Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki (Finnish)
Golmma riikka urna (Northern Sami)
|69°03′35.9″N20°32′55.1″E / 69.059972°N 20.548639°E Coordinates: 69°03′35.9″N20°32′55.1″E / 69.059972°N 20.548639°E|
|Dedicated to||Marking the tripoint of the borders of Norway, Sweden and Finland|
The Three-Country Cairn (Finnish : Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki, Northern Sami : Golmma riikka urna, Norwegian : Treriksrøysa, Swedish : Treriksröset) is the point at which the international borders of Sweden, Norway and Finland meet, and the name of the monument that marks the point. It is an example of a geographical feature known as a tripoint. It is the northernmost international tripoint in the world.
The border between Norway and Sweden including Finland was decided in the Strömstad Treaty of 1751 and marked with cairns the following years, including cairn 294 which is located on a hill 150 meters east of today's Three-Country Cairn. When Sweden ceded Finland to Russia in 1809, it was decided that the new Finland–Sweden border should follow the rivers. But actually two rivers cross the Norwegian border and the northern river was originally used and then the tripoint was at 69°3′37.4″N20°33′11.4″E / 69.060389°N 20.553167°E .  The tripoint had no mark for several years. It was decided in 1887 by the governments of Norway and Russia (which was administering Finland at the time) that the southern river was now larger. A monument of stones was erected on the site by them in 1897. The Swedish could not agree on a boundary commission with the Norwegians and did not contribute their stone until 1901. This is Sweden's most northerly point and it is the westernmost point of the Finnish mainland (the most westerly point of Finland is on the island Märket).
The current tripoint monument was built in 1926 and is a beige, conical frustum made of concrete, located about 10 metres (33 ft) out in Lake Goldajärvi (also known as Koltajärvi in Finnish, Golddajávri in Sami or Koltajaure in Sweden). It is located at 489 metres (1,604 ft) above sea level. The size is about 14 square metres (150 sq ft) with diameter of about 4 metres (13 ft). As an artificial island, it is sometimes mentioned as the world's smallest island divided by a border. This is a matter of definition. For example, in Haparanda/Tornio there are poles in water marking the border.
It may be reached by walking 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from Kilpisjärvi in Finland along a hiking trail in the Malla Strict Nature Reserve. In summertime, it can be reached by public boat from Kilpisjärvi plus a 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) walk.  It can also be reached from Norway, preferably from a hiking trail starting at road E8 near the border. It is much more difficult to reach from inside Sweden, requiring at least a 70 km hike each way with river crossings.
|Climate data for Treriksröset|
|Average high °C (°F)||−9|
|Average low °C (°F)||−20|
|Source: SMHI.se |
Finnmark is a former county in the northern part of Norway, and it is scheduled to become a county again in 2024.
Kirkenes is a town in Sør-Varanger Municipality in Troms og Finnmark county, in the far northeastern part of Norway. The town lies on a peninsula along the Bøkfjorden, an arm of the large Varangerfjorden. The main church for Kirkenes is Kirkenes Church, located in the Haganes area of the town. Kirkenes is located just a few kilometres from the Norway-Russia border.
Enontekiö is a municipality in the Finnish part of Lapland with approx. 1,800 inhabitants. It is situated in the outermost northwest of the country and occupies a large and very sparsely populated area of about 8,400 square kilometres (3,200 sq mi) between the Swedish and Norwegian border. Finland's highest point, the Halti fell with a height of 1,324 metres (4,344 ft) above the mean sea level, lies in the north of Enontekiö, where the municipality occupies a part of the Scandinavian Mountains. The administrative centre of Enontekiö is the village of Hetta. About one fifth of the community's population are Sami people. Enontekiö's main industries are tourism and reindeer husbandry.
Kuusamo is a town and municipality in Finland. It is located in the Northern Ostrobothnia region. The municipality has a population of 15,124 and covers an area of 5,808.92 square kilometres (2,242.84 sq mi) of which 830.81 km2 (320.78 sq mi) is water. The population density is 3.04 inhabitants per square kilometre (7.9/sq mi).
Pitsusköngäs, also known as the "Niagara of Finland" or the "King of Finnish waterfalls" is the largest waterfall in all of Finland. Its maximum height is 17 metres (56 ft). It is located in the Käsivarsi Wilderness Area, about 45 kilometres (28 mi) from the village Kilpisjärvi within the municipality of Enontekiö. It is accessible by following the Nordkalottleden Trail, an 800 kilometer hiking route than runs through Finland, Sweden and Norway.
Halti is a fell at the border between Norway and Finland. The peak of the fell, called Ráisduattarháldi, is in Norway, on the border between the municipalities of Nordreisa and Gáivuotna–Kåfjord, about one kilometre north of the border with Finland. The highest point of the fell on the Finnish side is at 1,324 m (4,344 ft) above sea level, and thus the highest point in the country. The Finnish side of Halti belongs to the municipality of Enontekiö in the province of Lapland.
A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet. There are 175 international tripoints as of 2020. Nearly half are situated in rivers, lakes or seas. On dry land, the exact tripoints may be indicated by markers or pillars, and occasionally by larger monuments.
Kilpisjärvi is a village in the municipality of Enontekiö, Lapland, Finland. It is located in Finland's northern "arm" near the very northwesternmost point of Finland.
Treriksrøysa is a cairn which marks the tripoint where the borders between Norway, Finland and Russia meet. The site is on a hill called Muotkavaara, in Pasvikdalen, west of the Pasvikelva and 15 km (9 mi) southwest of Nyrud just west of Krokfjellet in Sør-Varanger municipality of Finnmark, Norway. It is the only place in Europe where three time zones meet: Central European Time, Eastern European Time and Further-eastern European Time. The tripoint can only be approached by the public from the Norwegian side, since both Finland and Russia maintain extensive border zones where public access is prohibited.
Øvre Pasvik National Park is located in the southeastern part of the Pasvikdalen valley in southern Sør-Varanger Municipality in Finnmark county, Norway. Covering an area of 119 square kilometers (46 sq mi), the national park is dominated by Siberian-like taiga consisting of old-growth forests of Scots pine, shallow lakes and bog. Proposals for a national park in Øvre Pasvik were first launched in 1936, but the park was not created until 6 February 1970. It originally covered 66 square kilometers (25 sq mi), but was expanded on 29 August 2003. Øvre Pasvik is part of Pasvik–Inari Trilateral Park along with the adjacent Øvre Pasvik Landscape Protection Area, the joint Norwegian and Russian Pasvik Nature Reserve, and Finland's Vätsäri Wilderness Area.
A boundary marker, border marker, boundary stone, or border stone is a robust physical marker that identifies the start of a land boundary or the change in a boundary, especially a change in direction of a boundary. There are several other types of named border markers, known as boundary trees, pillars, monuments, obelisks, and corners. Border markers can also be markers through which a border line runs in a straight line to determine that border. They can also be the markers from which a border marker has been fixed.
The E1 European long-distance path, or just E1 path, is one of the European long-distance paths designated by the European Ramblers' Association. It has a total length of some 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi). It begins in Norway at Nordkapp, and crosses the Kattegat between Sweden and Denmark by ferry. It passes through Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland to finish at Scapoli, Italy. This path was extended southwards to Sicily, in Italy in 2018.
Kilpisjärvi is a medium-sized lake located at the north-western tip of Finland and northernmost Sweden. Treriksröset, the point where the borders of Finland, Sweden and Norway join is located some 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) northwest from the lake.
The international border between Finland and Russia runs approximately north to south and spans a length of 1,340 km (830 mi), mostly through uninhabited taiga forests and sparsely populated rural areas without following any specific natural feature or river. It is an external border of the European Union and NATO.
Muotkavaara is a hill in Lapland at the boundary between Finland, Norway and Russia. It is the second northernmost international tripoint in the world; the tripoint of Finland, Norway and Sweden is 900 metres closer to the North. The Finnish side belongs to the Inari municipality, the Norwegian side belongs to Sør-Varanger and the Russian side belongs to Nikel. The peak is in Norway.
The border between Norway and Finland is 736 kilometers (457 mi) long. It is a land and river border between two tripoints. The western tripoint is marked by Treriksröset, a concrete cairn where both countries border Sweden. The eastern tripoint is marked by Treriksrøysa, a stone cairn where both countries border Russia.
Hatteng is the administrative centre of Storfjord Municipality in Troms og Finnmark county, Norway. The village is located along the European route E06 highway at the southern end of the Storfjorden, a branch of the large Lyngenfjorden. Storfjord Church is located in Hatteng.
The Finland–Sweden border is the border between the countries of Finland and Sweden. Almost the entire border runs through water: along the Tornio River and its tributaries, and in the Gulf of Bothnia. Only a few kilometres of the border are on dry land. Because of the Schengen treaty and the Nordic Passport Union, the border can be crossed mostly freely.
The borders of Finland are the dividing lines between it and the neighbouring countries of Norway, Russia and Sweden. The total length of land borders of Finland is 2,563 km / 1593 mi.
Raising the Flag on the Three-Country Cairn is a historic photograph taken on 27 April 1945, which was the last day of the Second World War in Finland. It depicts a Finnish Army patrol of Battle Group Loimu, Infantry Regiment 1, raising the Finnish flag on the three-country cairn between Norway, Sweden, and Finland to celebrate the last German troops withdrawing from Finland. The photograph was taken by the commander of Infantry Regiment 1, Colonel Väinö Oinonen. It became a widely circulated symbol of the end of World War II in Finland.