|Three Hundred Tang Poems|
The Three Hundred Tang Poems (Chinese :唐詩三百首) is an anthology of poems from the Chinese Tang dynasty (618–907) first compiled around 1763 by Sun Zhu (1722–1778 ), the Qing Dynasty scholar, also known as Hengtang Tuishi (蘅塘退士 "Retired Master of Hengtang"). Various later editions also exist. All editions contain slightly more than 300 total poems: in this case, three hundred means not exactly 300 but refers to an estimative quantification; the ten, twenty, or more extra poems represent a sort of a good luck bonus, analogous to the "baker's dozen" in the West. Even more, the number 300 (or more exactly 305) was a classic number for a poetry collection due to the influence of the Classic of Poetry (Shijing 詩經), which was generally known as The Three Hundred Poems.
Dissatisfied with the anthology Poems by a Thousand Masters (Qianjiashi 千家詩) compiled by Liu Kezhuang in the late Southern Song, and influenced by Ming Dynasty poetry anthologies, Sun selected the poems based on their popularity and educational value. The collection has been popular ever since and can be found in many Chinese households. For centuries, elementary students memorized the poems and used them to learn to read and write. It contains poems by Du Fu, Li Bai, Wang Wei, Li Shangyin, Meng Haoran, Han Yu, Du Mu, Bai Juyi, Liu Changqing, Cen Shen, Wang Changling, Wei Yingwu, and more.Li He is one notable Tang poet absent from the compilation.
The original Qing Dynasty version of the 300 Tang Poems was organized by the poem's formal type, of which there were seven:
Out of 317 poems in one edition, 90 were in the gushi form and 227 were in the lüshi or the jueju forms.
The poets of the Tang shi include a number of authors ranging from the well-known and famous to obscure or anonymous poets, and even include at least one emperor. The poet with the most pieces included in this collection is Du Fu, with thirty-nine. Li Bai is a close runner-up, with thirty-four. Wang Wei has twenty-nine poems included in the anthology and Li Shangyin has twenty-four. Meng Haoran has fifteen, Wei Yingwu twelve, Liu Changqing eleven, and Du Mu ten. After that, each of the other poets' included pieces number in the single digits; however, some of these poets are quite important, such as Liu Zongyuan or Bai Juyi. Some important poets,[ citation needed ] such as Li He, are not represented at all.
|Name||Traditional||Simplified||Pinyin||Wade-Giles||Dates||Number of included pieces|
|Bai Juyi||白居易||白居易||Bái Jūyì||Po Chü-i||772–846||6|
|Cen Shen||岑參||岑参||Cén Shēn||Ts'en Shen||715–770||7|
|Chang Jian||常建||常建||Cháng Jiàn||Ch'ang Chien||708–765?||2|
|Chen Tao||陳陶||陳陶||Chén Táo||Ch'en T'ao||824–882||1|
|Chen Zi'ang||陳子昂||陈子昂||Chén Zĭáng||Ch‛en Tzŭ-ang||661?–702||1|
|Cui Hao||崔顥||崔颢||Cuī Hào||Ts'ui Hao||704?–754||4|
|Cui Hu||崔護||崔护||Cuī Hù||Ts'ui Hu||772-846||1|
|Cui Shu||崔曙||崔曙||Cuī Shǔ||Ts'ui Shu||704–739||1|
|Cui Tu||崔塗||崔涂||Cuī Tú||Ts'ui T'u||854–?||2|
|Dai Shulun||戴叔倫||戴叔伦||Dài Shūlún||Tai Shu-lun||732–789||1|
|Du Fu||杜甫||杜甫||Dù Fǔ||Tu Fu||712–770||39|
|Du Mu||杜牧||杜牧||Dù Mù||Tu Mu||803–852||10|
|Du Qiuniang (Lady Du Qiu)||杜秋娘||杜秋娘||Dù Qiūniáng||Tu Ch'iu-niang||?–825?||1|
|Du Shenyan||杜審言||杜审言||Dù Shěnyán||Tu Shen-yen||646–708?||1|
|Du Xunhe||杜荀鶴||杜荀鹤||Dù Xúnhè||Tu Hsün-hê||846–904||1|
|Gao Pian||高駢||高骈||Gāo Pián||Kao Pian||821-887||1|
|Gao Shi||高適||高适||Gāo Shì||Kao Shi||716?–765||2|
|Gu Kuang||顧況||顾况||Gù Kuàng||Ku K'uang||725—814||1|
|Han Hong||韓翃||韩翃||Hán Hóng||Han Hung||754?-784?||3|
|Han Wo||韓偓||韩偓||Hán Wò||Han Wo||844–923||1|
|Han Yu||韓愈||韩愈||Hán Yù||Han Yü||768–824||4|
|He Zhizhang||賀知章||贺知章||Hè Zhīzhāng||He Chih-chang||659?–744||1|
|Huangfu Ran||皇甫冉||皇甫冉||Huángfǔ Rǎn||Huang-fu Jan||716–769||1|
|Jia Dao||賈島||贾岛||Jiǎ Dǎo||Chia Tao||779–843||1|
|Jin Changxu||金昌緒||金昌绪||Jīn Chāngxù||Chin Ch'ang-hsü||?||1|
|Li Bai (Li Po)||李白||李白||Lǐ Bái (Lǐ Bó)||Li Pai (Li Po)||701–762||34|
|Li Duan||李端||李端||Lǐ Duān||Li Tuan||743–782||1|
|Li He||李賀||李贺||Lǐ Hè||Li He||790-816||2|
|Li Pin||李頻||李频||Lǐ Pín||Li P'in||818–876||1|
|Li Qi||李頎||李颀||Lǐ Qí||Li Ch'i||690–751||7|
|Li Shangyin||李商隱||李商隐||Lǐ Shāngyǐn||Li Shang-yin||813?–858?||24|
|Li Shen||李紳||李绅||Lǐ Shēn||Li Shen||772-846||1|
|Li Ye (Li Jilan)||李冶||李冶||Lǐ Yě||Li Yeh||?–784||18|
|Li Yi||李益||李益||Lǐ Yì||Li I||748?–827?||3|
|Liu Changqing||劉長卿||刘长卿||Liú Chángqīng||Liu Chang-ch'ing||710?–789?||11|
|Liu Fangping||劉方平||刘方平||Liú Fāngping||Liu Fang-p'ing||mid 8th century||2|
|Liu Jixu||劉脊虛||刘脊虚||Liú Jǐxū||Liu Chi-hsü||?||1|
|Liu Yuxi||劉禹錫||刘禹锡||Liú Yǔxī||Liu Yü-hsi||772–842||4|
|Liu Zhongyong||柳中庸||柳中庸||Liǔ Zhōngyōng||Liu Chung-yung||?–775?||1|
|Liu Zongyuan||柳宗元||柳宗元||Liǔ Zōngyuán||Liu Tsung-yüan||773–819||5|
|Lu Lun||盧綸||卢纶||Lú Lún||Lu Lun||739–799||6|
|Luo Binwang||駱賓王||骆宾王||Luò Bīnwáng||Lo Pin-wang||640?–684?||1|
|Ma Dai||馬戴||马戴||Mǎ Dài||Ma Tai||799–869||2|
|Meng Haoran||孟浩然||孟浩然||Mèng Hàorán||Meng Hao-jan||689?–740||15|
|Meng Jiao||孟郊||孟郊||Mèng Jiāo||Meng Chiao||751–814||2|
|Nie Yizhong||聶夷中||聂夷中||Niè Yízhōng||Nie YiChong||837-884||1|
|Pei Di||裴迪||裴迪||Péi Dí||Pei Ti||716?–?||1|
|Qian Qi||錢起||钱起||Qián Qǐ||Ch'ien Ch'i||722?–780?||3|
|Qin Taoyu||秦韜玉||秦韬玉||Qín Tāoyù||Ch'in T'ao-yü||late 9th century||1|
|Qiu Wei||邱為||邱为||Qiū Wéi||Ch'iu Wei||694–789?||1|
|Qiwu Qian||綦毋潛||綦毋潜||Qíwú Qián||Ch'i-wu Ch'ien||692?–755?||1|
|Quan Deyu||權德輿||权德舆||Quán Déyú||Ch'uan Tê-yu||759–818||1|
|Rong Yu||戎昱||戎昱||Róng Yù||Jong Yu||740-800||2|
|Shen Quanqi||沈佺期||沈佺期||Shěn Quánqī||Shên Ch'üan-ch'i||650?–713?||2|
|Shi Jianwu||施肩吾||施肩吾||Shī Jiānwú||Shi Chuan'wu||780-861||1|
|Sikong Shu||司空曙||司空曙||Sī KōngShǔ||Ssû-k'ung Shu||720?–790?||3|
|Song Zhiwen||宋之問||宋之问||Sòng Zhīwèn||Sung Chih-wên||656?–712?||1|
|Tang Xuanzong (Emperor Xuanzong of Tang)||唐玄宗||唐玄宗||Táng Xuánzōng||T'ang Hsüan-tsung||685–762||1|
|Wang Bo||王勃||王勃||Wáng Bó||Wang Po||649?–676||1|
|Wang Changling||王昌齡||王昌龄||Wáng Chānglíng||Wang Ch'ang-ling||698–756||8|
|Wang Han||王翰||王翰||Wáng Hàn||Wang Han||687-726||1|
|Wang Jian||王建||王建||Wáng Jiàn||Wang Chien||?–830?||1|
|Wang Wan||王灣||王灣||Wáng Wān||Wang Wan||693–751||1|
|Wang Wei||王維||王维||Wáng Wéi||Wang Wei||699–759||29|
|Wang Zhihuan||王之渙||王之涣||Wáng Zhīhuàn||Wang Tsu-huan||688–742||2|
|Wei Yingwu (Wei Yinwu)||韋應物||韦应物||Wéi Yìngwù||Wei Ying-wu||737–792||12|
|Wei Zhuang||韋莊||韦庄||Wéi Zhuāng||Wei Chuang||836–910||2|
|Wen Tingyun||溫庭筠||温庭筠||Wēn Tīngyūn||Wen T'ing-yun||812–870||4|
|Wu Mingshi (Anonymous)||無名氏||无名氏||Wúmíngshì||Wu-ming-shih||?||1|
|Xibi Ren (Anonymous)||西鄙人||西鄙人||Xībǐ Rén||Hsi-pi Jen||?||1|
|Xu Hun||許渾||许浑||Xǔ Hún||Hsü Hun||791–858||2|
|Xue Feng||薛逢||薛逢||Xuē Féng||Hsueh Feng||mid 9th century||1|
|Yuan Jie||元結||元结||Yuán Jiē||Yüan Chieh||723–772||2|
|Yuan Zhen||元稹||元稹||Yuán Zhěn||Yüan Chen||779–831||4|
|Zhang Hu||張祜||张祜||Zhāng Hù||Chang Hu||785 [ better source needed ]–849?[ citation needed ]||5|
|Zhang Ji from Hubei||張繼||张继||Zhāng Jì||Chang Chi||715?–779?||1|
|Zhang Ji from Jiangnan||張籍||张籍||Zhāng Jí||Chang Chi||766–830?||1|
|Zhang Jiuling||張九齡||张九龄||Zhāng Jiǔlíng||Chang Chiu-ling||678?–740||5|
|Zhang Mi (Zhang Bi)||張泌||张泌||Zhāng Mì||Chang Mi||late 9th century||1|
|Zhang Qiao||張喬||张喬||Zhāng Qiáo||Chang Ch'iao||?||1|
|Zhang Xu||張旭||张旭||Zhāng Xù||Chang Hsü||658?–747?||1|
|Zhang Zhihe||張志和||张志和||Zhāng Zhìhé||Chang Chi'he||732-774||1|
|Zheng Tian||鄭畋||郑畋||Zhèng Tián||Cheng T'ien||824?–882?||1|
|Zhu Qingyu||朱慶餘||朱慶余||Zhū Qìngyú||Chu Ch'ing-yü||early 9th century||2|
|Zu Yong||祖詠||祖咏||Zǔ Yǒng||Tsu Yung||699–746?||2|
The first complete translation of the Three Hundred Tang Poems into English was published as The Jade Mountain, translated by Witter Bynner and Jiang Kanghu. From 1929 through 1972 it went through ten editions.It has also been translated by Peter Harris in 2009.
Li Bai, also known as Li Bo, courtesy name Taibai, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights. He and his friend Du Fu (712–770) were the two most prominent figures in the flourishing of Chinese poetry in the Tang dynasty, which is often called the "Golden Age of Chinese Poetry". The expression "Three Wonders" denote Li Bai's poetry, Pei Min's swordplay, and Zhang Xu's calligraphy.
Wang Wei was a Chinese poet, musician, painter, and politician during the Tang dynasty. He was one of the most famous men of arts and letters of his time. Many of his poems are preserved, and twenty-nine were included in the highly influential 18th-century anthology Three Hundred Tang Poems.
Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language. While this last term comprises Classical Chinese, Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Yue Chinese, and other historical and vernacular forms of the language, its poetry generally falls into one of two primary types, Classical Chinese poetry and Modern Chinese poetry.
Classical Chinese poetry is traditional Chinese poetry written in Classical Chinese and typified by certain traditional forms, or modes; traditional genres; and connections with particular historical periods, such as the poetry of the Tang Dynasty. Its existence was documented at least as early as the publication of the Classic of Poetry. Various combinations of forms and genres exist. Many or most of these were developed by the end of the Tang Dynasty, in 907 CE.
Bai Juyi, courtesy name Letian, was a renowned Chinese poet and Tang dynasty government official. Many of his poems concern his career or observations made about everyday life, including as governor of three different provinces.
Meng Haoran was a major Tang dynasty poet, and a somewhat older contemporary of Wang Wei, Li Bai and Du Fu. Despite his brief pursuit of an official career, Meng Haoran mainly lived in and wrote about the area in which he was born and raised, in what is now Hubei province, China. Meng Haoran was a major influence on other contemporary and subsequent poets of the High Tang era because of his focus on nature as a main topic for poetry. Meng Haoran was also prominently featured in the Qing dynasty poetry anthology Three Hundred Tang Poems, having the fifth largest number of his poems included, for a total of fifteen, exceeded only by Du Fu, Li Bai, Wang Wei, and Li Shangyin. These poems of Meng Haoran were available in the English translations by Witter Bynner and Kiang Kanghu, by 1920, with the publication of The Jade Mountain. The Three Hundred Tang Poems also has two poems by Li Bai addressed to Meng Haoran, one in his praise and one written in farewell on the occasion of their parting company. Meng Haoran was also influential to Japanese poetry.
Liu Yuxi (772–842) was a Chinese poet, philosopher, and essayist, active during the Tang Dynasty.
The arts of China have varied throughout its ancient history, divided into periods by the ruling dynasties of China and changing technology, but still containing a high degree of continuity. Different forms of art have been influenced by great philosophers, teachers, religious figures and even political leaders. The arrival of Buddhism and modern Western influence produced especially large changes. Chinese art encompasses fine arts, folk arts and performance arts.
Kanshi (漢詩) is a Japanese term for Chinese poetry in general as well as the Japanese poetry written in Chinese by Japanese poets. It literally means "Han poetry". Kanshi was the most popular form of poetry during the early Heian period in Japan among Japanese aristocrats and proliferated until the modern period.
Tang poetry refers to poetry written in or around the time of or in the characteristic style of China's Tang dynasty, and/or follows a certain style, often considered as the Golden Age of Chinese poetry. The Quantangshi includes over 48,900 poems written by over 2,200 authors. During the Tang dynasty, poetry continued to be an important part of social life at all levels of society. Scholars were required to master poetry for the civil service exams, but the art was theoretically available to everyone. This led to a large record of poetry and poets, a partial record of which survives today. Two of the most famous poets of the period were Li Bai and Du Fu. Tang poetry has had an ongoing influence on world literature in modern times.
Jueju, or Chinese quatrain, is a type of jintishi that grew popular among Chinese poets in the Tang Dynasty (618–907), although traceable to earlier origins. Jueju poems are always quatrains; or, more specifically, a matched pair of couplets, with each line consisting of five or seven syllables.
Wei Yingwu , courtesy name Yibo(義博), art name Xizhai(西齋) was a Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty. Twelve of Wei's poems were included in the influential Three Hundred Tang Poems anthology. He was also known by his honorific name Wei Suzhou(韋蘇州); his service as the governor of Suzhou earned him the name.
Qiu Wei (traditional Chinese: 邱為; simplified Chinese: 邱为; pinyin: Qiū Wéi, 694–789? was a Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty, with one of his poems being included in the famous anthology Three Hundred Tang Poems.
Gushi is one of the main poetry forms defined in Classical Chinese poetry, literally meaning "old poetry" or "old style poetry": gushi is a technical term for certain historically exemplary poems, together with later poetry composed in this formal style.
Regulated verse – also known as Jintishi – is a development within Classical Chinese poetry of the shi main formal type. Regulated verse is one of the most important of all Classical Chinese poetry types. Although often regarded as a Tang Dynasty innovation, the origin of regulated verse within the Classical Chinese poetic tradition is associated with Shen Yue (441–513), based on his "four tones and eight defects" (四聲八病) theory regarding tonality. There are three types of regulated verse: the eight-lined lüshi, the four-lined jueju, and the linked couplets of indeterminate length pailu. All regulated verse forms are rhymed on the even lines, with one rhyme being used throughout the poem. Also, and definitionally, the tonal profile of the poem is controlled. Furthermore, semantic and tonal parallelism is generally required of certain interior couplets. During the Tang Dynasty, the "Shen-Song" team of Shen Quanqi and Song Zhiwen greatly contributed to the development of this Classical Chinese verse form.
Lüshi refers to a specific form of Classical Chinese poetry verse form. One of the most important poetry forms of classical Chinese poetry, the lüshi refers to an eight-line regulated verse form with lines made up of five, six, or seven characters; thus:
Sun Zhu (1711–1778) was a Qing scholar. He was also known as Hengtang Tuishi and was the original compiler and editor of the anthology Three Hundred Tang Poems, a popular compilation of Tang poetry, partly designed as a study aid for students. An enduring classic, Sun Zhu's version has often been reprinted, often in revised or re-edited editions.
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