Three Furnaces

Last updated

The term Three Furnaces (simplified Chinese : 火炉 ; traditional Chinese : 火爐 ; pinyin :sān dà huǒlú) refers to the especially hot and oppressively humid summer weather in several major cities in the Yangtze River Valley, within China. It was coined during the ROC period of China, and refers to the following cities: [1]

Simplified Chinese characters Standardized Chinese characters developed in mainland China

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China, Malaysia and Singapore.

Traditional Chinese characters Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han dynasty and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.

Pinyin Chinese romanization scheme for Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.


Sometimes, Changsha or Nanchang are added, making the Four Furnaces ( 火炉). In addition to the above 5 cities, Hangzhou and Shanghai are added to form the Seven Furnaces (七大火炉).

Changsha Prefecture-level city in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China. It covers 11,819 km2 (4,563 sq mi) and is bordered by Yueyang and Yiyang to the north, Loudi to the west, Xiangtan and Zhuzhou to the south, Yichun and Pingxiang of Jiangxi province to the east. According to the 2010 census, Changsha has 7,044,118 residents, constituting 10.72% of the province's population. It is part of the Chang-Zhu-Tan city cluster or megalopolis.

Nanchang Prefecture-level city in Jiangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Nanchang is the capital and largest city of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. As of November 2017, the total population in Nanchang City was 5,246,600, while the urban population is 2,887,800. Located in the north-central part of the province and in the hinterland of Poyang Lake Plain, it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake. Because of its strategic location connecting the prosperous East and South China, it has become a major railway hub in Southern China in recent decades.

Hangzhou Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Hangzhou, formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China. It sits at the head of Hangzhou Bay, which separates Shanghai and Ningbo. Hangzhou grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and has been one of the most renowned and prosperous cities in China for much of the last millennium. The city's West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage site immediately west of the city, is among its best-known attractions. A study conducted by PwC and China Development Research Foundation saw Hangzhou ranked first among "Chinese Cities of Opportunity". Hangzhou is also considered a World City with a "Beta+" classification according to GaWC.

Yet the above names originate mainly from popular opinion, not necessarily on the basis of data. Meteorologists only give the title "Three Furnaces" to Fuzhou, Hangzhou, and Chongqing.[ citation needed ] The next seven hottest cities (2000—2009), are Changsha, Wuhan, Haikou, Nanchang, Guangzhou, Xi'an, and Nanning. Unlike the other cities, Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi province, lies within the northwest.

Fuzhou Prefecture-level city in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Fuzhou, alternately romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area.

Haikou Prefecture-level city in Hainan, Peoples Republic of China

Haikou is the capital and most populous city of the Chinese province of Hainan. It is situated on the northern coast of Hainan, by the mouth of the Nandu River. The northern part of the city is the district of Haidian Island, which is separated from the main part of Haikou by the Haidian River, a branch of the Nandu. Administratively, Haikou is a prefecture-level city, comprising four districts, and covering 2,280 square kilometres (880 sq mi). There are 2,046,189 inhabitants in the built up area all living within the 4 urban districts of the city.

See also

Related Research Articles

Wuhan Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Wuhan is the capital and largest city of the Chinese province of Hubei. It is the most populous city in Central China, with a population of over 10 million, the seventh most populous Chinese city, and one of the nine National Central Cities of China. It lies in the eastern Jianghan Plain, on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River's intersection with the Han river. Arising out of the conglomeration of three cities, Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang, Wuhan is known as "China's Thoroughfare" (九省通衢), and holds sub-provincial status.

Shanghai railway station railway station in Shanghai, China (for metro station, see Q849377)

Shanghai station is one of the four major railway stations in Shanghai, China, the others being Shanghai South, Shanghai Hongqiao, and Shanghai West (Shanghaixi).

Z-series trains are a train service offered by China National Railway. Z stands for Zhida Tekuai. Most Z-series trains do not have any intermediary stops, not even technical stops for changing locomotives or drivers. However, some of these trains later had a few stops added to their schedule to boost the number of passengers.

The 2010 Chinese Super League season was the seventh season since the establishment of the Chinese Super League, the seventeenth season of a professional association football league and the 49th top-tier league season in China.

Bridges and tunnels across the Yangtze River Wikimedia list article

The bridges and tunnels across the Yangtze River carry rail and road traffic across China's longest and largest river and form a vital part of the country's transportation infrastructure. The river bisects China proper from west to east, and every major north-south bound highway and railway must cross the Yangtze. Large urban centers along the river such as Chongqing, Wuhan, and Nanjing also have urban mass transit rail lines crossing the Yangtze.

Yichang–Wanzhou railway railway line

The Yichang–Wanzhou railway, or the Yiwan railway connects the cities of Yichang and Wanzhou via Lichuan, Hubei. It was completed in 2010, and will be part of the future Huhanrong passenger-dedicated line from Shanghai to Wuhan to Chengdu. Out of the line's total 377 km (234 mi) length, 288 km (179 mi) runs on bridges or in tunnels. According to the chief engineer, Zhang Mei, the line was the most difficult ever constructed in China. Operation started on 22 December 2010.

Chongqing–Lichuan railway railway line

The Chongqing–Lichuan railway, or the Yuli railway is a railway connecting central Chongqing with the Hubei city of Lichuan. The 244-km long railway, connecting Chongqing North railway station with the Lichuan Station on the Yiwan railway, is a section of the Huhanrong Passenger Dedicated Line, which extends to Wuhan, Nanjing, and Shanghai.

National Central City government-designated group of major Chinese cities

National Central City was a concept proposed by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China in 2005 as a first step in reforming urbanization in China. The National Central Cities are described as a group of cities in charge of leading, developing, and performing tasks in political, economic, and cultural aspects.

Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu passenger railway railway line

Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu passenger railway, is a fully completed high-speed railway corridor operated by China Railway High-speed. The Chinese name of the railway line, Huhanrong, is a combination of the abbreviations for Shanghai, Wuhan, and Chengdu, three major cities along the line.

G50 Shanghai–Chongqing Expressway Road in western China

The Shanghai–Chongqing Expressway, commonly referred to as the Huyu Expressway is an east-west bound expressway that connects the cities of Shanghai, China in Yangtze River Delta, and Chongqing in western China. The expressway runs through six provinces/municipalities and adjoin major cities such as Wuhu, Anqing, Wuhan and Yichang, roughly parallel to G42 Shanghai-Chengdu Expressway to its south. The thoroughfare begins at Huqingping Outer Ring Interchange near Hongqiao International Airport, where it meets S20 Outer Ring Expressway in Shanghai, and terminates at an interchange in Jiangbei District, where the highway joins G75 Lanzhou-Haikou Expressway. It is fully complete and spans 1,900 km (1,200 mi) in length.

Wuhan–Jiujiang railway

The Wuhan–Jiujiang railway or Wujiu railway, is a double-track, electrified railroad in central China between Wuhan in Hubei Province and Jiujiang in Jiangxi Province. The line is 258 km (160 mi) long and follows the south bank of the Yangtze River from Wuchang District in Wuhan to Lushan Station in Jiujiang. Major cities and towns along route include Wuhan, Huarong, Huanggang, Ezhou, Huangshi, Daye Yangxin, Ruichang and Jiujiang.

The Hankou–Danjiangkou railway or Handan railway, is a railroad in central China between Wuhan and Danjiangkou in Hubei Province. The line is 411 km (255 mi) long and follows the Han River from Wuhan’s Hankou District north to Danjiangkou near the border with Henan Province. The line was built from 1958 to 1966 and double-tracked in 2009. Major cities and towns along route include Wuhan, Anlu, Suizhou, Zaoyang, Xiangyang, Laohekou and Danjiangkou.

<i>Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects</i>

The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects is a compendium of dictionaries for 42 local varieties of Chinese following a common format. The individual dictionaries cover dialects spread across the dialect groups identified in the Language Atlas of China:

Hangzhou–Changsha high-speed railway

Hangzhou–Changsha high-speed railway is a China Railway High-speed line connecting Hangzhou, Nanchang, and Changsha, respectively the provincial capitals of Zhejiang, Jiangxi, and Hunan. This railway forms a section of the Shanghai–Kunming high-speed railway, part of the National Railway Grid Network, as one of the four major east-west lines.

Twelve Views of Bayu are popular scenic views in and around the city of Chongqing, China. Ba and Yu are old names of Chongqing in imperial time. Influenced by Eight Views of Xiaoxiang in Hunan Province, people in Chongqing listed their own most beloved views during the reign of Tianshun Emperor of Ming Dynasty. Scenic views in the list changed throughout the history. Some scenic views appeared in earlier lists no longer exist in modern days due to the change of physical geography, landscapes and land-uses.

Yanjing Beer 2018 Chinese FA Cup was the 20th edition of the Chinese FA Cup. On 29 December 2017, Yanjing Beer extended their sponsorship contract for another four years (2018–2021).


  1. 为什么重庆、武汉、南京有“三大火炉”之称? (in Chinese). Guangzhou Popular Science News Net (广州科普资讯网). 2007-09-12. Archived from the original on 2014-11-12. Retrieved 2010-11-29.