Three Billy Goats Gruff

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The White House 2003 Christmas decoration using "Three Billy Goats Gruff" as the theme WhiteHouseTheThreeBillyGoatsGruff2003.jpg
The White House 2003 Christmas decoration using "Three Billy Goats Gruff" as the theme

"Three Billy Goats Gruff" (Norwegian : De tre bukkene Bruse) is a Norwegian fairy tale [1] collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe in their Norske Folkeeventyr , first published between 1841 and 1844. [2] It has an "eat-me-when-I'm-fatter" plot (Aarne-Thompson type 122E). The first version of the story in English appeared in George Webbe Dasent's translation of some of the Norske Folkeeventyr, published as Popular Tales from the Norse in 1859. [3] The heroes of the tale are three male goats who need to outsmart a ravenous troll to cross the bridge to their feeding ground.

Contents

Plot

The story introduces three Billy goats (male goats), sometimes identified as a youngster, father and grandfather, but more often described as brothers. In other adaptations, there is a baby or child goat, mama goat and papa goat. "Gruff" was used as their family name in the earliest English translation, by Dasent; the original Norwegian version used the name "Bruse". [4]

In the story, there is almost no grass left for them to eat near where they live, so they must cross a river to get to "sæter" (a meadow) or hillside on the other side of a stream to eat and fatten themselves up. They must first cross a wooden bridge, under which lives a fearsome and hideous troll, who is so territorial that he eats anyone who tries to cross the bridge.

The smallest billy goat is the first to cross and is stopped abruptly by the troll who threatens to "gobble him up!" The little goat convinces the troll to wait for his big brother to come across, because he is larger and would make for a more gratifying feast. The greedy troll agrees and lets the smallest goat cross.

The medium-sized goat passes next. He is more cautious than his brother but is also stopped by the troll and given the same threat. The second billy goat is allowed to cross as well after he tells the troll to wait for the biggest billy goat because he is the largest of the three.

The third billy goat gets on the bridge but is also stopped by the hungry troll who threatens to devour him. The third billy goat challenges the troll and dares him to do so. Then the troll jumps up. The big billy goat gruff knocks him off the bridge with his horns. The troll falls into the stream and is carried away by the current and drowned. From then on the bridge is safe and all three goats are able to go to the rich fields around the summer farm in the hills. The three billy goats Gruff eat lots of grass and live happily ever after.

Adaptations and cultural references

Audiobooks

Comics

Films

Games

Literature

Music

Stage productions

Television

The troll character is dirty and smelly and everybody is frightened of him, and I think that heightens the pathos of the ending, because it’s a witch hunt, without any evidence. [18]

Related Research Articles

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Jørgen Engebretsen Moe was a Norwegian folklorist, bishop, poet, and author. He is best known for the Norske Folkeeventyr, a collection of Norwegian folk tales which he edited in collaboration with Peter Christen Asbjørnsen. He also served as the Bishop of the Diocese of Kristianssand from 1874 until his death in 1882.

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References

  1. Encyclopedia of American folklore: Facts on File library of American literature. Linda S. Watts. Infobase Publishing, 2007. ISBN   0-8160-5699-4 , 978-0-8160-5699-6. p. 383.
  2. "Answers.com: Asbjørnsen and Moe". Answers.com.
  3. Peter Christen Asbjørnsen; Jørgen Engebretsen Moe; Sir George Webbe Dasent. Popular tales from the Norse. Forgotten Books. p. 313. ISBN   978-1-60506-787-2.
  4. "The Goats that Got Away". The story’s original Norwegian title in full (a bit less snappy than the English one we know) was De tre Bukkene Bruse, som skulde gaa til Sæters og gjøre seg fede which roughly translates as ‘The three Billy-Goats Gruff who were going to mountain pastures to fatten themselves up’. ‘Bruse’, which is the name of the goats, was translated as ‘Gruff’ in the first English version, and this translation has stuck ever since but in fact the word refers to the hairy tuft on a goat’s forehead
  5. Three Billy Goats Gruff on YouTube
  6. Scholastic Records CC 0612, Long Play 33-1/3 RPM
  7. http://www.talethings.com TaleThings
  8. "My Neighbor Totoro (1988) - IMDb" via www.imdb.com.
  9. Dickson, Gordon (1988). Beginnings. Baen Books. pp.  51–53. ISBN   0-671-65429-2.
  10. Neil Gaiman, "Smoke and Mirrors"
  11. 'Þá missti tröllkarlinn matarlystina. Hvert er heimurinn að fara? hrópaði hann. Kiðlingurinn segir mér að éta móður sína og hún segir mér að éta manninn sinn. Hvílík fjölskylda!'; Andri Snær Magnason, Tímakistan (Reykjavík: Mál og Menning, 2013), p. 131.
  12. "The Three Billy Goats Gruff at the Water Park". norla.no. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  13. "Children's Favourites". Whirligig-tv.co.uk. 2005-11-28. Retrieved 2010-06-09.
  14. "Masters of Reality "John Brown" lyrics". genius.com.
  15. Balentine, James Scott (composer) & Sant’Ambrogio, Stephanie. "Kinderkonzerts". Cactus Pear Music Festival. Guildhian Music.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  16. "It's curtains up on Barter's '07 season". GoTricities.com. Archived from the original on 2007-05-02.
  17. "Billy Goat Gruff". Lazy Bee Scripts. 2009.
  18. Horne, Mathew & Deacon, Michael (Postscript) (May 1, 2008). "Once upon a time..." Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. Patents: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver. HBO.