Three Forks, Arizona

Last updated

Three Forks is a location in Apache County, Arizona where three forks of the Black River converge. It has an estimated elevation of 8,225 feet (2,507 m) above sea level. [1]

The Three Forks springsnail is found exclusively there. [2] The species is endangered and the Three Forks area has consequently been declared a critical habitat. [3] [4]

A Civilian Conservation Corps camp was established at Three Forks in 1932. [5] [6]

Related Research Articles

Willow flycatcher species of bird

The willow flycatcher is a small insect-eating, neotropical migrant bird of the tyrant flycatcher family. There are four subspecies of the willow flycatcher currently recognized, all of which breed in North America. Empidonax flycatchers are almost impossible to tell apart in the field so biologists use their songs to distinguish between them. The binomial commemorates the Scottish zoologist Thomas Stewart Traill.

Endangered Species Act of 1973 United States Law

The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is the primary law in the United States for protecting imperiled species. Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation", the ESA was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973. The U.S. Supreme Court called it “the most comprehensive legislation for the preservation of endangered species enacted by any nation.” The purposes of the ESA are two-fold: to prevent extinction and to recover species to the point the law's protections are not needed. It therefore “protect[s] species and the ecosystems upon which they depend" through different mechanisms. For example, section 4 requires the agencies overseeing the Act to designate imperiled species as threatened or endangered. Section 9 prohibits unlawful ‘take,’ of such species, which means to “harass, harm, hunt...” Section 7 directs federal agencies to use their authorities to help conserve listed species. The Act also serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The U.S. Supreme Court found that "the plain intent of Congress in enacting" the ESA "was to halt and reverse the trend toward species extinction, whatever the cost." The Act is administered by two federal agencies, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). FWS and NMFS have been delegated the authority to promulgate rules in the Code of Federal Regulations to implement the provisions of the Act.

Conservation status Indication of the chance of a species extinction, regardless of authority used

The conservation status of a group of organisms indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future. Many factors are taken into account when assessing conservation status: not simply the number of individuals remaining, but the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, and known threats. Various systems of conservation status exist and are in use at international, multi-country, national and local levels as well as for consumer use.

California red-legged frog species of amphibian

The California red-legged frog is a species of frog found in California (USA) and northern Baja California (Mexico). It was formerly considered a subspecies of the northern red-legged frog. The frog is an IUCN vulnerable species, and a federally listed threatened species of the United States, and is protected by law.

Philippine crocodile species of reptile

The Philippine crocodile, also known as the Mindoro crocodile, the Philippine freshwater crocodile, the bukarot in Ilocano, and more generally as a buwaya in most Filipino lowland cultures, is one of two species of crocodiles found in the Philippines; the other is the larger saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus). The Philippine crocodile, the species endemic only to the country, became data deficient to critically endangered in 2008 from exploitation and unsustainable fishing methods, such as dynamite fishing. Conservation methods are being taken by the Dutch/Filipino Mabuwaya foundation, the Crocodile Conservation Society and the Zoological Institute of HerpaWorld in Mindoro island. It is strictly prohibited to kill a crocodile in the country, and it is punishable by law.

<i>Amaranthus brownii</i> species of plant

Amaranthus brownii was an annual herb in the family Amaranthaceae. The plant was found only on the small island of Nihoa in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, growing on rocky outcrops at altitudes of 120–215 m (394–705 ft). It was one of nine species of Amaranthus in the Hawaiian Islands, but was the only endemic Hawaiian species of the genus. It was first discovered during the Tanager Expedition in 1923 by botanist Edward Leonard Caum. A. brownii differed from other Hawaiian species of Amaranthus with its spineless leaf axils, linear leaves, and indehiscent fruits.

Kanab ambersnail subspecies of mollusc

The Kanab ambersnail, scientific name Oxyloma haydeni kanabense or Oxyloma kanabense, is a critically endangered subspecies or species of small, air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusc in the family Succineidae, the amber snails. The common name of the amber snails is based on the shell, which is translucent and when empty usually resembles the color of amber.

Bonytail chub species of fish

The bonytail chub or bonytail is a cyprinid freshwater fish native to the Colorado River basin of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming in the southwestern United States; it has been extirpated from the part of the basin in Mexico. It was once abundant and widespread in the basin, its numbers and range have declined to the point where it has been listed as endangered since 1980 (ESA) and 1986 (IUCN), a fate shared by the other large Colorado basin endemic fish species like the Colorado pikeminnow, humpback chub, and razorback sucker. It is now the rarest of the endemic big-river fishes of the Colorado River. There are 20 species in the genus Gila, seven of which are found in Arizona.

California species of special concern

"Species of special concern" is a protective legal designation assigned by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) to wildlife species that are at risk. It is often abbreviated as SSC or CSC.

Species translocation

Translocation in wildlife conservation is the capture, transport and release or introduction of species, habitats or other ecological material from one location to another. It contrasts with reintroduction, a term which is generally used to denote the introduction into the wild of species from captive stock.

The San Bernardino springsnail is an endangered species of freshwater snail in the family Hydrobiidae. This species is endemic to a small number of springs in the USA and northern Mexico.

The Bruneau hot springsnail, scientific name Pyrgulopsis bruneauensis, is a species of very small freshwater snail that has a gill and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Hydrobiidae. This species is endemic to the United States, Bruneau River in Idaho. Its natural habitat is thermal springs. It is threatened by habitat loss.

<i>Eleutherodactylus juanariveroi</i> Species of amphibian

Eleutherodactylus juanariveroi, the Puerto Rican wetland frog or, is an endangered species of coqui, a frog species, endemic to Puerto Rico. It was discovered in 2005 by Neftalí Rios, and was named after Puerto Rican herpetologist Juan A. Rivero, in honor of his contributions to Puerto Rican herpetology. It is only found in the old Naval Base of Sábana Seca in Toa Baja, Puerto Rico. It is characterized by a high-frequency, chip-like sound, a light-brown skin color, and a strip between the eyes. It is the smallest species of coqui.

Endangered species Species of organisms facing a very high risk of extinction

An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct in the near future. Endangered (EN), as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations in the IUCN's schema after Critically Endangered (CR). In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3,079 animal and 2,655 plant species as endangered (EN) worldwide. The figures for 1998 were 1,102 and 1,197 respectively. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating protected areas. Population numbers, trends and species' conservation status can be found at the lists of organisms by population.

Socorro springsnail species of mollusc

The Socorro springsnail, scientific name Pyrgulopsis neomexicana, is an endangered species of minute freshwater snail with a gill and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Hydrobiidae, the mud snails.

Sagebrush Cooperative

The Sagebrush Cooperative is collaborative group based in southeastern Oregon and adjacent portions of Idaho and Nevada involving land managers, owners, and interest groups with the goal of improved management and conservation of shrub steppe systems.

Canebrake Ecological Reserve

Canebrake Ecological Reserve is a 6,700-acre (27 km2) nature reserve in the South Fork Valley of Kern County, 20 miles (32 km) east of Lake Isabella, California. It is located in the Southern Sierra Nevada region.

Kern River Preserve

The Audubon Kern River Preserve is a riparian nature reserve owned by the National Audubon Society in the US state of California, near Weldon in Kern County.

Angonoka tortoise species of reptile

The angonoka tortoise is a critically endangered species of tortoise severely threatened by poaching for the illegal pet trade. It is endemic to Madagascar. It is also known as the angonoka, ploughshare tortoise, Madagascar tortoise, or Madagascar angulated tortoise.

Loggerhead sea turtle policies of the Barack Obama Administration (2009-2017)

The loggerhead sea turtle, is protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. It was originally listed as a threatened species on July 28, 1978. The loggerhead turtle is the most prolific species of sea turtle in U.S. coastal waters.


  1. "Feature Detail Report for: Three Forks". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey.
  2. Martinez, Michael A. (2009). "Population Size Estimates for Pyrgulopsis trivialis (Hydrobiidae), an Imperiled Aquatic Snail from East-Central Arizona". Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. 41 (1): 30–33. doi:10.2181/036.041.0105. ISSN   0193-8509.
  3. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the Three Forks Springsnail and Threatened Status for the San Bernardino Springsnail Throughout Their Ranges and Designation of Designation of Critical Habitat for Both Species; Final Rule (77 FR 23060) (PDF), Department of the Interior
  4. Service, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. "Two Arizona Springsnails to Receive Endangered Species Act Protection". Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  5. "Blue Region Recalls Days of Coronado". Arizona Republic. 14 May 1934. p. 1. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  6. Moore, Robert Joseph (2006). The Civilian Conservation Corps in Arizona's Rim Country: Working in the Woods. University of Nevada Press. pp. 48–50. ISBN   978-0-87417-677-3.

Coordinates: 33°51′17″N109°18′51″W / 33.85472°N 109.31417°W / 33.85472; -109.31417