Thracology is the scientific study of Ancient Thrace and Thracian antiquities and is a regional and thematic branch of the larger disciplines of ancient history and archaeology. A practitioner of the discipline is a Thracologist. Thracology investigates the range of ancient Thracian culture (language, literature, history, religion, art, economics and ethics) from 1000 BC up to the end of Roman rule in the 4th–7th centuries AD. Modern Thracology (as opposed to an antiquarian interest in the land of Thrace) started with the work of Wilhelm Tomaschek in the late 19th century.
In the second part of the 20th century, Bulgarian historian Alexander Fol founded the Institute of Thracology in the Bulgarian Academy of Science. With subsequently ever-increasing Thracian tombs unearthing, the study of the Ancient Thracian civilization was able to proceed with greater academic rigor.
Since Dacians are considered a branch of the Thracians by most mainstream researchand historical sources, Romanian historians and archaeologists have also been heavily involved in Thracology since at least the 19th century. The related term Thraco-Dacology also exists, alluding to Thraco-Dacian, and one of the first uses is from around 1980, in the Romanian government archive.
But since other theories sustain that Daco-Thracian relation is not as strong as originally thought,Dacology may evolve as an independent discipline from Thracology. Unfortunately, the terms Dacology/Dacologist have been negatively affected by the association with Protochronism and risk to be severely compromised, prompting some reputable Romanian researchers to call themselves Thracologists instead of Dacologists, even in the context of their research being focused more on Dacians than on Thracians, and even without necessarily promoting a strong connection between the two peoples.
The Romanian Thracology Institute I.G Bibicescu, part of Romanian Academy and based in Bucharest, was founded in 1976, after the 2nd International Congress of Thracology held in September of same year in Bucharest.One of his first directors was the thracologist Dumitru Berciu (1907–1998).
Researchers who have been noted in the field of Thracology include:
The International Congress of Thracology was organised by the Institute of Thracology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. It has been held regularly since 1972 when it was founded by Alexander Fol. Fol himself became the chairman of the congress, and emphasized an international approach to the study of Thracology.
|1||Sofia, Bulgaria||July 1972|
|2||Bucharest, Romania||September 1976|
|3||Vienna, Austria||June 1980|
|4||Rotterdam, Netherlands||September 1984|
|5||Moscow, Soviet Union||1988|
|6||Palma de Mallorca, Spain||1992|
|7||Constanţa, Tulcea, Mangalia, Romania||May 1996||Thracians and Myceneans|
|8||Sofia and Yambol, Bulgaria||September 2000||Thracians and the Aegean|
|9||Chişinău, Moldavia||September 2004||Thracians and the Circumpontic World|
|10||Komotini and Alexandroupolis, Greece||October 2005|
|11||Istanbul, Turkey||October 2010|
|12||Târgoviște, Romania||September 2013||The Thracians and their Neighbors in the Bronze and Iron Ages|
|13||Kazanlak, Bulgaria||September 2017||Ancient Thrace: Myth and Reality|
On September 21–26, 1984, the Fourth International Congress of Thracology was held in the Museum Boymans-van Beuningen in Rotterdam, Netherlands. The Congress was organized by the Henri Frankfort Foundation, which is a private institution whose main purpose is to augment the study of Mediterranean pre-history and proto-history. The opening of the symposium began on September 24 and was addressed by the Minister of Education and Science Dr. W. J. Deetman. "Thracians and Mycenaeans" was the theme name for the symposium, which held discussions pertaining to the potential ethnic, cultural, religious, and linguistic interrelations between proto-Thracians and proto-Greeks (i.e. Myceneans). It was believed that such interrelations had to exist since both groups have lived in the same geographic area in the past. According to Alexander Fol, the concept of "Mycenean Thrace" was first developed in 1973 in order to explain the relative cultural unity between the Thracians and the Myceneans.
Dacian is an extinct language, generally believed to be Indo-European, that was spoken in the Carpathian region in antiquity. In the 1st century, it was probably the predominant language of the ancient regions of Dacia and Moesia and possibly of some surrounding regions. The language was probably extinct by the 7th century AD.
The Thracian language is an extinct and poorly attested language, spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians. The linguistic affinities of the Thracian language are poorly understood, but it is generally agreed that it was an Indo-European language with satem features.
The Getae or Gets were several Thracian tribes that once inhabited the regions to either side of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria and southern Romania. Both the singular form Get and plural Getae may be derived from a Greek exonym: the area was the hinterland of Greek colonies on the Black Sea coast, bringing the Getae into contact with the ancient Greeks from an early date. Although it is believed that the Getae were related to their westward neighbours, the Dacians, several scholars, especially in the Romanian historiography, posit that the Getae and the Dacians were the same people.
The Moesi was a Thracian tribe which inhabited present day Northern Bulgaria and Serbia, which gave its name to the Roman province of Moesia after its defeat in 29 BC. Moesia was first established as a separate province in 45–46 AD.
Argedava was an important Dacian town mentioned in the Decree of Dionysopolis, and potentially located at Popești, a district in the town of Mihăilești, Giurgiu County, Muntenia, Romania.
Protochronism is a Romanian term describing the tendency to ascribe, largely relying on questionable data and subjective interpretation, an idealized past to the country as a whole. While particularly prevalent during the regime of Nicolae Ceaușescu, its origin in Romanian scholarship dates back more than a century.
The linguistic classification of the ancient Thracian language has long been a matter of contention and uncertainty, and there are widely varying hypotheses regarding its position among other Paleo-Balkan languages. It is not contested, however, that the Thracian languages were Indo-European languages which had acquired satem characteristics by the time they are attested.
Argidava was a Dacian fortress town close to the Danube, inhabited and governed by the Albocense. Located in today's Vărădia, Caraş-Severin County, Romania.
Dacology is a branch of Thracology which focuses on the scientific study of Dacia and Dacian antiquities and is a regional and thematic branch of the larger disciplines of ancient history and archaeology. A practitioner of the discipline is a Dacologist. Dacology investigates the range of ancient Dacian culture from c. 1000 BC up to the end of Roman rule in the 4th-7th centuries. It is directly subordinated to Thracology, since Dacians are considered a branch of the Thracians by most mainstream research and historical sources. Other theories sustain that the Daco-Thracian relation is not as strong as originally thought and as such Dacology has the potential to evolve as an independent discipline from Thracology.
Zurobara was a Dacian town located in today's Banat region in Romania. It is positioned by the Tibiscus river, north of Zarmizegethusa Regia and south of Ziridava. It was near the Tisza river, in the area of the Dacian tribe of Biephi.
Dava was a Geto-Dacian name for a city, town or fortress. Generally, the name indicated a tribal center or an important settlement, usually fortified. Some of the Dacian settlements and the fortresses employed the Murus Dacicus traditional construction technique.
Carsidava was a Dacian town. Recent research placed Carsidava near Soroca town in Moldova
Dausdava was a Dacian town in Moesia between the Danube and the Balkan Mountains, in the region between Nicopolis and Abritus.
Giridava was a Dacian town, situated in Moesia, modern northern Bulgaria.
Murideva was a Dacian town in Scythia Minor, not far from Zaldapa.
Nentidava was a Dacian town mentioned by Ptolemy.
Perburidava was a Dacian town.
Sucidava was an ancient settlement on the Danube, between Durostorum and Axiopolis, most probably located near the modern village of Izvoarele, in Romania. Not to be confused with the Sucidava near Oescus.
Dumitru Berciu was a Romanian historian and archaeologist, honorary member of the Romanian Academy.
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