Simulation of Thraso coin based on description by Bopearachchi, 1991 (actual coin image non published).
Obv: Diademed king to the right, with coat attached on right shoulder. Greek Legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΘΡΑΣΟΝΟΣ
Rev: Athena Alkidemos moving to the left, left arm holding a horizontal shield, right arm holding thunderbolt. Legend Maharajasa mahatasa / Thrasasa
Thraso (Greek: Θράσων), latinized as Thrason, was an Indo-Greek king in Central and Western Punjab, unknown until the 1982 discovery of one of his coins by R. C. Senior in the Surana hoard. The coin is in a style similar to those of Menander I, has the same type of Athena, and shares one of Menander's mint marks. On the coin, the title of Thraso is Basileus Megas ("Great King"), a title which only Eucratides the Great had dared take before him and which is seemingly misplaced on the young boy Thraso, whose single preserved coin indicates a small and insignificant reign.
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
Menander I Soter was an Indo-Greek King of the Indo-Greek Kingdom who administered a large empire in the Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala. Menander is noted for having become a patron of Buddhism.
Athena or Athene, often given the epithet Pallas, is an ancient Greek goddess associated with wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva. Athena was regarded as the patron and protectress of various cities across Greece, particularly the city of Athens, from which she most likely received her name. She is usually shown in art wearing a helmet and holding a spear. Her major symbols include owls, olive trees, snakes, and the Gorgoneion.
Osmund Bopearachchi suggests a preliminary dating of 95–80 BC, but Senior himself concludes that Thraso was the son and heir of Menander (c. 155–130 BC), since his coin was not worn and was found in a hoard with only earlier coins.
It seems as though the child was briefly raised to the throne in the turmoil following the death of Menander, by a general who thought the grandiloquent title might strengthen his case.
| Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kings, territories and chronology|
Based on Bopearachchi (1991)
|Greco-Bactrian kings||Indo-Greek kings|
|West Bactria||East Bactria|| Paropamisade ||Arachosia||Gandhara||Western Punjab||Eastern Punjab||Mathura|
|326-325 BCE||Campaigns of Alexander the Great in India||Nanda Empire|
|312 BCE||Creation of the Seleucid Empire||Creation of the Maurya Empire|
|305 BCE||Seleucid Empire after Mauryan war||Maurya Empire|
|280 BCE||Foundation of Ai-Khanoum|
|255–239 BCE||Independence of the|
|Emperor Ashoka (268-232)|
|239–223 BCE||Diodotus II|
|230–200 BCE||Euthydemus I|
|200–190 BCE||Demetrius I||Sunga Empire|
|190-185 BCE||Euthydemus II|
|185–170 BCE||Antimachus I|
|180–160 BCE||Apollodotus I|
|175–170 BCE||Demetrius II|
|160–155 BCE||Antimachus II|
|170–145 BCE||Eucratides I|
|155–130 BCE|| Yuezhi occupation,|
loss of Ai-Khanoum
| Eucratides II |
|130–120 BCE||Yuezhi occupation||Zoilos I||Agathokleia|| Yavanarajya|
|120–110 BCE||Lysias||Strato I|
|110–100 BCE||Antialcidas||Heliokles II|
|100 BCE||Polyxenos||Demetrius III|
|90–85 BCE||Nicias||Menander II||Artemidoros|
|Yuezhi occupation||Maues (Indo-Scythian)|
|75–70 BCE||Vonones||Telephos||Apollodotus II|
|55–35 BCE||Azes I (Indo-Scythians)||Zoilos II|
|55–35 BCE||Vijayamitra/ Azilises||Apollophanes|
|25 BCE – 10 CE||Gondophares||Zeionises||Kharahostes|| Strato II |
|Gondophares (Indo-Parthian)||Rajuvula (Indo-Scythian)|
|Kujula Kadphises (Kushan Empire)|| Bhadayasa |
| Sodasa |
Demetrius I, also called Dharmamita, was a Hellenistic king of Gandhara. He was the son of the Greco-Bactrian ruler Euthydemus I and succeeded him around 200 BC, after which he conquered extensive areas in what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was a Hellenistic kingdom spanning modern-day Afghanistan and the northwest region of the Indian subcontinent, during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
Apollodotus I Soter was an Indo-Greek king between 180 BCE and 160 BCE or between 174 and 165 BCE who ruled the western and southern parts of the Indo-Greek kingdom, from Taxila in Punjab to the areas of Sindh and possibly Gujarat.
Nicias was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the Paropamisade. Most of his relatively few coins have been found in northern Pakistan, indicating that he ruled a smaller principate around the lower Kabul valley. He was possibly a relative of Menander I.
Agathokleia Theotropos was an Indo-Greek queen who ruled in parts of northern India in the 2nd-century BC as regent for her son Strato I.
Strato I, was an Indo-Greek king who was the son of the Indo-Greek queen Agathokleia, who presumably acted as his regent during his early years after Strato's father, another Indo-Greek king, was killed.
Artemidoros Aniketos was a king who ruled in the area of Gandhara and Pushkalavati in modern northern Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Menander II Dikaios was an Indo-Greek King who ruled in the areas of Arachosia and Gandhara in the north of modern Pakistan.
Apollodotus II was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the western and eastern parts of Punjab. Bopearachchi dates him to c. 80–65 BCE, and R. C. Senior to c. 85–65 BCE. Apollodotos II was an important ruler who seems to have re-established the Indo-Greek kingdom to some extent of its former glory. Taxila in western Punjab was reconquered from nomad Scythian rule.
Zoilus I Dikaios was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in Afghanistan and Pakistan and occupied the areas of the Paropamisade and Arachosia previously held by Menander I. He may have belonged to the dynasty of Euthydemus I.
Zoilos II Soter was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in eastern Punjab. Bopearachchi dates his reign to c. 55–35 BCE, a date approximately supported by R. C. Senior. The name is often Latinized as Zoilus. It is possible that some of his coins were issued by a separate king, Zoilos III.
Epander was one of the Indo-Greek kings. He may have been a relative of Menander I, and the findplaces of his coins seem to indicate that he ruled in the area of Punjab.
Diomedes Soter was an Indo-Greek king. The places where his coins have been found seem to indicate that his rule was based in the area of the Paropamisadae, possibly with temporary dominions further east. Judging from their similar portraits and many overlapping monograms, the young Diomedes seems to have been the heir of Philoxenus, the last king to rule before the kingdom of Menander I finally fragmented.
Demetrius II was a Greco-Bactrian/Indo-Greek king who ruled briefly during the 2nd century BC. Little is known about him and there are different views about how to date him. Earlier authors such as Tarn and Narain saw him as a son and sub-king of Demetrius I, but this view has now been abandoned.
Lysias Anicetus was an Indo-Greek king.
Strato II "Soter" was an Indo-Greek king. He ruled c. 25 BCE to 10 CE according to Bopearachchi. R. C. Senior suggests that his reign ended perhaps a decade earlier. He may have been supplanted by the Indo-Scythian Northern Satraps, particularly Rajuvula and Bhadayasa, whose coins were often copied on those of the last Indo-Greek kings. Numerous coins of Rajuvula have been found in company with the coins of the Strato group in the Eastern Punjab and also in the Mathura area: for example, 96 coins of Strato II were found in Mathura in conjunction with coins of Rajuvula, who also imitated the designs of Strato II in the majority of his issues.
Polyxenos Epiphanes Soter was an Indo-Greek king who ruled briefly in western Punjab or Gandhara.
The History of the Indo-Greek Kingdom covers a period from the 2nd century BCE to the beginning of the 1st century CE in northern and northwestern India. There were over 30 Indo-Greek kings, often in competition on different territories. Many of them are only known through their coins.
Strato III often called "Philopator" was an Indo-Greek king who ruled c. 25 BCE to 10 CE. He is only known through the joint coins with his father Strato II. He may have been supplanted, in conjunction with his father or later as an independent king, by the Indo-Scythian Northern Satraps, particularly Rajuvula and Bhadayasa, whose coins were often copied on those of the last Indo-Greek kings.
| Indo-Greek Ruler |
c. 130 BCE