and ‘thicket, brush-wood’
Tranoupara Tranỹs Trani, Tranava Lit. tranas ‘hornet’
Trauos Traũšupis Lith. traũšti ‘to break, to crumble’, traušus ‘brittle’; Latv. traušs, trausls ‘brittle, fragile’
Tynta Tunti, Tunte Thuntlawken Lit. tumtas, tuntas ‘flock'
Urda, Urdaus Ùrdupis, Urdenà Urdava Zhemait. Urdishki; Lit. urdulys ‘mount stream’, virti ‘spring’
Veleka Velėkas Wielichowo (Pomerania), Wielichowo Lith. velėkles ‘a place, used for washing’
Verzela Vérža, Véržas Lith. váržas ‘a basket for fish’; Latv. varza ‘dam’
Vevocasenus Vàive Woywe, Wewa, Waywe Latin vicus
Zburulus Žiburių káimas Lit. žiburỹs ‘a fire, a light, something burning; a torch’
Zilmissus Žilmà, Žilmas Latv. zelme ‘green grass or wheat’
Zyakozeron Žvakùtė Zvakūž Lith. žvãkė ‘a light, a candle’

Fate of the Thracians and their language

According to Skordelis, when Thracians were subjected by Alexander the Great they finally assimilated to Greek culture and became as Greek as Spartans and Athenians, although he considered the Thracian language as a form of Greek. [38] According to Crampton (1997) most Thracians were eventually Hellenized or Romanized, with the last remnants surviving in remote areas until the 5th century. [39] According to Marinov the Thracians were likely completely Romanized and Hellenized after the last contemporary references to them of the 6th century. [40] This theory holds the Christianization of the Roman Empire as the main factor of immediate assimilation.

A quick extinction would intensely contrast the avoidance of Hellenization at least by Albanian till the present, possibly with the help of isolated mountainous areas.

Another author considers that the interior of Thrace have never been Romanized or Hellenized (Trever, 1939). [41] This was followed also by Slavonization. According to Weithmann (1978) when the Slavs migrated, they encountered only a very superficially Romanized Thracian and Dacian population, which had not strongly identified itself with Imperial Rome, while Greek and Roman populations (mostly soldiers, officials, merchants) abandoned the land or were killed. [42] Because Pulpudeva survived as Plovdiv in Slavic languages, not under Philippopolis, some authors suggest that Thracian was not completely obliterated in the 7th century. [43] [44]

See also


  1. Valdés (2017) cites other cognates to the root: Celtic deity Borvo and Latin ferveo "I boil" (from e-grade). [15]
  2. A similarly looking word Mandicae 'to Mandica' is attested in an inscription from Asturia. It has been suggested to mean the name of a goddess related to foals. [29]

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  1. Thracian at MultiTree on the Linguist List
  2. Arnold Joseph Toynbee, Some problems of Greek history, Oxford University Press, 1969, p. 56: In the late sixth century there were still Bessian-speaking monks in the monastery at the foot of Mount Sinai (see P. Geyer Itinera Hierosolymitana, Vienna 1898, Templaky, pp. 184; 213.)
  3. Oliver Nicholson as ed., The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity; Oxford University Press, 2018; ISBN   0192562460, p. 234:...The "Piacenza Pilgrim (56) mentioned Bessian-speaking monks on the Sinai Peninsula. ABA J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians (1992)...
  4. J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams as ed., Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture; Taylor & Francis, 1997; ISBN   1884964982, p. 576: The most recently attested Thracian personal names are found in two monasteries in the Near East (the Bessi of Mt Sinai) dating to the sixth century AD.
  5. Bessian is the language of the Bessi, one of the most prominent Thracian tribes. The origin of the monasteries is explained in a mediaeval hagiography written by Symeon the Metaphrast in Vita Sancti Theodosii Coenobiarchae in which he wrote that Saint Theodosius founded on the shore of the Dead Sea a monastery with four churches, in each being spoken a different language, among which Bessian was found. The place at which the monasteries were founded was called "Cutila", which may be a Thracian name.
  6. Harvey E. Mayer. Dacian and Thracian as Southern Baltoidic Lituanus. Lithuanian Quarterly Journal of Arts and Sciences. Volume 38, No. 2 – Summer 1992. Editor of this issue: Antanas Klimas, University of Rochester . ISSN   0024-5089. 1992 Lituanus Foundation, Inc.
  7. 1994 Gottfried Schramm: A New Approach to Albanian History
  8. Encyclopedia of European peoples, Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, Infobase Publishing, 2006, ISBN   0-8160-4964-5, p. 205.
  9. Archaeology and language: the puzzle of Indo-European origins, Colin Renfrew, CUP Archive, 1990, ISBN   0-521-38675-6, p. 71.
  10. Olteanu et al.
  11. Duridanov, Ivan. "The Language of the Thracians" . Retrieved 2007-01-14.
  12. 1 2 3 Duridanov, I. (1976). The Language of the Thracians (An abridged translation of Ezikyt na trakite, Ivan Duridanov, Nauka i izkustvo, Sofia, 1976. (c) Ivan Duridanov).
  13. Lubotsky, Alexander. "Indo-Aryan Inherited Lexicon". Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project. Leiden University. s.v. áśva-.
  14. See Max Vasmer's dictionary under "Волга".
  15. Valdés, Marcos Obaya. "Averamientu al astúricu. Vocalización de les nasales del grau-cero indo-européu: *mo > am / *no > an, y delles propuestes etimolóxiques". In: Lletres asturianes: Boletín Oficial de l'Academia de la Llingua Asturiana Nº. 117, 2017, p. 64. ISSN   2174-9612
  16. Olteanu hypothesizes that the Thracian toponym Basibounon may contain bouno(n), a Greek word for "hill" that may also be a Thracian word
  17. In Old Church Slavonic is found ehu, which may be a loan from Germanic [ citation needed ]; otherwise the Slavic word for horse from ekwo- was lost, due perhaps to the lack of equestrianism among the early Slavs [ citation needed ]
  18. Georgiev, Olteanu et al.
  19. "Golden ring with Thracian inscription. NAIM-Sofia exhibition". National Archaeological Institute with Museum, Sofia.
  20. Duridanov, Ivan (1985). Die Sprache der Thraker. Bulgarische Sammlung (in German). 5. Hieronymus Verlag. ISBN   3-88893-031-6. Ich bin Rolisteneas, Sprößling des Nereneas; Tilezypta, Arazerin nach ihrer Heimat, hat mich der Erde übergeben (d.h. begraben).
  21. Russu, Ion I. (1969). Die Sprache der Thrako-Daker (in German). Ed. Ştiinţificā.
  22. Dimitrov, Peter A. (2009). "The Kyolmen Stone Inscription". Thracian Language and Greek and Thracian Epigraphy. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 5. ISBN   978-1-4438-1325-9.
  23. 1 2 Written from right to left.
  24. Written from left to right.
  25. Meudler, Marcel. "[ Mézence, un théonyme messapien?]. In: Revue des Études Anciennes. Tome 105, 2003, n°1. pp. 5-6. DOI:
  26. Kaluzkaja, Irina. "Thracian-Illyrian language parallels: Thrac. MEZENAI - Illyr. Menzanas". In: Thracian World at Crossroad of Civilizations - Proceedings of 7th International Congress of Thracology. Bucharest: 1996. pp. 372-373.
  27. Francisco Marcos-Marin. "Etymology and Semantics: Theoretical Considerations apropos of an Analysis of the Etymological Problem of Spanish mañero, mañeria." In: Historical Semantics—Historical Word-Formation. de Gruyter, 1985. p. 381.
  28. Balmori, C. Hernando. "[ Notes on the etymology of sp. ‘perro’]". In: Etudes Celtiques, vol. 4, fascicule 1, 1941. p. 49. DOI:
  29. Valdés, Marcos Obaya. "Averamientu al astúricu. Vocalización de les nasales del grau-cero indo-européu: *mo > am / *no > an, y delles propuestes etimolóxiques". In: Lletres asturianes: Boletín Oficial de l'Academia de la Llingua Asturiana Nº. 117, 2017, p. 67. ISSN   2174-9612
  30. See C. Brixhe – Ancient languages of Asia Minor, Cambridge University Press, 2008
    We will dismiss, at least temporarily, the idea of a Thraco-Phrygian unity. Thraco-Dacian (or Thracian and Daco-Mysian) seems to belong to the eastern (satem) group of Indo-European languages and its (their) phonetic system is far less conservative than that of Phrygian (see Brixhe and Panayotou 1994, §§ 3ff.)
  31. Georgiev 1977, p. 63, 128, 282.
  32. Duridanov, 1985 & ch. VIII.
  33. Holst (2009):66.
  34. (Duridanov 1978: с. 128)
  35. Grainger 2004, p. 22.
  36. Jones 1908, p. 143.
  37. Swan 2004, p. 165.
  38. Daskalov, Roumen; Vezenkov, Alexander (13 March 2015). Entangled Histories of the Balkans – Volume Three: Shared Pasts, Disputed Legacies. BRILL. p. 51. ISBN   9789004290365.
  39. R.J. Crampton (1997). A Concise History of Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN   0-521-56719-X.
  40. Daskalov, Roumen; Vezenkov, Alexander (13 March 2015). Entangled Histories of the Balkans – Volume Three: Shared Pasts, Disputed Legacies. BRILL. p. 10. ISBN   9789004290365.
  41. Trever, Albert Augustus. History of Ancient Civilization. Harcourt, Brace. p. 571
  42. Michael W. Weithmann, Die slawische Bevolkerung auf der griechischen Halbinsel (Munich 1978)
  43. Mallory, J. P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. p. 576. ISBN   978-1-884964-98-5.
  44. Katičić, Radoslav (1976). Ancient Languages of the Balkans. Mouton. p. 136.

Further reading