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The Three Commentaries on the Spring and Autumn Annals (simplified Chinese : 春 秋 三 传 ; traditional Chinese : 春 秋 三 傳 ; pinyin :Chūnqiū Sānzhuàn), are a series of works that annotate the classic Chinese historical text the Spring and Autumn Annals . They comprise the Zuozhuan , Gongyang Zhuan and Guliang Zhuan .
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
Both the Book of Han and the Records of the Grand Historian provide detailed information on the origins of the three texts. Two further commentaries, the Zoushi Zhuan (鄒氏傳) and the Jiashi Zhuan (夾氏傳) were known to exist but are now lost.
The Book of Han or History of the Former Han is a history of China finished in 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BCE to the fall of Wang Mang in 23 CE. It is also called the Book of Former Han.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court. The work covers the world as it was then known to the Chinese and a 2500-year period from the age of the legendary Yellow Emperor to the reign of Emperor Wu of Han in the author's own time.
The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were two groups of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China. The Three Sovereigns is before The Five Emperors, The Five Emperors in later history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC. Today they may be considered culture heroes.
The Zuo zhuan, generally translated The Zuo Tradition or The Commentary of Zuo, is an ancient Chinese narrative history that is traditionally regarded as a commentary on the ancient Chinese chronicle Spring and Autumn Annals. It comprises 30 chapters covering a period from 722 to 468 BC, and focuses mainly on political, diplomatic, and military affairs from that era. The Zuo zhuan is famous for its "relentlessly realistic" style, and recounts many tense and dramatic episodes, such as battles and fights, royal assassinations and murder of concubines, deception and intrigue, excesses, citizens' oppression and insurgences, and appearances of ghosts and cosmic portents.
The Lüshi Chunqiu, also known in English as Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals, is an encyclopedic Chinese classic text compiled around 239 BC under the patronage of the Qin Dynasty Chancellor Lü Buwei. In the evaluation of Michael Carson and Michael Loewe,
The Lü shih ch'un ch'iu is unique among early works in that it is well organized and comprehensive, containing extensive passages on such subjects as music and agriculture, which are unknown elsewhere. It is also one of the longest of the early texts, extending to something over 100,000 words. (1993:324)
The Kaicheng Stone Classics (開成石經) or Tang Stone Classics are a group of twelve early Chinese classic works carved on the orders of Emperor Wenzong of the Tang dynasty in 833–837 as a reference document for scholars. The works recorded are:
The Thirteen Classics is a term for the group of thirteen classics of Confucian tradition that became the basis for the Imperial Examinations during the Song dynasty and have shaped much of East Asian culture and thought. It includes all of the Four Books and Five Classics but organizes them differently and includes the Classic of Filial Piety and Erya. They are, in approximate order of composition:
The State of Shen was a Chinese vassal state during the Zhou dynasty ruled by the Jiāng family (姜) as an earldom. At the beginning of the Spring and Autumn period the State of Shen was annexed by the State of Chu and became one of its counties.
The Gōngyáng Zhuàn is a commentary on Chunqiu, or the Spring and Autumn Annals, and is thus one of the classic books of ancient Chinese. Along with the Zuo Zhuan and the Guliang Zhuan, the work is one of the Three Commentaries on the Spring and Autumn Annals. In particular, Gongyang Zhuan is a central work to New Text Confucianism (今文經學), which advocates Confucius as an institutional reformer instead of a respected scholar, and Chunqiu as an embodiment of Confucius' holistic vision on political, social, and moral issues instead of a merely chronicle. Gongyang Zhuan significantly influenced the political institution in Han Dynasty. It fell out of favor among elites and was eventually replaced by the Zuo Zhuan. Gongyang Zhuan scholarship was reinvigorated in late Ming Dynasty and became a major source of inspiration for Chinese reformers from eighteen to early twentieth century.
The Gǔliáng Zhuàn is considered one of the classic books of ancient Chinese history. It is traditionally attributed to a writer with the surname of Guliang in the disciple tradition of Zixia, but versions of his name vary and there is no definitive way to date the text. Although it may be based in part on oral traditions from as early as the Warring States period, the first references to the work appear in the Han Dynasty, and the peak of its influence was the 1st century BCE. Along with the Zuo Zhuan and Gongyang Zhuan the work is one of the Three Commentaries on the Spring and Autumn Annals.
Liǎo was a Zhou dynasty vassal state during the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history. There were two actual states called Liao at this time. The first of these is mentioned in the Zuo Zhuan • 11th Year of Duke Huan of Lu, which records that in 701 BCE, the 40th year of the reign of King Wu of Chu: "The army of the State of Yun (郧国/鄖國) were at Pusao (蒲骚/蒲騷) together with the armies of the States of Sui, Jiao (绞国/绞國), Zhou (州国/州國) and Liao ready to attack Chu. Pusao was on the site of modern-day Tanghe County, Hubei Province then capital of the State of Liao." The Zuo Zhuan • 17th Year of Duke Ai of Lu records that at the end of the Spring and Autumn period, the Chu State Minister reflected on the achievements of King Wu of Chu in his alliances with the state of Zhao amongst others and the suppression of the state of Liao.
The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times. The Annals is the official chronicle of the State of Lu, and covers a 241-year period from 722 to 481 BC. It is the earliest surviving Chinese historical text to be arranged in annals form. Because it was traditionally regarded as having been compiled by Confucius, it was included as one of the Five Classics of Chinese literature.
Yin Mo, courtesy name Siqian, was a Confucian scholar and official of the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period of China.
The State of Han, was a minor state that existed during the Western Zhou Dynasty and early Spring and Autumn period, and centered on modern day Hancheng and Hejin. The state was created for a son, known historically as the Marquess of Han (韓侯), of King Wu of Zhou in 11th century BC. The rulers held the rank of marquess and ancestral name of Ji (姬). Han was conquered by the State of Jin and enfeoffed to Wuzi of Han in 8th century BC.
Gao You was a Chinese scholar and bureaucrat during Eastern Han dynasty under its last emperor and the warlord Cao Cao.
Lady Jin was the second known wife of Wang Yanjun, a ruler of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Min.
The Spring and Autumn Annals of the Ten Kingdoms, also known by its Chinese title Shiguo Chunqiu, is a history of the Ten Kingdoms that existed in southern China after the fall of the Tang Dynasty and before the reunification of China by the Song Dynasty. The book was written and compiled by the Qing Dynasty scholar Wu Renchen. Wu took part in the compilation of Mingshi, the official history of the Ming Dynasty, and felt that the official dynastic histories have neglected the Ten Kingdoms. The book contains 114 volumes (scrolls).
Qingji was a nobleman at the spring and autumn period. He has different portrayals in different historical records.
The Spring and Autumn Annals of Wu and Yue is an unofficial history from the time of the Eastern Han dynasty that consists of a collection sidenotes on historical events. The ten-volume book was written by Zhao Ye (赵晔), and narrates the history of battles between the states of Wu and Yue during the Spring and Autumn period. The text is richly styled and detailed in a way that resembles texts from the School of "Minor-talks" within the Hundred Schools of Thought.
Xun Yue (148–209), courtesy name Zhongyu, was an official, historian and Confucian scholar of the Eastern Han dynasty of China. Born in the influential Xun family of Yingchuan Commandery, Xun Yue served in the Han government as a historian and wrote 13 chapters of the historical text Annals of Han (漢紀), which covered the history of the Western Han dynasty.
Mo Xi (Chinese: 末喜; pinyin: Mò Xǐ; Wade–Giles: Mo4Hsi3), also called Mei Xi 妹喜, was the concubine of Jie 桀, the last ruler of the legendary Xia dynasty 夏 (trad. c. 2070 – c. 1600 BCE). According to tradition, Mo Xi, Da Ji 妲己 (the concubine of the last ruler of Shang) and Bao Si 褒姒 (the concubine of the last ruler of Western Zhou) are each blamed for the fall of these respective dynasties. According to the Wu Yue chunqiu 吳越春秋 (Spring and Autumn Annals of Wu and Yue) “Xia fell because of Mo Xi; Yin (Shang) fell because of Da Ji; Zhou fell because of Bao Si” (夏亡以妹喜，殷亡以妲己，周亡以褒姒). Neither Mo Xi nor the Lake of Alcohol, with which she is associated, is mentioned in the story of Jie and the fall of Xia in the Shiji 史記 (Records of the Grand Historian).
Li Zhuan, courtesy name Qinzhong, was a Chinese politician and of the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period of China.