Three-Country Cairn

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Three-Country Cairn
Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki (Finnish)
Golmma riikka urna (Northern Sami)
Treriksrøysa (Norwegian)
Treriksröset (Swedish)
Cairn des trois royaumes - close up.jpg
The cairn in 2014
Coordinates 69°03′35.9″N20°32′55.1″E / 69.059972°N 20.548639°E / 69.059972; 20.548639 Coordinates: 69°03′35.9″N20°32′55.1″E / 69.059972°N 20.548639°E / 69.059972; 20.548639
MaterialConcrete frustum
Completion date1926
Dedicated toMarking the tripoint of the borders of Norway, Sweden and Finland
Finnish troops raise a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the Second World War in Finland Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki 27.4.1945.png
Finnish troops raise a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the Second World War in Finland

Three-Country Cairn (Finnish : Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki, Northern Sami : Golmma riikka urna, Norwegian : Treriksrøysa, Swedish : Treriksröset) is the point at which the international borders of Sweden, Norway and Finland meet, and the name of the monument that marks the point. It is an example of a geographical feature known as a tripoint. It is the northernmost international tripoint in the world.

Contents

The border between Norway and Sweden including Finland was decided in Stromstad Treaty of 1751 and marked with cairns the following years, including cairn 294 which is located on a hill 150 meters east of today's Three-Country Cairn. When Sweden ceded Finland to Russia in 1809, it was decided that the new Finland–Sweden border should follow the rivers. The place where the river (actually in a lake) crossed the old border had no mark for several years. A monument of stones was erected on the site in 1897 by the governments of Norway and Russia (which was administering Finland at the time). The Swedish could not agree on a boundary commission with the Norwegians and did not contribute their stone until 1901. This is Sweden's most northerly point and it is the westernmost point of the Finnish mainland (the most westerly point of Finland is on the island Märket).

The current tripoint monument was built in 1926 and is a beige, conical frustum made of concrete, located about 10 metres (33 ft) out in Lake Goldajärvi (also known as Koltajärvi in Finnish, Golddajávri in Sami or Koltajaure in Sweden). It is located at 489 metres (1,604 ft) above sea level. The size is about 14 square metres (150 sq ft) with diameter of about 4 metres (13 ft). As an artificial island, it is sometimes mentioned as the world's smallest island divided by a border.[ citation needed ] This is a matter of definition. For example, in Haparanda/Tornio there are poles in water marking the border.

It may be reached by walking 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from Kilpisjärvi in Finland along a hiking trail in the Malla Strict Nature Reserve. In summertime, it can be reached by boat from Kilpisjärvi plus a 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) walk. [1]

Climate

Climate data for Treriksröset
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)−9
(16)
−9
(16)
−4
(25)
−2
(28)
4
(39)
10
(50)
12
(54)
12
(54)
6
(43)
−1
(30)
−4
(25)
−7
(19)
0.7
(33.3)
Average low °C (°F)−20
(−4)
−20
(−4)
−16
(3)
−7
(19)
−2
(28)
4
(39)
7
(45)
4
(39)
0
(32)
−5
(23)
−12
(10)
−18
(0)
−7.1
(19.2)
Source: SMHI.se [2]

See also

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Tunnsjøen

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Limingen

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Treriksrøysa

Treriksrøysa is a cairn which marks the tripoint where the borders between Norway, Finland and Russia meet. The site is on a hill called Muotkavaara, in Pasvikdalen, west of the Pasvikelva and 15 km southwest of Nyrud just west of Krokfjellet in Sør-Varanger municipality of Finnmark, Norway. It is the only place where three time zones meet: Central European Time, Eastern European Time and Further-eastern European Time. The tripoint can only be approached by public from the Norwegian side, since both Finland and Russia maintain extensive border zones where public access is prohibited.

Øvre Pasvik National Park

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Iešjávri

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Lake Kilpisjärvi

Kilpisjärvi is a medium-sized lake located at the north-western tip of Finland and northernmost Sweden. Treriksröset, the point where the borders of Finland, Sweden and Norway join is located some 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) northwest from the lake.

Muotkavaara

Muotkavaara is a hill in Lapland at the boundary between Finland, Norway and Russia. It is the second northernmost international tripoint in the world; the tripoint of Finland, Norway and Sweden is 900 metres to North. The Finnish side belongs to the Inari municipality, the Norwegian side belongs to Sør-Varanger and the Russian side belongs to Nikel. The peak is in Norway.

Finland–Norway border

The border between Norway and Finland is 736 kilometers (457 mi) long. It is a land and river border between two tripoints. The western tripoint is marked by Treriksröset, a concrete cairn where both countries border Sweden. The eastern tripoint is marked by Treriksrøysa, a stone cairn where both countries border Russia.

Hatteng Village in Northern Norway, Norway

Hatteng is the administrative centre of Storfjord Municipality in Troms og Finnmark county, Norway. The village is located along the European route E06 highway at the southern end of the Storfjorden, a branch of the large Lyngenfjorden. Storfjord Church is located in Hatteng.

Finland–Sweden border

The Finnish-Swedish border is the border between the countries of Finland and Sweden. Almost the entire border runs through water: along the Tornio River and its tributaries, and in the Gulf of Bothnia. Only a few kilometres of the border are on dry land. Because of the Schengen treaty and the Nordic Passport Union, the border can be crossed mostly freely.

The borders of Finland are the dividing lines between it and the neighbouring countries of Norway, Russia and Sweden. Total length of land borders of Finland is 2,563 km.

<i>Raising the Flag on the Three-Country Cairn</i> Historic photograph depicting the end of World War II in Finland

Raising the Flag on the Three-Country Cairn is a historic photograph taken on 27 April 1945, which was the last day of the Second World War in Finland. It depicts a Finnish Army patrol of Battle Group Loimu, Infantry Regiment 1, raising the Finnish flag on the three-country cairn between Norway, Sweden, and Finland to celebrate the last German troops withdrawing from Finland. The photograph was taken by the commander of Infantry Regiment 1, Colonel Väinö Oinonen. It became a widely circulated symbol of World War II in Finland.

References

  1. "Treriksröset" (in Swedish). Karesuando.se. Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  2. "Weather Information for Treriksröset 1961–1990". Swedish Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 1 November 2012.