|Three Crowns of the Sailor|
|Directed by||Raúl Ruiz|
|Produced by||Paulo Branco|
|Written by||Raúl Ruiz|
|Music by||Jorge Arriagada|
|Edited by||Valeria Sarmiento|
Three Crowns of the Sailor (French : Les trois couronnes du matelot) is a 1983 French fabulist film with surrealist and oneiric flourishes written and directed by Chilean director Raúl Ruiz.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
In literary criticism, the term fabulation was popularized by Robert Scholes, in his work The Fabulators, to describe the large and growing class of mostly 20th century novels that are in a style similar to magical realism, and do not fit into the traditional categories of realism or (novelistic) romance. They violate, in a variety of ways, standard novelistic expectations by drastic—and sometimes highly successful—experiments with subject matter, form, style, temporal sequence, and fusions of the everyday, fantastic, mythical, and nightmarish, in renderings that blur traditional distinctions between what is serious or trivial, horrible or ludicrous, tragic or comic. To a large extent, fabulism and postmodernism coincide; John Barth, for example, was labeled a fabulist until the term "postmodernism" was coined.
Surrealist cinema is a modernist approach to film theory, criticism, and production with origins in Paris in the 1920s. The movement used shocking, irrational, or absurd imagery and Freudian dream symbolism to challenge the traditional function of art to represent reality. Related to Dada cinema, Surrealist cinema is characterized by juxtapositions, the rejection of dramatic psychology, and a frequent use of shocking imagery. Philippe Soupault and André Breton’s 1920 book collaboration Les Champs Magnétiques is often considered to be the first Surrealist work, but it was only once Breton had completed his Surrealist Manifesto in 1924 that ‘Surrealism drafted itself an official birth certificate.’
The film opens in black and white with the motiveless murder of a professor by his student in Warsaw in 1958. The student walks through the war-torn streets whereupon he meets a sailor who offers him passage from the country through a job on board a ship. They go into a dancehall to wine and dine while they negotiate the deal; the student agrees to listen to the sailor's life story as part of the payment and then to give him three Danish crowns.
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.765 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi). Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political and economic hub. Its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The sailor tells his story – depicted in colour – but is interrupted on several occasions by the student who either questions his logic or complains that he has heard this story told time and again. The story begins in Valparaíso where, in search of employment, the sailor is told about a possible place on board a ship called the Funchalense by a local swindler known as "the blind man", whom he later finds stabbed and dying. The sailor brushes this off and obtains the berth before bidding a fond farewell to his mother and sister. He then describes his new crewmates, whose bodies are tattooed with solitary letters of the alphabet. They eat (though salt is forbidden on board) and they never defecate, sweating maggots. One throws himself overboard, yet the next day he is back on deck, saying that it was "The Other" who jumped into the sea. On another occasion, the sailor himself is trapped inside the body of "The Other", and as he wanders around the boat in bewilderment, encounters multiple visions of himself from this alternative perspective.
Valparaíso is a major city, seaport, and educational center in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile. "Greater Valparaíso" is the third largest metropolitan area in the country. Valparaíso is located about 120 kilometres (75 mi) northwest of Santiago by road and is one of the South Pacific's most important seaports. Valparaíso is the capital of Chile's second most populated administrative region and has been the headquarters for the Chilean National Congress since 1990. Valparaíso has seven universities.
The story continues to unfold through the sailor's experiences as the Funchalense sails from port to port. In Buenaventura, he befriends and becomes the benefactor of a shy, gum-chewing, doll-collecting, Corín Tellado-reading prostitute named María whom others have called "The Virgin Mary". In Singapore, the French proconsul introduces him to a small boy who is actually a venerable doctor and the sailor adopts the boy as his son. The sailor then witnesses his ship sink, only to miraculously resurface. He finds a replacement mother who is a stowaway on board and then two criminal brothers in Tangier. When he returns to Valparaíso, he finds his actual mother and sister have disappeared, encounters an eccentric Portuguese travelling salesman, and then falls in lust with the mambo dancer Matilde, a femme fatale whose mouth is her only orifice. In Tampico, the sailor meets a scholarly boy who has lived the sailor's entire life through literature. Finally, the sailor meets a wise man in Dakar, a paternal figure who inexplicably asks him for three Danish crowns.
Buenaventura is a coastal seaport city on the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Buenaventura is the main port of Colombia in the Pacific Ocean.
María del Socorro Tellado López, known as Corín Tellado, was a prolific Spanish writer of romantic novels and photonovels that were best-sellers in several Spanish-language countries. She published more than 5,000 titles and sold more than 400 million books which have been translated into several languages. She was listed in the 1994 Guinness World Records as having sold the most books written in Spanish, and earlier in 1962 UNESCO declared her the most read Spanish writer after Miguel de Cervantes.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%. The country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew.
A common motif in all of the sailor’s tales is that he has to borrow money in order to progress. Before he can live a happy life as the owner of a bar with his assorted adopted family members, he must pay off all the debts he incurred from his time on the ship. He wins most of the money that he had borrowed by gambling with the ship's captain, with the exception of the elusive three Danish crowns.
The sailor and the student drunkenly leave the dancehall, collect the three crowns from the murdered professor's house, and walk to the harbour. The sailor's story finished and the three crowns paid, the student demands his berth. When the sailor laughs at him and says the student has not earned it yet, the enraged student bludgeons the sailor to death. The sailor immediately reappears on the ship as a phantom and the student understands the true price of the job. The film concludes that there must always be one murderous living sailor among a boat of dead men. The Funchalense sails off to the open sea.
Lisa Lyon is a female bodybuilder and photo model from the United States, and is regarded as one of female bodybuilding's pioneers.
Diogo Dória is a Portuguese film actor who has worked in France and Portugal and is most associated with his films for director Manoel de Oliveira.
Three Crowns of the Sailor employs various filters to imply different cinematic states. The conversation framing the sailor's journey is mostly denoted by a black and white filter reminiscent of film noir, while the tale itself unfolds in rich colour. Cinematographer Sacha Vierny also uses a variety of cinematic techniques ranging from split-focus diopter, dolly zooms, Dutch tilts and Milton Caniff-inspired mise-en-scène. Various shots cast attention on background elements or subdue the essential subjects with focus on details and objects in the foreground. These various framing techniques often illustrate one of the "six functions of the shot" referenced in Ruiz's later film meditation, Poetics of Cinema .
In photography and cinematography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted into the optical path. The filter can be of a square or oblong shape and mounted in a holder accessory, or, more commonly, a glass or plastic disk in a metal or plastic ring frame, which can be screwed into the front of or clipped onto the camera lens.
Film noir is a cinematic term used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas, particularly those that emphasize cynical attitudes and sexual motivations. Hollywood's classical film noir period is generally regarded as extending from the early 1920s to the late 1950s. Film noir of this era is associated with a low-key, black-and-white visual style that has roots in German Expressionist cinematography. Many of the prototypical stories and much of the attitude of classic noir derive from the hardboiled school of crime fiction that emerged in the United States during the Great Depression.
A cinematographer or director of photography is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions related to the image. The study and practice of this field is referred to as cinematography.
The cinematic style of the film evokes Ruiz's meditations on the "image-situation" and the method of propagating thought through audiovisual schemas rather than through the transparent plots prescribed by "central conflict theory". Ruiz's varied shooting style illustrates the alternative evocative method mentioned in Poetics of Cinema:
Thus, some understand these distinctive frames as "jumps" between the four levels of rhetoric, which simultaneously reminds the audience of vital diegetic and symbolic filmic elements and encourages the audience to make the critical interpretive connections these cognitive gaps generate.One term for this mode of production is "visual polysemy."
Three Crowns expresses Ruiz's feelings towards acclimating to life in Paris after leaving Chile in exile. The duality of the living and the dead represented on the Funchalense, a ghost ship redolent of the Caleuche and Flying Dutchman myths (the latter hinted at by composer Jorge Arriagada's elements of Wagnerian pastiche), is representative of the diaspora after the 1973 military coup abruptly ended President Salvador Allende's democratic attempt to integrate socialism into Chilean political culture. The sailor is leaving his home city of Valparaíso to journey the world with a crew of dead sailors. All the crewmembers on the Funchalense are unable to return to their homes and thus rather than having a nationality, they belong to the boat. This is a symbolic representation of having to leave behind your nationality in a foreign land.Bérénice Reynaud has also pointed out the literary and cinematic works that Ruiz is drawing on in the film: from Samuel Taylor Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (1798), Erich Maria Remarque's The Night in Lisbon (1962) and the writings of Hans Christian Andersen, Robert Louis Stevenson, Selma Lagerlöf, Karen Blixen, Jorge Luis Borges and Julio Cortázar to the Orson Welles films The Lady from Shanghai (1947), Mr. Arkadin (1955) and The Immortal Story (1968).
Although Three Crowns has become one of Ruiz's best-known works and is regarded as one of his most accessible films, when it was screened at the Cannes Film Festival it had a high walk-out rate as it was seen as "deliberately unsynopsizable", according to critic Janet Maslin.Despite this, it was well received for a made-for-TV work, winning the director the Perspectives du Cinéma Français award at the Festival. Ruiz later claimed it was his least favorite of his own films, due to the fact that he had adhered to a conventional script when making it, rather than creating scenes that simply "wanted to exist". Nevertheless, he returned to the theme of mysterious storytelling-obsessed sailors many years later in Litoral (2008).
Charles-Émile Reynaud was a French inventor, responsible for the praxinoscope and the first projected animated films. His Pantomimes Lumineuses premiered on 28 October 1892 in Paris. His Théâtre Optique film system, patented in 1888, is also notable as the first known instance of film perforations being used. The performances predated Auguste and Louis Lumière's first paid public screening of the cinematographe on 26 December 1895, often seen as the birth of cinema.
The Three Colours trilogy is the collective title of three films directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski, two made in French and one primarily in Polish: Three Colours: Blue (1993), Three Colours: White (1994), and Three Colours: Red (1994). All three were co-written by Kieślowski and Krzysztof Piesiewicz and have musical scores by Zbigniew Preisner.
David Jay Bordwell is an American film theorist and film historian. Since receiving his PhD from the University of Iowa in 1974, he has written more than fifteen volumes on the subject of cinema including Narration in the Fiction Film (1985), Ozu and the Poetics of Cinema (1988), Making Meaning (1989), and On the History of Film Style (1997).
Sacha Vierny was a French cinematographer. He was born in Bois-le-Roi, Seine-et-Marne, Île-de-France, France, and died in Paris, France, at the age of 81. He is most famous for his work with Alain Resnais – especially for the two films Hiroshima mon amour and L'année dernière à Marienbad – and with Peter Greenaway.
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Paulo Branco is a Portuguese film producer.
The Iranian film director Abbas Kiarostami is known for uses of certain themes and cinematic techniques that are instantly recognizable in his work, from the use of child protagonists and stories that take place in rural villages, to conversations that unfold inside cars utilizing stationary mounted cameras. He often undertook a documentary style of filmmaking within narrative works, and frequently employs contemporary Iranian poetry in dialogue, movie titles, and in the thematic elements of his pictures.
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The Hypothesis of the Stolen Painting is a 1978 French experimental mystery film directed by Chilean filmmaker Raúl Ruiz and shot by cinematographer Sacha Vierny. The film was inspired by the themes of French writer Pierre Klossowski and makes references to many of Klossowski’s works including The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, The Baphomet and “La Judith de Frédérique Tonnerre.” Ruiz was originally commissioned by a French TV network to make an arts documentary on Klossowski, but what emerged is this film, a parody of the art documentary. The film was featured in film festivals after its release such as the London Film Festival in 1979. Hypothesis of the Stolen Painting has been noted as one of Ruiz’s masterpieces that challenges the boundaries of cinema and film theory.
City of Pirates is a 1983 surrealist French fantasy film directed by Raúl Ruiz. Made during Ruiz's most active and fruitful period of filmmaking in exile and shortly after his first return to Chile since the 1973 military coup, the film is considered one of his best works and exemplifies several recurring themes, motifs and elements of the director's style, including "neo-baroque" narrative and cinematography, deep depth of field, the ocean and piracy, childhood, mythology, navigation, dreams, and schizophrenia.
Memories of Overdevelopment is a 2010 Cuban film. Written and directed by Miguel Coyula, the story is based on a novel by Edmundo Desnoes, also the author of the 1968 classic Memories of Underdevelopment. This independent film was produced by David Leitner and features Cuban actor, Ron Blair as the lead character. It is the first Cuban dramatic feature film with scenes filmed both in Cuba and the United States. After its world Premiere at the 2010 Sundance Film Festival, it went to gather several awards and honors. The International Film Guide described it as one of the best films Cuba has produced.
A Magritte Award is an accolade presented by the Académie André Delvaux of Belgium to recognize cinematic achievement in the film industry. Modelled after the French César Award, the formal ceremony at which the awards are presented is one of the most prominent award ceremonies in Belgium. The various category winners are awarded a copy of a statuette. The awards, first presented in 2011, are considered the Belgian equivalent of the Academy Awards in the United States.
Poetics of Cinema is a book series of film theory by Chilean filmmaker Raúl Ruiz (1941-2011) consisting principally of lectures he gave in diverse locations between 1990 and 2009.
The Hôtel des Trois Couronnes is a hotel in Vevey, Switzerland. It was built in 1842 on the ruins of the "Belles Truches" castle, built in 1376 (1). This building once destroyed left the place to a hotel built by Philippe Franel and inaugurated on May 3, 1842 (3) under the name "Hôtel Monnet" (3), the name of its owner back then. Gabriel Monnet named it "Trois Couronnes" because he owned an inn of the same name, also situated on Vevey's Rue du Simplon (4).
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