Three-Country Cairn

Last updated
Three-Country Cairn
Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki (Finnish)
Golmma riikka urna (Northern Sami)
Treriksrøysa (Norwegian)
Treriksröset (Swedish)
Cairn des trois royaumes - close up.jpg
The cairn in 2014
Coordinates 69°03′35.9″N20°32′55.1″E / 69.059972°N 20.548639°E / 69.059972; 20.548639 Coordinates: 69°03′35.9″N20°32′55.1″E / 69.059972°N 20.548639°E / 69.059972; 20.548639
MaterialConcrete frustum
Completion date1926
Dedicated toMarking the tripoint of the borders of Norway, Sweden and Finland
Finnish troops raise a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the Second World War in Finland Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki 27.4.1945.png
Finnish troops raise a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the Second World War in Finland

The Three-Country Cairn (Finnish : Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki, Northern Sami : Golmma riikka urna, Norwegian : Treriksrøysa, Swedish : Treriksröset) is the point at which the international borders of Sweden, Norway and Finland meet, and the name of the monument that marks the point. It is an example of a geographical feature known as a tripoint. It is the northernmost international tripoint in the world.

Contents

The border between Norway and Sweden including Finland was decided in the Strömstad Treaty of 1751 and marked with cairns the following years, including cairn 294 which is located on a hill 150 meters east of today's Three-Country Cairn. When Sweden ceded Finland to Russia in 1809, it was decided that the new Finland–Sweden border should follow the rivers. But actually two rivers crosses the Norwegian border and the northern river was originally used and then the tripoint was at 69°3′37.4″N20°33′11.4″E / 69.060389°N 20.553167°E / 69.060389; 20.553167 . [1] The tripoint had no mark for several years. It was decided in 1887 by the governments of Norway and Russia (which was administering Finland at the time) that the southern river was now larger. A monument of stones was erected on the site by them in 1897. The Swedish could not agree on a boundary commission with the Norwegians and did not contribute their stone until 1901. This is Sweden's most northerly point and it is the westernmost point of the Finnish mainland (the most westerly point of Finland is on the island Märket).

The current tripoint monument was built in 1926 and is a beige, conical frustum made of concrete, located about 10 metres (33 ft) out in Lake Goldajärvi (also known as Koltajärvi in Finnish, Golddajávri in Sami or Koltajaure in Sweden). It is located at 489 metres (1,604 ft) above sea level. The size is about 14 square metres (150 sq ft) with diameter of about 4 metres (13 ft). As an artificial island, it is sometimes mentioned as the world's smallest island divided by a border.[ citation needed ] This is a matter of definition. For example, in Haparanda/Tornio there are poles in water marking the border.

It may be reached by walking 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from Kilpisjärvi in Finland along a hiking trail in the Malla Strict Nature Reserve. In summertime, it can be reached by public boat from Kilpisjärvi plus a 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) walk. [2] It can also be reached from Norway, preferably from a hiking trail starting at road E8 near the border. It is much more difficult to reach from inside Sweden, at least 70 km hike one way with river crossings is needed, making it fairly unreachable for Swedes during the Covid-19 pandemic when international tourism was in effect banned.

Climate

Climate data for Treriksröset
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)−9
(16)
−9
(16)
−4
(25)
−2
(28)
4
(39)
10
(50)
12
(54)
12
(54)
6
(43)
−1
(30)
−4
(25)
−7
(19)
0.7
(33.3)
Average low °C (°F)−20
(−4)
−20
(−4)
−16
(3)
−7
(19)
−2
(28)
4
(39)
7
(45)
4
(39)
0
(32)
−5
(23)
−12
(10)
−18
(0)
−7.1
(19.2)
Source: SMHI.se [3]

See also

Related Research Articles

Cairn Man-made pile of stones or burial monument

A cairn is a man-made pile of stones raised for a purpose, usually as a marker or as a burial mound. The word cairn comes from the Scottish Gaelic: càrn[ˈkʰaːrˠn̪ˠ].

Troms Former county (fylke) of Norway

Troms is a former county in northern Norway. On 1 January 2020 it was merged with the neighboring Finnmark county to create the new Troms og Finnmark county. This merger is expected to be reversed by the government resulting from the 2021 Norwegian parliamentary election.

Enontekiö Municipality in Lapland, Finland

Enontekiö is a municipality in the Finnish part of Lapland with approx. 1,800 inhabitants. It is situated in the outermost northwest of the country and occupies a large and very sparsely populated area of about 8,400 square kilometres (3,200 sq mi) between the Swedish and Norwegian border. Finland's highest point, the Halti fell with a height of 1,324 metres (4,344 ft) above the mean sea level, lies in the north of Enontekiö, where the municipality occupies a part of the Scandinavian Mountains. The administrative centre of Enontekiö is the village of Hetta. About one fifth of the community's population are Sami people. Enontekiö's main industries are tourism and reindeer husbandry.

Pihtsusköngäs Waterfall in Lapland

Pihtsusköngäs, also known as the "Niagara of Finland" or the "King of Finnish waterfalls" is the largest waterfall in all of Finland. Its maximum height is 17 metres (56 ft). It is located in the Käsivarsi Wilderness Area, about 45 kilometres (28 mi) from the village Kilpisjärvi within the municipality of Enontekiö. It is accessible by following the Nordkalottleden Trail, an 800 kilometer hiking route than runs through Finland, Sweden and Norway.

Halti Fell at the Finnish–Norwegian border

Halti is a fell at the border between Norway and Finland. The peak of the fell, called Ráisduattarháldi, is in Norway, on the border between the municipalities of Nordreisa and Gáivuotna–Kåfjord, about one kilometre north of the border with Finland. The highest point of the fell on the Finnish side is at 1,324 m (4,344 ft) above sea level, and thus the highest point in the country. The Finnish side of Halti belongs to the municipality of Enontekiö in the province of Lapland.

Børgefjell National Park

Børgefjell National Park is an undeveloped national park in Norway, straddling the border between Trøndelag and Nordland counties, along the border with Sweden. The park is undeveloped with few trails or other facilities for visitors. Visitors can hike for extended periods without seeing another person. The 1,447-square-kilometre (559 sq mi) park was originally established in 1963, and it was enlarged in 1973 and 2003. It now includes land in the municipalities of Hattfjelldal, Grane, Namsskogan, and Røyrvik.

Tripoint Geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet

A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 international tripoints. Nearly half are situated in rivers, lakes or seas. On dry land, the exact tripoints may be indicated by markers or pillars, and occasionally by larger monuments.

Kilpisjärvi Village in Lapland, Finland

Kilpisjärvi is a village in the municipality of Enontekiö, Lapland, Finland. It is located in Finland's northern "arm" near the very northwesternmost point of Finland.

Treriksrøysa

Treriksrøysa is a cairn which marks the tripoint where the borders between Norway, Finland and Russia meet. The site is on a hill called Muotkavaara, in Pasvikdalen, west of the Pasvikelva and 15 km (9 mi) southwest of Nyrud just west of Krokfjellet in Sør-Varanger municipality of Finnmark, Norway. It is the only place in Europe where three time zones meet: Central European Time, Eastern European Time and Further-eastern European Time. The tripoint can only be approached by the public from the Norwegian side, since both Finland and Russia maintain extensive border zones where public access is prohibited.

Øvre Pasvik National Park National park in Finnmark, Norway

Øvre Pasvik National Park is located in the southeastern part of the Pasvikdalen valley in southern Sør-Varanger Municipality in Finnmark county, Norway. Covering an area of 119 square kilometers (46 sq mi), the national park is dominated by Siberian-like taiga consisting of old-growth forests of Scots pine, shallow lakes and bog. Proposals for a national park in Øvre Pasvik were first launched in 1936, but the park was not created until 6 February 1970. It originally covered 66 square kilometers (25 sq mi), but was expanded on 29 August 2003. Øvre Pasvik is part of Pasvik–Inari Trilateral Park along with the adjacent Øvre Pasvik Landscape Protection Area, the joint Norwegian and Russian Pasvik Nature Reserve, and Finland's Vätsäri Wilderness Area.

Boundary marker Physical marker that identifies a land boundary

A boundary marker, border marker, boundary stone, or border stone is a robust physical marker that identifies the start of a land boundary or the change in a boundary, especially a change in direction of a boundary. There are several other types of named border markers, known as boundary trees, pillars, monuments, obelisks, and corners. Border markers can also be markers through which a border line runs in a straight line to determine that border. They can also be the markers from which a border marker has been fixed.

E1 European long distance path

The E1 European long-distance path, or just E1 path, is one of the European long-distance paths designated by the European Ramblers' Association. It has a total length of some 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi). It begins in Norway at Nordkapp, and crosses the Kattegat between Sweden and Denmark by ferry. It passes through Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland to finish at Scapoli, Italy. This path was extended southwards to Sicily, in Italy in 2018.

Lake Kilpisjärvi

Kilpisjärvi is a medium-sized lake located at the north-western tip of Finland and northernmost Sweden. Treriksröset, the point where the borders of Finland, Sweden and Norway join is located some 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) northwest from the lake.

The Paatsjoki River hydroelectric power plants are a series of hydroelectric installations on the Paatsjoki River.

Muotkavaara

Muotkavaara is a hill in Lapland at the boundary between Finland, Norway and Russia. It is the second northernmost international tripoint in the world; the tripoint of Finland, Norway and Sweden is 900 metres closer to the North. The Finnish side belongs to the Inari municipality, the Norwegian side belongs to Sør-Varanger and the Russian side belongs to Nikel. The peak is in Norway.

Finland–Norway border International border

The border between Norway and Finland is 736 kilometers (457 mi) long. It is a land and river border between two tripoints. The western tripoint is marked by Treriksröset, a concrete cairn where both countries border Sweden. The eastern tripoint is marked by Treriksrøysa, a stone cairn where both countries border Russia.

Hatteng is the administrative centre of Storfjord Municipality in Troms og Finnmark county, Norway. The village is located along the European route E06 highway at the southern end of the Storfjorden, a branch of the large Lyngenfjorden. Storfjord Church is located in Hatteng.

Finland–Sweden border International border

The Finland–Sweden border is the border between the countries of Finland and Sweden. Almost the entire border runs through water: along the Tornio River and its tributaries, and in the Gulf of Bothnia. Only a few kilometres of the border are on dry land. Because of the Schengen treaty and the Nordic Passport Union, the border can be crossed mostly freely.

Borders of Finland

The borders of Finland are the dividing lines between it and the neighbouring countries of Norway, Russia and Sweden. The total length of land borders of Finland is 2,563 km / 1593 mi.

<i>Raising the Flag on the Three-Country Cairn</i> Historic photograph depicting the end of World War II in Finland

Raising the Flag on the Three-Country Cairn is a historic photograph taken on 27 April 1945, which was the last day of the Second World War in Finland. It depicts a Finnish Army patrol of Battle Group Loimu, Infantry Regiment 1, raising the Finnish flag on the three-country cairn between Norway, Sweden, and Finland to celebrate the last German troops withdrawing from Finland. The photograph was taken by the commander of Infantry Regiment 1, Colonel Väinö Oinonen. It became a widely circulated symbol of the end of World War II in Finland.

References

  1. "Norgeskart".
  2. "Treriksröset" (in Swedish). Karesuando.se. Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  3. "Weather Information for Treriksröset 1961–1990". Swedish Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 1 November 2012.