Three Furnaces

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The term Three Furnaces (simplified Chinese : 火炉 ; traditional Chinese : 火爐 ; pinyin :sān dà huǒlú) refers to the especially hot and oppressively humid summer weather in several major cities in the Yangtze River Valley, within China. It was coined during the ROC period of China, and refers to the following cities: [1]

Simplified Chinese characters Standardized Chinese characters developed in mainland China

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China, Malaysia and Singapore.

Traditional Chinese characters Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han dynasty and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.

Pinyin Chinese romanization scheme for Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

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Sometimes, Changsha or Nanchang are added, making the Four Furnaces ( 火炉). In addition to the above 5 cities, Hangzhou and Shanghai are added to form the Seven Furnaces (七大火炉).

Changsha Prefecture-level city in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China. It covers 11,819 km2 (4,563 sq mi) and is bordered by Yueyang and Yiyang to the north, Loudi to the west, Xiangtan and Zhuzhou to the south, Yichun and Pingxiang of Jiangxi province to the east. According to the 2010 census, Changsha has 7,044,118 residents, constituting 10.72% of the province's population. It is part of the Chang-Zhu-Tan city cluster or megalopolis.

Nanchang Prefecture-level city in Jiangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Nanchang is the capital and largest city of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China. As of November 2017, the total population in Nanchang City was 5,246,600, while the urban population is 2,887,800. Located in the north-central part of the province and in the hinterland of Poyang Lake Plain, it is bounded on the west by the Jiuling Mountains, and on the east by Poyang Lake. Because of its strategic location connecting the prosperous East and South China, it has become a major railway hub in Southern China in recent decades.

Hangzhou Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Hangzhou, formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China. It sits at the head of Hangzhou Bay, which separates Shanghai and Ningbo. Hangzhou grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and has been one of the most renowned and prosperous cities in China for much of the last millennium. The city's West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage site immediately west of the city, is among its best-known attractions. A study conducted by PwC and China Development Research Foundation saw Hangzhou ranked first among "Chinese Cities of Opportunity". Hangzhou is also considered a World City with a "Beta+" classification according to GaWC.

Yet the above names originate mainly from popular opinion, not necessarily on the basis of data. Meteorologists only give the title "Three Furnaces" to Fuzhou, Hangzhou, and Chongqing.[ citation needed ] The next seven hottest cities (2000—2009), are Changsha, Wuhan, Haikou, Nanchang, Guangzhou, Xi'an, and Nanning. Unlike the other cities, Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi province, lies within the northwest.

Fuzhou Prefecture-level city in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Fuzhou, alternately romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area.

Haikou Prefecture-level city in Hainan, Peoples Republic of China

Haikou is the capital and most populous city of the Chinese province of Hainan. It is situated on the northern coast of Hainan, by the mouth of the Nandu River. The northern part of the city is the district of Haidian Island, which is separated from the main part of Haikou by the Haidian River, a branch of the Nandu. Administratively, Haikou is a prefecture-level city, comprising four districts, and covering 2,280 square kilometres (880 sq mi). There are 2,046,189 inhabitants in the built up area all living within the 4 urban districts of the city.

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Wuhan Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

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References

  1. 为什么重庆、武汉、南京有“三大火炉”之称? (in Chinese). Guangzhou Popular Science News Net (广州科普资讯网). 2007-09-12. Archived from the original on 2014-11-12. Retrieved 2010-11-29.