Three-section staff

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Three-section staff 3-sectional-staff.jpg
Three-section staff

The three-section staff, triple staff, three-part staff, sansetsukon in Japanese, or originally sanjiegun (Chinese :三節棍; pinyin :sānjiégùn; Jyutping :saam1 zit3 gwan3, or Chinese :三節鞭; pinyin :sānjiébiān three-sectional whip), is a Chinese flail weapon that consists of three wooden or metal staffs connected by metal rings or rope. The weapon is also known as 蟠龍棍 panlong gun, "coiling dragon staff". A more complicated version of the two section staff, the staves can be spun to gather momentum resulting in a powerful strike, or their articulation can be used to strike over or around a shield or other defense.

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History and use

Although there is no historical evidence to support it, a popular modern-day legend states the weapon was made famous by Zhao Kuangyin, the first Emperor of the Song Dynasty (960 AD). [1]

Historically made of white oak, waxwood, or Chinese red maple, modern staves are constructed from rattan, bamboo, various hardwoods or aluminum. For optimum fit, each of the three sticks should be about the length of the combatant's arm {usually 60 centimetres (24 in) to 70 centimetres (28 in)} and have a combined diameter that easily fits in the hand {usually about 1.25 inches (32 mm)}. These are connected by chains of rings {usually of five inches (127 mm)}; modern versions use ball-and-socket joints.

The total length of the weapon is about the same as the Chinese staff (the gùn), and greater than that of the single staff (known in Japanese as a ). The larger size of a three-section staff allows for an increased reach compared to the staff. Some of the techniques are similar to that of the staff, so spinning moves over the head and behind the back, such as helicopter spins and neck rolls, can be practised with a regular staff. Other weapon techniques the three-section staff makes use of are similar to that of the pair of sticks used in escrima, a simple short chain, a whip, or the two-section staff. It is therefore advantageous for the user to have some familiarity with these weapons. The three-section staff has the advantage of being usable as a long-range (whip), mid-range (flail or two section staff) or a short-range (pair of escrima) weapon. Acting as an extension of the user's arms, the three-section staff can strike, flail, block, choke, trap, disarm and whip, often with different sections of the staff acting at the same time. The chains or binding ropes of the staff are used to entangle an opponent and their weapons. While it has three ranges, the three-section staff is best used as a short range weapon against longer-ranged weapons. In this configuration, a skilled practitioner can nearly simultaneously block an opponent's strike, trap his or her weapon, and disarm them while executing their own strike with the free end of the staff.

While some martial artists have held that the three-section staff was used on the battlefield to entangle horses' legs or to strike around shields, the complexity of the weapon and the length, difficulty of use, lack of sharp tips or edges and other advantages of such traditional battlefield weapons as spears, polearms (such as the yan yue dao ), swords and so forth meant that the triple staff was more likely restricted to personal self-defense.

One significant weakness of chained weapons in general is a lack of control. At long and intermediate ranges, the strike of one ends not upon impact but on recoil; even the greatest martial arts masters must use valuable time regaining control of their weapon. Due to the length of the staff sections relative to the length of joining chains, the weapon suffers less from a lack of control than other more flexible chain weapons. In short range mode there are no control issues because the end sections are firmly in hand, and the middle section is unable to move independently. Training with the three-section staff is particularly difficult because it is a multi-mode complex weapon, and is not recommended for beginners. Foam covered versions are now sold to aid in training, but the blows received from the ends on recoil are a relatively rare risk. Instead, the greater danger is the painful impact of the chains or metal parts of the staff that the chains are anchored to upon the hands of the user. This occurs when the staff is improperly used in short range mode and the relative positions of staff sections are rapidly changed, serving as a strong deterrent to casual users. However, motivated self teachers will find the three-section staff and other flexible weapons to be the easiest to learn effectively. This is because flexible weapons provide instant feedback to the user. When used improperly, flexible weapons will either impact upon targets other than those desired, put the user off balance, injure the user, or otherwise be obviously out of control.

To experience the versatility of both single-staff and three-section staff, some manufactures have created a combination weapon made out of metal. The three sections, linked by chains as customary for this type of weapon, screw together to form one single staff. The transition to full staff to sectioned staff can be done in mid-combat with a few twists. Against an opponent, the transition is often masked, adding an element of surprise to the following attacks.

The ends of three-section staffs sometimes break, but can be replaced with pieces of similar weight and thickness to the other parts.

The three-section staff was brought to Okinawa from Fujian Province by Shinko Matayoshi, who incorporated it in Matayoshi Kobudo with two kata (sansetsukon dai ichi, sansetsukon dai ni) after 1935. Kobudo sansetsukon typically have shorter (usually 50–60 cm.) yet thicker (about 4–5 cm. in diameter) staffs. The sansetsukon is not to be confused with san bon nunchaku (三本ヌンチャク).

Three-section flails

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References

  1. "Flying Eagle Martial Arts Academy: Three-Section Staff". Archived from the original on April 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-02.
  2. "Flails & Soft Weapons".

Further reading