Three-world model

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The "three worlds" of the Cold War era, April - August 1975
1st World: Western Bloc led by the USA and its allies
2nd World: Eastern Bloc led by the USSR, China, and their allies
3rd World: Non-Aligned and neutral countries Cold War alliances mid-1975.svg
The "three worlds" of the Cold War era, April   August 1975
   1st World: Western Bloc led by the USA and its allies
   2nd World: Eastern Bloc led by the USSR, China, and their allies
   3rd World: Non-Aligned and neutral countries

The terms First World , Second World , and Third World were originally used to divide the world's nations into three categories. The complete overthrow of the post–World War II status quo, known as the Cold War, left two superpowers (the United States and the Soviet Union) vying for ultimate global supremacy. They created two camps, known as blocs. These blocs formed the basis of the concepts of the First and Second Worlds. [1]

Contents

Today, the terms first and third worlds are generally used to refer to developed and developing countries.

History

Cold War

Early in the Cold War era, NATO and the Warsaw Pact were created by the United States and the Soviet Union, respectively. They were also referred to as the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc. The circumstances of these two blocs were so different that they were essentially two worlds, however, they were not numbered first and second. [2] [3] [4] The onset of the Cold War is marked by Winston Churchill's famous "Iron Curtain" speech. [5] In this speech, Churchill describes the division of the West and East to be so solid that it could be called an iron curtain. [5]

In 1952, the French demographer Alfred Sauvy coined the term Third World in reference to the three estates in pre-revolutionary France. [6] The first two estates being the nobility and clergy and everybody else comprising the third estate. [6] He compared the capitalist world (i.e., First World) to the nobility and the communist world (i.e., Second World) to the clergy. Just as the third estate comprised everybody else, Sauvy called the Third World all the countries that were not in this Cold War division, i.e., the unaligned and uninvolved states in the "East–West Conflict." [6] [4] With the coining of the term Third World directly, the first two groups came to be known as the "First World" and "Second World," respectively. Here the three-world system emerged. [4]

However, Shuswap Chief George Manuel believed the Three Worlds Model to be outdated. In his 1974 book The Fourth World: An Indian Reality, he describes the emergence of the Fourth World while coining the term. The fourth world refers to "nations," e.g., cultural entities and ethnic groups, of indigenous people who do not compose states in the traditional sense. [7] Rather, they live within or across state boundaries (see First Nations). One example is the Native Americans of North America, Central America, and the Caribbean. [7]

Post Cold War

With the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Eastern Bloc ceased to exist; with it, so did all applicability of the term Second World. [8]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Third World category of countries on socio economic base

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First World conceptual country classification

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Second World geopolitical classification

The Second World is a term used during the Cold War for the industrial socialist states that were under the influence of the Soviet Union. In the first two decades following World War II, 19 communist states emerged; all of these were at least originally within the Soviet sphere of influence, though some broke with Moscow and developed their own path of socialism while retaining Communist governments. But most communist states remained part of this bloc until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991; afterwards, only five Communist states remained: China, North Korea, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam. Along with "First World" and "Third World", the term was used to divide the states of Earth into three broad categories.

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The Iron Curtain was initially a non-physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. The term symbolizes the efforts by the Soviet Union (USSR) to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the West and its allied states. On the east side of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union, while on the west side were the countries that were NATO members or nominally neutral. Separate international economic and military alliances were developed on each side of the Iron Curtain.

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Emigration from the Eastern Bloc was a point of controversy during the Cold War. After World War II, emigration restrictions were imposed by countries in the Eastern Bloc, which consisted of the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe. Legal emigration was in most cases only possible in order to reunite families or to allow members of minority ethnic groups to return to their homelands.

References

  1. Gaddis, John (1998). We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN   0-19-878071-0.
  2. Melkote, Srinivas R.; Steeves, H. Leslie (2001). Communication for development in the Third World: theory and practice for empowerment. Sage Publications. p. 21. ISBN   0-7619-9476-9.
  3. Provizer, Norman W. (1978). Analyzing the Third World: essays from Comparative politics. Transaction Publishers. p. 3. ISBN   0-87073-943-3.
  4. 1 2 3 Leonard, Thomas M. (2006). "Third World". Encyclopedia of the Developing World. 3. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1542–3. ISBN   0-87073-943-3 . Retrieved 1 November 2009.
  5. 1 2 "Winston Churchill "Iron Curtain"". The History Place. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  6. 1 2 3 "Three Worlds Model". University of Wisconsin Eau Claire. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  7. 1 2 "First, Second and Third World". One World – Nations Online. July 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  8. "Fall of the Soviet Union". The Cold War Museum. 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2009.