Three-phase electric power

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Three-phase transformer with four wire output for 208Y/120 volt service: one wire for neutral, others for A, B and C phases Threephasepolemountclose.jpg
Three-phase transformer with four wire output for 208Y/120 volt service: one wire for neutral, others for A, B and C phases

Three-phase electric power is a common method of alternating current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. [1] It is a type of polyphase system and is the most common method used by electrical grids worldwide to transfer power. It is also used to power large motors and other heavy loads.

Alternating current electric voltage which periodically reverses direction; form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences; form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug electric appliances into a wall socket

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. Alternating current is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, and it is the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions, fans and electric lamps into a wall socket. A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.

Electric power the rate per unit of time at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit

Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second.

Electricity generation process of generating electrical power

Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utilities in the electric power industry, it is the first stage in the delivery of electricity to end users, the other stages being transmission, distribution, energy storage and recovery, using the pumped-storage method.

Contents

A three-wire three-phase circuit is usually more economical than an equivalent two-wire single-phase circuit at the same line to ground voltage because it uses less conductor material to transmit a given amount of electrical power. [2] Polyphase power systems were independently invented by Galileo Ferraris, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Jonas Wenström, John Hopkinson and Nikola Tesla in the late 1880s.

Single-phase electric power

In electrical engineering, single-phase electric power is the distribution of alternating current electric power using a system in which all the voltages of the supply vary in unison. Single-phase distribution is used when loads are mostly lighting and heating, with few large electric motors. A single-phase supply connected to an alternating current electric motor does not produce a revolving magnetic field; single-phase motors need additional circuits for starting, and such motors are uncommon above 10 kW in rating.

Voltage difference in the electric potential between two points in space

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension is the difference in electric potential between two points. The difference in electric potential between two points in a static electric field is defined as the work needed per unit of charge to move a test charge between the two points. In the International System of Units, the derived unit for voltage is named volt. In SI units, work per unit charge is expressed as joules per coulomb, where 1 volt = 1 joule per 1 coulomb. The official SI definition for volt uses power and current, where 1 volt = 1 watt per 1 ampere. This definition is equivalent to the more commonly used 'joules per coulomb'. Voltage or electric potential difference is denoted symbolically by V, but more often simply as V, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws.

Galileo Ferraris Italian physicist

Galileo Ferraris was an Italian physicist and electrical engineer, one of the pioneers of AC power system and an inventor of the three-phase induction motor. Many newspapers touted that his work on the induction motor and power transmission systems were some of the greatest inventions of all ages. He published an extensive and complete monograph on the experimental results obtained with open-circuit transformers of the type designed by the power engineers Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs.

Line and phase voltage

The conductors between a voltage source and a load are called lines, and the voltage between any two lines is called line voltage. The voltage measured between any line and neutral is called phase voltage. [3] For example, for a 208Y/120 volt service, the line voltage is 208 Volts, and the phase voltage is 120 Volts.

Electrical conductor object or material which permits the flow of electricity

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of charge in one or more directions. Materials made of metal are common electrical conductors. Electrical current is generated by the flow of negatively charged electrons, positively charged holes, and positive or negative ions in some cases.

Voltage source two terminal device which can maintain a fixed voltage; dual of a current source

A voltage source is a two-terminal device which can maintain a fixed voltage. An ideal voltage source can maintain the fixed voltage independent of the load resistance or the output current. However, a real-world voltage source cannot supply unlimited current. A voltage source is the dual of a current source. Real-world sources of electrical energy, such as batteries, generators, can be modeled for analysis purposes as a combination of an ideal voltage source and additional combinations of impedance elements.

An electrical load is an electrical component or portion of a circuit that consumes (active) electric power. This is opposed to a power source, such as a battery or generator, which produces power. In electric power circuits examples of loads are appliances and lights. The term may also refer to the power consumed by a circuit.

Principle

Normalized waveforms of the instantaneous voltages in a three-phase system in one cycle with time increasing to the right. The phase order is 1-2-3. This cycle repeats with the frequency of the power system. Ideally, each phase's voltage, current, and power is offset from the others' by 120deg. 3 phase AC waveform.svg
Normalized waveforms of the instantaneous voltages in a three-phase system in one cycle with time increasing to the right. The phase order is 1‑2‑3. This cycle repeats with the frequency of the power system. Ideally, each phase’s voltage, current, and power is offset from the others’ by 120°.
Three-phase electric power transmission lines Three Phase Electric Power Transmission.jpg
Three-phase electric power transmission lines
Three-phase transformer (Bekescsaba, Hungary): on the left are the primary wires and on the right are the secondary wires Transzformator-allomas.jpg
Three-phase transformer (Békéscsaba, Hungary): on the left are the primary wires and on the right are the secondary wires

In a symmetric three-phase power supply system, three conductors each carry an alternating current of the same frequency and voltage amplitude relative to a common reference but with a phase difference of one third of a cycle between each. The common reference is usually connected to ground and often to a current-carrying conductor called the neutral. Due to the phase difference, the voltage on any conductor reaches its peak at one third of a cycle after one of the other conductors and one third of a cycle before the remaining conductor. This phase delay gives constant power transfer to a balanced linear load. It also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric motor and generate other phase arrangements using transformers (for instance, a two phase system using a Scott-T transformer). The amplitude of the voltage difference between two phases is (1.732...) times the amplitude of the voltage of the individual phases.

Electric motor electromechanical device

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of rotation of a shaft. Electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as a power grid, inverters or electrical generators. An electric generator is mechanically identical to an electric motor, but operates in the reverse direction, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Scott-T transformer

A Scott-T transformer is a type of circuit used to produce two-phase electric power from a three-phase source, or vice versa. The Scott connection evenly distributes a balanced load between the phases of the source. The Scott three-phase transformer was invented by a Westinghouse engineer Charles F. Scott in the late 1890s to bypass Thomas Edison's more expensive rotary converter and thereby permit two-phase generator plants to drive three-phase motors.

The symmetric three-phase systems described here are simply referred to as three-phase systems because, although it is possible to design and implement asymmetric three-phase power systems (i.e., with unequal voltages or phase shifts), they are not used in practice because they lack the most important advantages of symmetric systems.

In a three-phase system feeding a balanced and linear load, the sum of the instantaneous currents of the three conductors is zero. In other words, the current in each conductor is equal in magnitude to the sum of the currents in the other two, but with the opposite sign. The return path for the current in any phase conductor is the other two phase conductors.

Advantages

As compared to a single-phase AC power supply that uses two conductors (phase and neutral), a three-phase supply with no neutral and the same phase-to-ground voltage and current capacity per phase can transmit three times as much power using just 1.5 times as many wires (i.e., three instead of two). Thus, the ratio of capacity to conductor material is doubled. [4] The ratio of capacity to conductor material increases to 3:1 with an ungrounded three-phase and center-grounded single-phase system (or 2.25:1 if both employ grounds of the same gauge as the conductors).

As the neutral point of an electrical supply system is often connected to earth ground, ground and neutral are closely related. Under certain conditions, a conductor used to connect to a system neutral is also used for grounding (earthing) of equipment and structures. Current carried on a grounding conductor can result in objectionable or dangerous voltages appearing on equipment enclosures, so the installation of grounding conductors and neutral conductors is carefully defined in electrical regulations. Where a neutral conductor is used also to connect equipment enclosures to earth, care must be taken that the neutral conductor never rises to a high voltage with respect to local ground.

Constant power transfer and cancelling phase currents would in theory be possible with any number (greater than one) of phases, maintaining the capacity-to-conductor material ratio that is twice that of single-phase power. However, two-phase power results in a less smooth (pulsating) torque in a generator or motor (making smooth power transfer a challenge), and more than three phases complicates infrastructure unnecessarily. [5]

Three-phase systems may also have a fourth wire, particularly in low-voltage distribution. This is the neutral wire. The neutral allows three separate single-phase supplies to be provided at a constant voltage and is commonly used for supplying groups of domestic properties which are each single-phase loads. The connections are arranged so that, as far as possible in each group, equal power is drawn from each phase. Further up the distribution system, the currents are usually well balanced. Transformers may be wired in a way that they have a four-wire secondary but a three-wire primary while allowing unbalanced loads and the associated secondary-side neutral currents.

Three-phase supplies have properties that make them very desirable in electric power distribution systems:

Most household loads are single-phase. In North American residences, three-phase power might feed a multiple-unit apartment block, but the household loads are connected only as single phase. In lower-density areas, only a single phase might be used for distribution. Some high-power domestic appliances such as electric stoves and clothes dryers are powered by a split phase system at 240 volts or from two phases of a three phase system at 208 volts.

Phase sequence

Wiring for the three phases is typically identified by color codes which vary by country. Connection of the phases in the right order is required to ensure the intended direction of rotation of three-phase motors. For example, pumps and fans may not work in reverse. Maintaining the identity of phases is required if there is any possibility two sources can be connected at the same time; a direct interconnection between two different phases is a short-circuit.

Generation and distribution

Animation of three-phase current 3-phase flow.gif
Animation of three-phase current
Hawkins Electrical Guide - 3phase Elementary 6wire.jpg
Hawkins Electrical Guide - 3phase Elementary 3wire.jpg
Left image: elementary six-wire three-phase alternator with each phase using a separate pair of transmission wires. [6] Right image: elementary three-wire three-phase alternator showing how the phases can share only three wires. [7]

At the power station, an electrical generator converts mechanical power into a set of three AC electric currents, one from each coil (or winding) of the generator. The windings are arranged such that the currents vary sinusoidally at the same frequency but with the peaks and troughs of their wave forms offset to provide three complementary currents with a phase separation of one-third cycle (120° or 3 radians). The generator frequency is typically 50 or 60 Hz, depending on the country.

At the power station, transformers change the voltage from generators to a level suitable for transmission in order to minimize losses.

After further voltage conversions in the transmission network, the voltage is finally transformed to the standard utilization before power is supplied to customers.

Most automotive alternators generate three-phase AC and rectify it to DC with a diode bridge. [8]

Transformer connections

A "delta" connected transformer winding is connected between phases of a three-phase system. A "wye" transformer connects each winding from a phase wire to a common neutral point.

A single three-phase transformer can be used, or three single-phase transformers.

In an "open delta" or "V" system, only two transformers are used. A closed delta made of three single-phase transformers can operate as an open delta if one of the transformers has failed or needs to be removed. [9] In open delta, each transformer must carry current for its respective phases as well as current for the third phase, therefore capacity is reduced to 87%. With one of three transformers missing and the remaining two at 87% efficiency, the capacity is 58% (23 of 87%). [10] [11]

Where a delta-fed system must be grounded for detection of stray current to ground or protection from surge voltages, a grounding transformer (usually a zigzag transformer) may be connected to allow ground fault currents to return from any phase to ground. Another variation is a "corner grounded" delta system, which is a closed delta that is grounded at one of the junctions of transformers. [12]

Three-wire and four-wire circuits

Wye (Y) and delta (D) circuits The basic 3-phase configurations.svg
Wye (Y) and delta (Δ) circuits

There are two basic three-phase configurations: wye (Y) and delta (Δ). As shown in the diagram, a delta configuration requires only three wires for transmission but a wye (star) configuration may have a fourth wire. The fourth wire, if present, is provided as a neutral and is normally grounded. The "3-wire" and "4-wire" designations do not count the ground wire present above many transmission lines, which is solely for fault protection and does not carry current under normal use.

A four-wire system with symmetrical voltages between phase and neutral is obtained when the neutral is connected to the "common star point" of all supply windings. In such a system, all three phases will have the same magnitude of voltage relative to the neutral. Other non-symmetrical systems have been used.

The four-wire wye system is used when a mixture of single-phase and three-phase loads are to be served, such as mixed lighting and motor loads. An example of application is local distribution in Europe (and elsewhere), where each customer may be only fed from one phase and the neutral (which is common to the three phases). When a group of customers sharing the neutral draw unequal phase currents, the common neutral wire carries the currents resulting from these imbalances. Electrical engineers try to design the three-phase power system for any one location so that the power drawn from each of three phases is the same, as far as possible at that site. [13] Electrical engineers also try to arrange the distribution network so the loads are balanced as much as possible, since the same principles that apply to individual premises also apply to the wide-scale distribution system power. Hence, every effort is made by supply authorities to distribute the power drawn on each of the three phases over a large number of premises so that, on average, as nearly as possible a balanced load is seen at the point of supply.

A delta-wye configuration across a transformer core (note that a practical transformer would usually have a different number of turns on each side). Delta-Wye Transformer.png
A delta-wye configuration across a transformer core (note that a practical transformer would usually have a different number of turns on each side).

For domestic use, some countries such as the UK may supply one phase and neutral at a high current (up to 100  A) to one property, while others such as Germany may supply 3 phases and neutral to each customer, but at a lower fuse rating, typically 4063  A per phase, and "rotated" to avoid the effect that more load tends to be put on the first phase.[ citation needed ]

A transformer for a "high-leg delta" system used for mixed single-phase and three-phase loads on the same distribution system. Three-phase loads such as motors connect to L1, L2, and L3. Single-phase loads would be connected between L1 or L2 and neutral, or between L1 and L2. The L3 phase is 1.73 times the L1 or L2 voltage to neutral so this leg is not used for single-phase loads. High leg delta transformer.svg
A transformer for a "high-leg delta" system used for mixed single-phase and three-phase loads on the same distribution system. Three-phase loads such as motors connect to L1, L2, and L3. Single-phase loads would be connected between L1 or L2 and neutral, or between L1 and L2. The L3 phase is 1.73 times the L1 or L2 voltage to neutral so this leg is not used for single-phase loads.

In North America, a high-leg delta supply is sometimes used where one winding of a delta-connected transformer feeding the load is center-tapped and that center tap is grounded and connected as a neutral as shown in the second diagram. This setup produces three different voltages: If the voltage between the center tap (neutral) and each of the top and bottom taps (phase and anti-phase) is 120  V (100%), the voltage across the phase and anti-phase lines is 240 V (200%), and the neutral to "high leg" voltage is ≈ 208 V (173%). [9]

The reason for providing the delta connected supply is usually to power large motors requiring a rotating field. However, the premises concerned will also require the "normal" North American 120 V supplies, two of which are derived (180 degrees "out of phase") between the "neutral" and either of the center tapped phase points.

Balanced circuits

In the perfectly balanced case all three lines share equivalent loads. Examining the circuits we can derive relationships between line voltage and current, and load voltage and current for wye and delta connected loads.

In a balanced system each line will produce equal voltage magnitudes at phase angles equally spaced from each other. With V1 as our reference and V3 lagging V2 lagging V1, using angle notation, and VLN the voltage between the line and the neutral we have: [14]

These voltages feed into either a wye or delta connected load.

Wye (Y) also called Star

Three-phase AC generator connected as a wye or star source to a wye or star connected load 3 Phase Power Connected to Wye Load.svg
Three-phase AC generator connected as a wye or star source to a wye or star connected load

The voltage seen by the load will depend on the load connection; for the wye case, connecting each load to a phase (line-to-neutral) voltages gives: [14]

where Ztotal is the sum of line and load impedances (Ztotal = ZLN + ZY), and θ is the phase of the total impedance (Ztotal).

The phase angle difference between voltage and current of each phase is not necessarily 0 and is dependent on the type of load impedance, Zy. Inductive and capacitive loads will cause current to either lag or lead the voltage. However, the relative phase angle between each pair of lines (1 to 2, 2 to 3, and 3 to 1) will still be −120°.

By applying Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) to the neutral node, the three phase currents sum to the total current in the neutral line. In the balanced case:

A phasor diagram for a wye configuration, in which Vab represents a line voltage and Van represents a phase voltage. Voltages are balanced as:
Vab = (1[?]a - 1[?]a + 120deg) [?]3*|V|[?]a + 30deg
Vbc = [?]3*|V|[?]a - 90deg
Vca = [?]3*|V|[?]a + 150deg
(a = 0 in this case) Wye connection line voltages.png
A phasor diagram for a wye configuration, in which Vab represents a line voltage and Van represents a phase voltage. Voltages are balanced as:

Vab = (1∠α - 1∠α + 120°) 3*|V|∠α + 30°

Vbc = 3*|V|∠α - 90°

Vca = 3*|V|∠α + 150°

(α = 0 in this case)

Delta (Δ)

Three-phase AC generator connected as a wye source to a delta-connected load 3 Phase Power Connected to Delta Load.svg
Three-phase AC generator connected as a wye source to a delta-connected load

In the delta circuit, loads are connected across the lines, and so loads see line-to-line voltages:

[14]

v1 is the phase shift for the first voltage, commonly taken to be 0° -- in this case Φv2 = -120° and Φv3 = -240° or 120°)

Further:

where θ is the phase of delta impedance (ZΔ).

Relative angles are preserved, so I31 lags I23 lags I12 by 120°. Calculating line currents by using KCL at each delta node gives:

and similarly for each other line:

where, again, θ is the phase of delta impedance (ZΔ).

A delta configuration and a corresponding phasor diagram of its currents. Phase voltages are equal to line voltages, and currents are calculated as:
Ia = Iab - Ica = [?]3Iab[?]-30deg
Ib = Ibc - Iab
Ic = Ica - Ibc
The overall power transferred is
S3Ph = 3VphaseI*phase Delta connection currents.png
A delta configuration and a corresponding phasor diagram of its currents. Phase voltages are equal to line voltages, and currents are calculated as:

Ia = Iab - Ica = 3Iab∠-30°

Ib = Ibc - Iab

Ic = Ica - Ibc

The overall power transferred is

S = 3VphaseI*phase

Inspection of a phasor diagram, or conversion from phasor notation to complex notation, illuminates how the difference between two line-to-neutral voltages yields a line-to-line voltage that is greater by a factor of 3. As a delta configuration connects a load across phases of a transformer, it delivers the line-to-line voltage difference, which is 3 times greater than the line-to-neutral voltage delivered to a load in the wye configuration. As the power transferred is V2/Z, the impedance in the delta configuration must be 3 times what it would be in a wye configuration for the same power to be transferred.

Single-phase loads

Except in a high-leg delta system, single-phase loads may be connected across any two phases, or a load can be connected from phase to neutral. [15] Distributing single-phase loads among the phases of a three-phase system balances the load and makes most economical use of conductors and transformers.

In a symmetrical three-phase four-wire, wye system, the three phase conductors have the same voltage to the system neutral. The voltage between line conductors is 3 times the phase conductor to neutral voltage: [16]

The currents returning from the customers' premises to the supply transformer all share the neutral wire. If the loads are evenly distributed on all three phases, the sum of the returning currents in the neutral wire is approximately zero. Any unbalanced phase loading on the secondary side of the transformer will use the transformer capacity inefficiently.

If the supply neutral is broken, phase-to-neutral voltage is no longer maintained. Phases with higher relative loading will experience reduced voltage, and phases with lower relative loading will experience elevated voltage, up to the phase-to-phase voltage.

A high-leg delta provides phase-to-neutral relationship of VLL = 2 VLN, however, LN load is imposed on one phase. [9] A transformer manufacturer's page suggests that LN loading not exceed 5% of transformer capacity. [17]

Since 3 ≈ 1.73, defining VLN as 100% gives VLL≈ 100% × 1.73 = 173%. If VLL was set as 100%, then VLN ≈ 57.7%.

Unbalanced loads

When the currents on the three live wires of a three-phase system are not equal or are not at an exact 120° phase angle, the power loss is greater than for a perfectly balanced system. The method of symmetrical components is used to analyze unbalanced systems.

Non-linear loads

With linear loads, the neutral only carries the current due to imbalance between the phases. Gas-discharge lamps and devices that utilize rectifier-capacitor front-end such as switch-mode power supplies, computers, office equipment and such produce third-order harmonics that are in-phase on all the supply phases. Consequently, such harmonic currents add in the neutral in a wye system (or in the grounded (zigzag) transformer in a delta system), which can cause the neutral current to exceed the phase current. [15] [18]

Three-phase loads

An important class of three-phase load is the electric motor. A three-phase induction motor has a simple design, inherently high starting torque and high efficiency. Such motors are applied in industry for many applications. A three-phase motor is more compact and less costly than a single-phase motor of the same voltage class and rating, and single-phase AC motors above 10 HP (7.5 kW) are uncommon. Three-phase motors also vibrate less and hence last longer than single-phase motors of the same power used under the same conditions. [19]

Resistance heating loads such as electric boilers or space heating may be connected to three-phase systems. Electric lighting may also be similarly connected.

Line frequency flicker in light is detrimental to high speed cameras used in sports event broadcasting for slow motion replays. It can be reduced by evenly spreading line frequency operated light sources across the three phases so that the illuminated area is lit from all three phases. This technique was applied successfully at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. [20]

Rectifiers may use a three-phase source to produce a six-pulse DC output. [21] The output of such rectifiers is much smoother than rectified single phase and, unlike single-phase, does not drop to zero between pulses. Such rectifiers may be used for battery charging, electrolysis processes such as aluminium production or for operation of DC motors. "Zig-zag" transformers may make the equivalent of six-phase full-wave rectification, twelve pulses per cycle, and this method is occasionally employed to reduce the cost of the filtering components, while improving the quality of the resulting DC.

Three phase plug commonly used on electric stoves in Europe Perilex Stecker.jpg
Three phase plug commonly used on electric stoves in Europe

One example of a three-phase load is the electric arc furnace used in steelmaking and in refining of ores.

In many European countries electric stoves are usually designed for a three-phase feed. Individual heating units are often connected between phase and neutral to allow for connection to a single-phase circuit if three-phase is not available. [22] Other usual three-phase loads in the domestic field are tankless water heating systems and storage heaters. Homes in Europe and the UK have standardized on a nominal 230 V between any phase and ground. (Existing supplies remain near 240 V in the UK, and 220 V on much of the continent.) Most groups of houses are fed from a three-phase street transformer so that individual premises with above-average demand can be fed with a second or third phase connection.

Phase converters

Phase converters are used when three-phase equipment needs to be operated on a single-phase power source. They are used when three-phase power is not available or cost is not justifiable. Such converters may also allow the frequency to be varied, allowing speed control. Some railway locomotives use a single-phase source to drive three-phase motors fed through an electronic drive. [23]

A rotary phase converter is a three-phase motor with special starting arrangements and power factor correction that produces balanced three-phase voltages. When properly designed, these rotary converters can allow satisfactory operation of a three-phase motor on a single-phase source. In such a device, the energy storage is performed by the inertia (flywheel effect) of the rotating components. An external flywheel is sometimes found on one or both ends of the shaft.

A three-phase generator can be driven by a single-phase motor. This motor-generator combination can provide a frequency changer function as well as phase conversion, but requires two machines with all their expenses and losses. The motor-generator method can also form an uninterruptible power supply when used in conjunction with a large flywheel and a battery-powered DC motor; such a combination will deliver nearly constant power compared to the temporary frequency drop experienced with a standby generator set gives until the standby generator kicks in.

Capacitors and autotransformers can be used to approximate a three-phase system in a static phase converter, but the voltage and phase angle of the additional phase may only be useful for certain loads.

Variable-frequency drives and digital phase converters use power electronic devices to synthesize a balanced three-phase supply from single-phase input power.

Alternatives to three-phase

Color codes

Conductors of a three-phase system are usually identified by a color code, to allow for balanced loading and to assure the correct phase rotation for motors. Colors used may adhere to International Standard IEC 60446 (now merged into IEC 60445), older standards or to no standard at all and may vary even within a single installation. For example, in the U.S. and Canada, different color codes are used for grounded (earthed) and ungrounded systems.

CountryL1 (R)L2 (S)L3 (T)Neutral (N)Ground / protective earth (PE)
Australia and New Zealand as per AS/NZS 3000:2007 Figure 3.2 (or as per IEC 60446 as approved by AS:3000)Red (or brown) [note 1] White [note 1] (prev. yellow)Dark blue (or grey) [note 1] Black (or blue) [note 1] Green/yellow striped (green on very old installations)
Canada (mandatory) [25] Red [note 2] BlackBlueWhite or GreyGreen, green/yellow striped or bare copper
Canada (isolated systems) [26] OrangeBrownYellowWhite or GreyGreen or green/yellow striped
European Union and all countries who use European CENELEC standards since April 2004 (IEC 60446 - now replaced by IEC 60445-2017): United Kingdom since 31 March 2004, Hong Kong from July 2007, Singapore from March 2009, Russia since 2009 (GOST R 50462), Argentina, Ukraine, Belarus, KazakhstanBrownBlackGreyBlueGreen/yellow striped [note 3]
Older European (prior to IEC 60446, varied by country) [note 4] RedYellowBlueBlackGreen/yellow striped (green on installations before c. 1970)
UK before April 2006, Hong Kong before April 2009, South Africa, Malaysia, Singapore before February 2011RedYellowBlueBlackGreen/yellow striped (green on installations before c. 1970)
IndiaRedYellowBlueBlackGreen/yellow striped, or green
Former USSR (Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan) before 2009, People's Republic of China (per GB 50303-2002 Section 15.2.2)YellowGreenRedSky blueGreen/yellow striped
Norway (older systems - newer systems since the late 1990s use EU color standards)BlackWhite/GreyBrownBlueYellow/green striped, older may be only yellow or bare copper
United States (common practice) [note 5] BlackRedBlueWhite, or greyGreen, green/yellow striped, [note 6] or a bare copper wire
United States (alternative practice) [note 7] BrownOrange (delta systems)YellowGrey, or whiteGreen
Violet (wye systems)

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 In Australia and New Zealand, active conductors can be any color except green/yellow, green, yellow, black or light blue. Yellow is no longer permitted in the 2007 revision of wiring code ASNZS 3000. European color codes are used for all IEC or flex cables such as extension leads, appliance leads etc. and are equally permitted for use in building wiring per AS/NZS 3000:2007.
  2. In Canada the high leg conductor in a high-leg delta system is always marked red.
  3. The international standard green-yellow marking of protective-earth conductors was introduced to reduce the risk of confusion by color blind installers. About 7% to 10% of men cannot clearly distinguish between red and green, which is a particular concern in older schemes where red marks a live conductor and green marks protective earth or safety ground.
  4. In Europe, there still exist many installations with older colors but, since the early 1970s, all new installations use green/yellow earth according to IEC 60446. (E.g. Phase/Neutral+Earth German: black/grey + red France green/red + White Russia: Red/ Grey + Black; Switzerland: Red/ Grey +Yellow or yellow & red Denmark: White/Black + Red
  5. See Paul Cook: Harmonised colours and alphanumeric marking. IEE Wiring Matters, Spring 2006.
  6. In the U.S., a green/yellow striped wire may indicate an isolated ground.[ citation needed ] In most countries today, green/yellow striped wire may only be used for protective earth (safety ground) and may never be unconnected or used for any other purpose.
  7. Since 1975, the U.S. National Electric Code has not specified coloring of phase conductors. It is common practice in many regions to identify 120/208 (wye) conductors as black, red, and blue, and 277/480 (wye or delta) conductors as brown, orange, yellow. In a 120/240 delta system with a 208 V high leg, the high leg (typically B phase) is always marked orange, commonly A phase is black and C phase is either red or blue. Local regulations may amend the N.E.C. The U.S. National Electric Code has color requirements for grounded conductors, ground, and grounded-delta three-phase systems which result in one ungrounded leg having a higher voltage potential to ground than the other two ungrounded legs.

Related Research Articles

In electrical engineering, the power factor of an AC electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real power absorbed by the load to the apparent power flowing in the circuit, and is a dimensionless number in the closed interval of −1 to 1. A power factor of less than one indicates the voltage and current are not in phase, reducing the instantaneous product of the two. Real power is the instantaneous product of voltage and current and represents the capacity of the electricity for performing work. Apparent power is the average product of current and voltage. Due to energy stored in the load and returned to the source, or due to a non-linear load that distorts the wave shape of the current drawn from the source, the apparent power may be greater than the real power. A negative power factor occurs when the device generates power, which then flows back towards the source.

Rectifier AC-DC conversion device; electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction

A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction.

Electric power distribution Final stage of electricity delivery to individual consumers in a power grid

Electric power distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electric power; it carries electricity from the transmission system to individual consumers. Distribution substations connect to the transmission system and lower the transmission voltage to medium voltage ranging between 2 kV and 35 kV with the use of transformers. Primary distribution lines carry this medium voltage power to distribution transformers located near the customer's premises. Distribution transformers again lower the voltage to the utilization voltage used by lighting, industrial equipment or household appliances. Often several customers are supplied from one transformer through secondary distribution lines. Commercial and residential customers are connected to the secondary distribution lines through service drops. Customers demanding a much larger amount of power may be connected directly to the primary distribution level or the subtransmission level.

Polyphase system

A polyphase system is a means of distributing alternating-current electrical power where the power transfer is constant during each electrical cycle. Polyphase systems have three or more energized electrical conductors carrying alternating currents with a defined phase angle between the voltage waves in each conductor; for three-phase voltage, the phase angle is 120° or ~2.09 radians. Polyphase systems are particularly useful for transmitting power to electric motors which rely on alternating current to rotate. The most common example is the three-phase power system used for industrial applications and for power transmission. Compared to a single-phase, two-wire system, a three-phase three-wire system transmits three times as much power for the same conductor size and voltage.

IEC 60309 Standard for industrial and multi-phase sockets in Europe

IEC 60309 is an international standard from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for "plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes". The maximum voltage allowed by the standard is 1000 V DC or AC; the maximum current, 800 A; and the maximum frequency, 500 Hz. The ambient temperature range is −25 °C to 40 °C.

Two-phase electric power

Two-phase electrical power was an early 20th-century polyphase alternating current electric power distribution system. Two circuits were used, with voltage phases differing by one-quarter of a cycle, 90°. Usually circuits used four wires, two for each phase. Less frequently, three wires were used, with a common wire with a larger-diameter conductor. Some early two-phase generators had two complete rotor and field assemblies, with windings physically offset to provide two-phase power. The generators at Niagara Falls installed in 1895 were the largest generators in the world at that time and were two-phase machines. Three-phase systems eventually replaced the original two-phase power systems for power transmission and utilization. There remain few two-phase distribution systems, with examples in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; many buildings in Center City are permanently wired for two-phase and Hartford, Connecticut.

Split-phase electric power type of single-phase electric power distribution

A split-phase or single-phase three-wire system is a type of single-phase electric power distribution. It is the AC equivalent of the original Edison three-wire direct-current system. Its primary advantage is that it saves conductor material over a single-ended single-phase system, while only requiring a single phase on the supply side of the distribution transformer.

Three-phase

In electrical engineering, three-phase electric power systems have at least three conductors carrying alternating current voltages that are offset in time by one-third of the period. A three-phase system may be arranged in delta (∆) or star (Y). A wye system allows the use of two different voltages from all three phases, such as a 230/400 V system which provides 230 V between the neutral and any one of the phases, and 400 V across any two phases. A delta system arrangement only provides one voltage magnitude, but it has a greater redundancy as it may continue to operate normally with one of the three supply windings offline, albeit at 57.7% of total capacity. Harmonic current in the neutral may become very large if nonlinear loads are connected.

Zigzag transformer special-purpose transformer

A zigzag transformer is a special-purpose transformer with a zigzag or "interconnected star" winding connection, such that each output is the vector sum of two (2) phases offset by 120°. It is used as a grounding transformer, creating a missing neutral connection from an ungrounded 3-phase system to permit the grounding of that neutral to an earth reference point; to perform harmonic mitigation, as they can suppress triplet harmonic currents; to supply 3-phase power as an autotransformer ; and to supply non-standard, phase-shifted, 3-phase power.

Distribution transformer transformer that provides the final voltage transformation in an electric power distribution system

A distribution transformer or service transformer is a transformer that provides the final voltage transformation in the electric power distribution system, stepping down the voltage used in the distribution lines to the level used by the customer. The invention of a practical efficient transformer made AC power distribution feasible; a system using distribution transformers was demonstrated as early as 1882.

Service drop

In electric power distribution, a service drop is an overhead electrical line running from a utility pole, to a customer's building or other premises. It is the point where electric utilities provide power to their customers. The customer connection to an underground distribution system is usually called a "service lateral". Conductors of a service drop or lateral are usually owned and maintained by the utility company, but some industrial drops are installed and owned by the customer.

In electrical engineering, a vector group is the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) method of categorizing the high voltage (HV) windings and low voltage (LV) winding configurations of three-phase transformers. The vector group designation indicates the windings configurations and the difference in phase angle between them. For example, a wye HV winding and delta LV winding with a 30-degree lead is denoted as Yd11.

Delta-wye transformer

A delta-wye transformer is a type of three-phase electric power transformer design that employs delta-connected windings on its primary and wye/star connected windings on its secondary. A neutral wire can be provided on wye output side. It can be a single three-phase transformer, or built from three independent single-phase units. An equivalent term is delta-star transformer.

High-leg delta

High-leg delta is a type of electrical service connection for three-phase electric power installations. It is used when both single and three-phase power is desired to be supplied from a three phase transformer. The three-phase power is connected in the delta configuration, and the center point of one phase is grounded. This creates both a split-phase single phase supply and three-phase. It is called "orange leg" because the wire is color-coded orange. By convention, the high leg is usually set in the center lug in the involved panel, regardless of the L1-L2-L3 designation at the transformer.

Transformer types

A variety of types of electrical transformer are made for different purposes. Despite their design differences, the various types employ the same basic principle as discovered in 1831 by Michael Faraday, and share several key functional parts.

In an electric power system, a harmonic is a voltage or current at a multiple of the fundamental frequency of the system, produced by the action of non-linear loads such as rectifiers, discharge lighting, or saturated magnetic devices. Harmonic frequencies in the power grid are a frequent cause of power quality problems. Harmonics in power systems result in increased heating in the equipment and conductors, misfiring in variable speed drives, and torque pulsations in motors.

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