Three-Country Cairn

Last updated
Three-Country Cairn
Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki (Finnish)
Golmma riikka urna (Northern Sami)
Treriksrøysa (Norwegian)
Treriksröset (Swedish)
Cairn des trois royaumes - close up.jpg
The cairn in 2014
Coordinates 69°03′35.9″N20°32′55.1″E / 69.059972°N 20.548639°E / 69.059972; 20.548639 Coordinates: 69°03′35.9″N20°32′55.1″E / 69.059972°N 20.548639°E / 69.059972; 20.548639
MaterialConcrete frustum
Completion date1926
Dedicated toMarking the tripoint of the borders of Norway, Sweden and Finland
Finnish troops raise a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the Second World War in Finland Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki 27.4.1945.png
Finnish troops raise a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the Second World War in Finland

Three-Country Cairn (Finnish : Kolmen valtakunnan rajapyykki, Northern Sami : Golmma riikka urna, Norwegian : Treriksrøysa, Swedish : Treriksröset) is the point at which the international borders of Sweden, Norway and Finland meet, and the name of the monument that marks the point. It is an example of a geographical feature known as a tripoint. It is the northernmost international tripoint in the world.


A monument of stones was erected on the site in 1897 by the governments of Norway and Russia (which was administering Finland at the time). The Swedish could not agree on a boundary commission with the Norwegians and did not contribute their stone until 1901. This is Sweden's most northerly point and it is the westernmost point of the Finnish mainland (the most westerly point of Finland is on the island Märket).

The current tripoint monument was built in 1926 and is a beige, conical frustum made of concrete, located about 10 metres (33 ft) out in Lake Goldajärvi (also known as Lake Koltajauri). It is located at 489 metres (1,604 ft) above sea level. The size is about 14 square metres (150 sq ft) with diameter of about 4 metres (13 ft). As an artificial island, it is sometimes mentioned as the world's smallest island divided by a border.[ citation needed ] This is a matter of definition. For example, in Haparanda/Tornio there are poles in water marking the border.

It may be reached by walking 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from Kilpisjärvi in Finland along a hiking trail in the Malla Strict Nature Reserve. In summertime, it can be reached by boat from Kilpisjärvi plus a 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) walk. [1]


Climate data for Treriksröset
Average high °C (°F)−9
Average low °C (°F)−20
Source: [2]

See also

Related Research Articles

Geography of Finland

The geography of Finland is characterized by its northern position, its ubiquitous landscapes of intermingled boreal forests and lakes, and its low population density. Finland can be divided into three areas: archipelagoes and coastal lowlands, a slightly higher central lake plateau and uplands to north and northeast. Bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, as well as Sweden, Norway, and Russia, Finland is the northernmost country in the European Union. Most of the population and agricultural resources are concentrated in the south. Northern and eastern Finland are sparsely populated containing vast wilderness areas. Taiga forest is the dominant vegetation type.

Geography of Sweden

Sweden is a country in Northern Europe on the Scandinavian Peninsula. It borders Norway to the west; Finland to the northeast; and the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia to the south and east. At 450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the 55th largest country in the world. It is the fifth largest in Europe and the largest in Northern Europe.

Enontekiö Municipality in Lapland, Finland

Enontekiö is a municipality in the Finnish part of Lapland with approx. 1,900 inhabitants. It is situated in the outermost northwest of the country and occupies a large and very sparsely populated area of about 8,400 square kilometres (3,200 sq mi) between the Swedish and Norwegian border. Finland's highest point, the Halti fell with a height of 1,324 metres (4,344 ft) above the mean sea level, lies in the north of Enontekiö, where the municipality occupies a part of the Scandinavian Mountains. The administrative centre of Enontekiö is the village of Hetta. About one fifth of the community's population are Sami people. Enontekiö's main industries are tourism and reindeer husbandry.

Femund lake in Røros, Engerdal, and Os, Norway

Femunden is Norway's third largest lake and the second largest natural lake in Norway. It is located in Innlandet and Trøndelag counties in Norway, just 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) west of the border with Sweden. The lake lies primarily in the municipality of Engerdal and also smaller parts are located in the municipalities of Os (Innlandet) and Røros (Trøndelag). Femundsmarka National Park borders the northeastern part of the lake.

Pihtsusköngäs waterfall in Enontekiö, Finland

Pihtsusköngäs, also known as the "Niagara of Finland" or the "King of Finnish waterfalls" is the largest waterfall in all of Finland. Its maximum height is 17 metres (56 ft). It is located in the Käsivarsi Wilderness Area, about 45 kilometres (28 mi) from the village Kilpisjärvi within the municipality of Enontekiö. It is accessible by following the Nordkalottleden Trail, an 800 kilometer hiking route than runs through Finland, Sweden and Norway.

Halti Fell at the Finnish–Norwegian border

Halti is a fell at the border between Norway and Finland. The peak of the fell, called Ráisduattarháldi, is in Norway, on the border between the municipalities of Nordreisa and Gáivuotna–Kåfjord, about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) north of the border with Finland. The highest point of the fell on the Finnish side is at 1,324 m (4,344 ft) above sea level, and thus the highest point in the country. The Finnish side of Halti belongs to the municipality of Enontekiö in the province of Lapland.

Tripoint Geographical point where three territories borders meet

A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet.

Kilpisjärvi Village in Lapland, Finland

Kilpisjärvi is a village in the municipality of Enontekiö, Lapland, Finland. It is located in Finland's northern "arm" near the very northwesternmost point of Finland.

Treriksrøysa international tripoint

Treriksrøysa is a cairn which marks the tripoint where the borders between Norway, Finland and Russia meet. The site is on a hill called Muotkavaara, in Pasvikdalen, west of the Pasvikelva and 15 km southwest of Nyrud just west of Krokfjellet in Sør-Varanger municipality of Finnmark, Norway. It is the only place where three time zones meet: Central European Time, Eastern European Time and Further-eastern European Time. The tripoint can only be approached by public from the Norwegian side, since both Finland and Russia maintain extensive border zones where public access is prohibited.

Øvre Pasvik National Park national park in Finnmark, Norway

Øvre Pasvik National Park is located in the southeastern part of the Pasvikdalen valley in southern Sør-Varanger Municipality in Finnmark county, Norway. Covering an area of 119 square kilometers (46 sq mi), the national park is dominated by Siberian-like taiga consisting of old-growth forests of Scots pine, shallow lakes and bog. Proposals for a national park in Øvre Pasvik were first launched in 1936, but the park was not created until 6 February 1970. It originally covered 66 square kilometers (25 sq mi), but was expanded on 29 August 2003. Øvre Pasvik is part of Pasvik–Inari Trilateral Park along with the adjacent Øvre Pasvik Landscape Protection Area, the joint Norwegian and Russian Pasvik Nature Reserve, and Finland's Vätsäri Wilderness Area.

A quadripoint is a point on the Earth that touches the border of four distinct territories. The territories can be of different types, such as national and provincial. Several examples exist throughout the world that use other names. In North America, several such places are more commonly known as Four Corners.

Boundary marker physical indication of a boundary

A boundary marker, border marker, boundary stone, or border stone is a robust physical marker that identifies the start of a land boundary or the change in a boundary, especially a change in direction of a boundary. There are several other types of named border markers, known as boundary trees, pillars, obelisks, and corners. Border markers can also be markers through which a border line runs in a straight line to determine that border. They can also be the markers from which a border marker has been fixed.

Lake Kilpisjärvi lake in Enontekiö, Finland, and Kiruna, Sweden

Kilpisjärvi is a medium-sized lake located at the north-western tip of Finland and northernmost Sweden. Treriksröset, the point where the borders of Finland, Sweden and Norway join is located some 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) northwest from the lake.

Norway–Sweden border International border between Norway and Sweden

The Norway–Sweden border is a 1,630-kilometre (1,010 mi) long land national border, and the longest border for both Norway and Sweden.

Muotkavaara hill in Russia

Muotkavaara is a hill in Lapland at the boundary between Finland, Norway and Russia. It is the second northernmost international tripoint in the world; the tripoint of Finland, Norway and Sweden is 900 metres to North. The Finnish side belongs to the Inari municipality, the Norwegian side belongs to Sør-Varanger and the Russian side belongs to Nikel. The peak is in Norway.

Finland–Norway border Border between Finland and Norway

The border between Norway and Finland is 736 kilometers (457 mi) long. It is a land and river border between two tripoints. The western tripoint is marked by Treriksröset, a concrete cairn where both countries border Sweden. The eastern tripoint is marked by Treriksrøysa, a stone cairn where both countries border Russia.

Hatteng Village in Northern Norway, Norway

Hatteng (Norwegian), Háhtta (Northern Sami), or Hattu (Kven) is the administrative centre of Storfjord Municipality in Troms og Finnmark county, Norway. The village is located along the European route E06 highway at the southern end of the Storfjorden, a branch of the large Lyngenfjorden. Storfjord Church is located in Hatteng.

Finland–Sweden border international border between Finland and Sweden

The Finnish-Swedish border is the border between the countries of Finland and Sweden. Almost the entire border runs through water: along the Tornio River and its tributaries, and in the Gulf of Bothnia. Only a few kilometres of the border are on dry land. Because of the Schengen treaty and the Nordic Passport Union, the border can be crossed mostly freely.

The borders of Finland are the dividing lines between it and the neighbouring countries of Norway, Russia and Sweden. Total length of land borders of Finland is 2,563 km.

<i>Raising the Flag on the Three-Country Cairn</i> Historic photograph depicting the end of World War II in Finland

Raising the Flag on the Three-Country Cairn is a historic photograph taken on 27 April 1945, which was the last day of the Second World War in Finland. It depicts a Finnish Army patrol of Battle Group Loimu, Infantry Regiment 1, raising the Finnish flag on the three-country cairn between Norway, Sweden, and Finland to celebrate the last German troops withdrawing from Finland. The photograph was taken by the commander of Infantry Regiment 1, Colonel Väinö Oinonen. It became a widely circulated symbol of World War II in Finland.


  1. "Treriksröset" (in Swedish). Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  2. "Weather Information for Treriksröset 1961–1990". Swedish Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 1 November 2012.