Three-Country Cairn

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Three-Country Cairn
Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki (Finnish)
Golmma riikka urna (Northern Sami)
Treriksrøysa (Norwegian)
Treriksröset (Swedish)
Cairn des trois royaumes - close up.jpg
The cairn in 2014
Three-Country Cairn
69°03′35.9″N20°32′55.1″E / 69.059972°N 20.548639°E / 69.059972; 20.548639
MaterialConcrete frustum
Completion date1926
Dedicated toMarking the tripoint of the borders of Norway, Sweden and Finland

The Three-Country Cairn (Finnish : Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki, Northern Sami : Golmma riikka urna, Norwegian : Treriksrøysa, Swedish : Treriksröset) is the tripoint at which the international borders of Sweden, Norway and Finland meet, and the name of the monument that marks the point. It is the northernmost international tripoint in the world.

Contents

Finnish troops raising a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the Second World War in Finland Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki 27.4.1945.png
Finnish troops raising a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the Second World War in Finland

The border between Norway and Sweden including Finland was decided in the Strömstad Treaty of 1751 and marked with cairns the following years, including cairn 294 which is located on a hill 150 meters east of today's Three-Country Cairn. When Sweden ceded Finland to Russia in 1809, it was decided that the new Finland–Sweden border should follow the rivers. But actually two rivers cross the Norwegian border and the northern river was originally used and then the tripoint was at 69°3′37.4″N20°33′11.4″E / 69.060389°N 20.553167°E / 69.060389; 20.553167 . [1] The tripoint had no mark for several years. It was decided in 1887 by the governments of Norway and Russia (which was administering Finland at the time) that the southern river was now larger. A monument of stones was erected on the site by them in 1897. The Swedish could not agree on a boundary commission with the Norwegians and did not contribute their stone until 1901. This is Sweden's most northerly point and it is the westernmost point of the Finnish mainland (the most westerly point of Finland is on the island Märket).

The current tripoint monument was built in 1926 and is a beige, conical frustum made of concrete, located about 10 metres (33 ft) out in Lake Goldajärvi (also known as Koltajärvi in Finnish, Golddajávri in Sami or Koltajaure in Sweden). It is located at 489 metres (1,604 ft) above sea level. The size is about 14 square metres (150 sq ft) with diameter of about 4 metres (13 ft). As an artificial island, it is sometimes mentioned as the world's smallest island divided by a border. This is a matter of definition. For example, in Haparanda/Tornio there are poles in water marking the border.

It may be reached by walking 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from Kilpisjärvi in Finland along a hiking trail in the Malla Strict Nature Reserve. In summertime, it can be reached by public boat from Kilpisjärvi plus a 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) walk. [2] It can also be reached from Norway, preferably from a hiking trail starting at road E8 near the border. It is much more difficult to reach from inside Sweden, requiring at least a 70 km hike each way with river crossings.

Climate

The climate is very cold (border between ET and Dfc ), with subarctic winters and tundra-like summers. The average temperature is below freezing. [3]

Climate data for Treriksröset
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)−9
(16)
−9
(16)
−4
(25)
−2
(28)
4
(39)
10
(50)
12
(54)
12
(54)
6
(43)
−1
(30)
−4
(25)
−7
(19)
0.7
(33.3)
Average low °C (°F)−20
(−4)
−20
(−4)
−16
(3)
−7
(19)
−2
(28)
4
(39)
7
(45)
4
(39)
0
(32)
−5
(23)
−12
(10)
−18
(0)
−7.1
(19.2)
Source: SMHI.se [4]

See also

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References

  1. "Norgeskart".
  2. "Treriksröset" (in Swedish). Karesuando.se. Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  3. "SMHI".
  4. "Weather Information for Treriksröset 1961–1990". Swedish Meteorological Institute. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2012.