Three Hundred Tang Poems

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Three Hundred Tang Poems
Traditional Chinese 唐詩三百首
Simplified Chinese 唐诗三百首

The Three Hundred Tang Poems (Chinese :唐詩三百首) is an anthology of poems from the Chinese Tang dynasty (618–907) first compiled around 1763 by Sun Zhu (1722–1778 [1] ), the Qing Dynasty scholar, also known as Hengtang Tuishi (蘅塘退士 "Retired Master of Hengtang"). Various later editions also exist. All editions contain slightly more than 300 total poems: in this case, three hundred means not exactly 300 but refers to an estimative quantification; the ten, twenty, or more extra poems represent a sort of a good luck bonus, [2] analogous to the "baker's dozen" in the West. Even more, the number 300 (or more exactly 305) was a classic number for a poetry collection due to the influence of the Classic of Poetry (Shijing 詩經), which was generally known as The Three Hundred Poems. [1]

Contents

Dissatisfied with the anthology Poems by a Thousand Masters (Qianjiashi 千家詩) compiled by Liu Kezhuang in the late Southern Song, and influenced by Ming Dynasty poetry anthologies, Sun selected the poems based on their popularity and educational value. The collection has been popular ever since and can be found in many Chinese households. For centuries, elementary students memorized the poems and used them to learn to read and write. It contains poems by Du Fu, Li Bai, Wang Wei, Li Shangyin, Meng Haoran, Han Yu, Du Mu, Bai Juyi, Liu Changqing, Cen Shen, Wang Changling, Wei Yingwu, and more. [3] [4] Li He is one notable Tang poet absent from the compilation.

Organization of poems

The original Qing Dynasty version of the 300 Tang Poems was organized by the poem's formal type, of which there were seven:

Out of 317 poems in one edition, 90 were in the gushi form and 227 were in the lüshi or the jueju forms. [5]

Poets

The poets of the Tang shi include a number of authors ranging from the well-known and famous to obscure or anonymous poets, and even include at least one emperor. The poet with the most pieces included in this collection is Du Fu, with thirty-nine. Li Bai is a close runner-up, with thirty-four. Wang Wei has twenty-nine poems included in the anthology and Li Shangyin has twenty-four. Meng Haoran has fifteen, Wei Yingwu twelve, Liu Changqing eleven, and Du Mu ten. After that, each of the other poets' included pieces number in the single digits; however, some of these poets are quite important, such as Liu Zongyuan or Bai Juyi. Some important poets,[ citation needed ] such as Li He, are not represented at all.

Name Traditional Simplified Pinyin Wade-Giles [note 1] Dates [note 2] Number of included pieces [note 3]
Bai Juyi 白居易白居易Bái JūyìPo Chü-i772–8466
Cen Shen 岑參岑参Cén ShēnTs'en Shen715–7707
Chang Jian 常建常建Cháng JiànCh'ang Chien708–765?2
Chen Tao 陳陶陳陶Chén TáoCh'en T'ao824–8821
Chen Zi'ang 陳子昂陈子昂Chén ZĭángCh‛en Tzŭ-ang661?–7021
Cui Hao 崔顥崔颢Cuī HàoTs'ui Hao704?–7544
Cui Hu 崔護崔护Cuī HùTs'ui Hu772-8461
Cui Shu 崔曙崔曙Cuī ShǔTs'ui Shu704–7391
Cui Tu 崔塗崔涂Cuī TúTs'ui T'u854–?2
Dai Shulun 戴叔倫戴叔伦Dài ShūlúnTai Shu-lun732–7891
Du Fu 杜甫杜甫Dù FǔTu Fu712–77039
Du Mu 杜牧杜牧Dù MùTu Mu803–85210
Du Qiuniang (Lady Du Qiu)杜秋娘杜秋娘Dù QiūniángTu Ch'iu-niang?–825?1
Du Shenyan 杜審言杜审言Dù ShěnyánTu Shen-yen646–708?1
Du Xunhe 杜荀鶴杜荀鹤Dù XúnhèTu Hsün-hê846–9041
Gao Pian 高駢高骈Gāo PiánKao Pian821-8871
Gao Shi 高適高适Gāo ShìKao Shi716?–7652
Gu Kuang 顧況顾况Gù KuàngKu K'uang725—8141
Han Hong 韓翃韩翃Hán HóngHan Hung754?-784?3
Han Wo 韓偓韩偓Hán WòHan Wo844–9231
Han Yu 韓愈韩愈Hán YùHan Yü768–8244
He Zhizhang 賀知章贺知章Hè ZhīzhāngHe Chih-chang659?–7441
Huangfu Ran 皇甫冉皇甫冉Huángfǔ RǎnHuang-fu Jan716–7691
Jia Dao 賈島贾岛Jiǎ DǎoChia Tao779–8431
Jiaoran 皎然皎然JiǎoránChiao-jan730–7991
Jin Changxu 金昌緒金昌绪Jīn ChāngxùChin Ch'ang-hsü?1
Li Bai (Li Po)李白李白Lǐ Bái (Lǐ Bó)Li Pai (Li Po)701–76234
Li Duan 李端李端Lǐ DuānLi Tuan743–7821
Li He 李賀李贺Lǐ HèLi He790-8162
Li Pin 李頻李频Lǐ PínLi P'in818–8761
Li Qi 李頎李颀Lǐ QíLi Ch'i690–7517
Li Shangyin 李商隱李商隐Lǐ ShāngyǐnLi Shang-yin813?–858?24
Li Shen 李紳李绅Lǐ ShēnLi Shen772-8461
Li Ye (Li Jilan)李冶李冶Lǐ YěLi Yeh?–78418
Li Yi 李益李益Lǐ YìLi I748?–827?3
Liu Changqing 劉長卿刘长卿Liú ChángqīngLiu Chang-ch'ing710?–789?11
Liu Fangping 劉方平刘方平Liú FāngpingLiu Fang-p'ingmid 8th century2
Liu Jixu 劉脊虛刘脊虚Liú JǐxūLiu Chi-hsü?1
Liu Yuxi 劉禹錫刘禹锡Liú YǔxīLiu Yü-hsi772–8424
Liu Zhongyong 柳中庸柳中庸Liǔ ZhōngyōngLiu Chung-yung?–775?1
Liu Zongyuan 柳宗元柳宗元Liǔ ZōngyuánLiu Tsung-yüan773–8195
Lu Lun 盧綸卢纶Lú LúnLu Lun739–7996
Luo Binwang 駱賓王骆宾王Luò BīnwángLo Pin-wang640?–684?1
Ma Dai 馬戴马戴Mǎ DàiMa Tai799–8692
Meng Haoran 孟浩然孟浩然Mèng HàoránMeng Hao-jan689?–74015
Meng Jiao 孟郊孟郊Mèng JiāoMeng Chiao751–8142
Nie Yizhong 聶夷中聂夷中Niè YízhōngNie YiChong837-8841
Pei Di 裴迪裴迪Péi DíPei Ti716?–?1
Qian Qi 錢起钱起Qián QǐCh'ien Ch'i722?–780?3
Qin Taoyu 秦韜玉秦韬玉Qín TāoyùCh'in T'ao-yülate 9th century1
Qiu Wei 邱為邱为Qiū WéiCh'iu Wei694–789?1
Qiwu Qian 綦毋潛綦毋潜Qíwú QiánCh'i-wu Ch'ien692?–755?1
Quan Deyu 權德輿权德舆Quán DéyúCh'uan Tê-yu759–8181
Rong Yu 戎昱戎昱Róng YùJong Yu740-8002
Shen Quanqi 沈佺期沈佺期Shěn QuánqīShên Ch'üan-ch'i650?–713?2
Shi Jianwu 施肩吾施肩吾Shī JiānwúShi Chuan'wu780-8611
Sikong Shu 司空曙司空曙Sī KōngShǔSsû-k'ung Shu720?–790?3
Song Zhiwen 宋之問宋之问Sòng ZhīwènSung Chih-wên656?–712?1
Tang Xuanzong (Emperor Xuanzong of Tang)唐玄宗唐玄宗Táng XuánzōngT'ang Hsüan-tsung685–7621
Wang Bo 王勃王勃Wáng BóWang Po649?–6761
Wang Changling 王昌齡王昌龄Wáng ChānglíngWang Ch'ang-ling698–7568
Wang Han 王翰王翰Wáng HànWang Han687-7261
Wang Jian 王建王建Wáng JiànWang Chien?–830?1
Wang Wan 王灣王灣Wáng WānWang Wan693–7511
Wang Wei 王維王维Wáng WéiWang Wei699–75929
Wang Zhihuan 王之渙王之涣Wáng ZhīhuànWang Tsu-huan688–7422
Wei Yingwu (Wei Yinwu)韋應物韦应物Wéi YìngwùWei Ying-wu737–79212
Wei Zhuang 韋莊韦庄Wéi ZhuāngWei Chuang836–9102
Wen Tingyun 溫庭筠温庭筠Wēn TīngyūnWen T'ing-yun812–8704
Wu Mingshi (Anonymous)無名氏无名氏WúmíngshìWu-ming-shih?1
Xibi Ren (Anonymous) [note 4] 西鄙人西鄙人Xībǐ RénHsi-pi Jen?1
Xu Hun 許渾许浑Xǔ HúnHsü Hun791–8582
Xue Feng 薛逢薛逢Xuē FéngHsueh Fengmid 9th century1
Yuan Jie 元結元结Yuán JiēYüan Chieh723–7722
Yuan Zhen 元稹元稹Yuán ZhěnYüan Chen779–8314
Zhang Hu 張祜张祜Zhāng HùChang Hu785 [6] [ better source needed ]–849?[ citation needed ]5
Zhang Ji from Hubei 張繼张继Zhāng JìChang Chi715?–779?1
Zhang Ji from Jiangnan 張籍张籍Zhāng JíChang Chi766–830?1
Zhang Jiuling 張九齡张九龄Zhāng JiǔlíngChang Chiu-ling678?–7405
Zhang Mi (Zhang Bi)張泌张泌Zhāng MìChang Milate 9th century1
Zhang Qiao 張喬张喬Zhāng QiáoChang Ch'iao?1
Zhang Xu 張旭张旭Zhāng XùChang Hsü658?–747?1
Zhang Zhihe 張志和张志和Zhāng ZhìhéChang Chi'he732-7741
Zheng Tian 鄭畋郑畋Zhèng TiánCheng T'ien824?–882?1
Zhu Qingyu 朱慶餘朱慶余Zhū QìngyúChu Ch'ing-yüearly 9th century2
Zu Yong 祖詠祖咏Zǔ YǒngTsu Yung699–746?2
  1. Lacking tone marks, and may be modified Wade-Giles.
  2. Birth, death, flourishing, or other as available. All dates Common Era.
  3. From standard edition(s).
  4. Xibi Ren is an alias meaning "humble person from the west border". The author is unknown (cf. "The Beauty of Tang Poems and Zhuan Zi Calligraphy", "Xi Bi'ren", by Marie L. Sun and Alex K. Sun)

Translations

The first complete translation of the Three Hundred Tang Poems into English was published as The Jade Mountain, translated by Witter Bynner and Jiang Kanghu. From 1929 through 1972 it went through ten editions. [3] It has also been translated by Peter Harris in 2009. [7]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Wang Wei (Tang dynasty) Chinese poet, musician, painter, and statesman

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Classical Chinese poetry

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Arts of China

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Tang poetry refers to poetry written in or around the time of or in the characteristic style of China's Tang dynasty, and/or follows a certain style, often considered as the Golden Age of Chinese poetry. The Quantangshi includes over 48,900 poems written by over 2,200 authors. During the Tang dynasty, poetry continued to be an important part of social life at all levels of society. Scholars were required to master poetry for the civil service exams, but the art was theoretically available to everyone. This led to a large record of poetry and poets, a partial record of which survives today. Two of the most famous poets of the period were Li Bai and Du Fu. Tang poetry has had an ongoing influence on world literature in modern times.

Jueju, or Chinese quatrain, is a type of jintishi that grew popular among Chinese poets in the Tang Dynasty (618–907), although traceable to earlier origins. Jueju poems are always quatrains; or, more specifically, a matched pair of couplets, with each line consisting of five or seven syllables.

Wei Yingwu , courtesy name Yibo(義博), art name Xizhai(西齋) was a Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty. Twelve of Wei's poems were included in the influential Three Hundred Tang Poems anthology. He was also known by his honorific name Wei Suzhou(韋蘇州); his service as the governor of Suzhou earned him the name.

Qiu Wei (traditional Chinese: 邱為; simplified Chinese: 邱为; pinyin: Qiū Wéi, 694–789? was a Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty, with one of his poems being included in the famous anthology Three Hundred Tang Poems.

Gushi is one of the main poetry forms defined in Classical Chinese poetry, literally meaning "old poetry" or "old style poetry": gushi is a technical term for certain historically exemplary poems, together with later poetry composed in this formal style.

Regulated verse – also known as Jintishi – is a development within Classical Chinese poetry of the shi main formal type. Regulated verse is one of the most important of all Classical Chinese poetry types. Although often regarded as a Tang Dynasty innovation, the origin of regulated verse within the Classical Chinese poetic tradition is associated with Shen Yue (441–513), based on his "four tones and eight defects" (四聲八病) theory regarding tonality. There are three types of regulated verse: the eight-lined lüshi, the four-lined jueju, and the linked couplets of indeterminate length pailu. All regulated verse forms are rhymed on the even lines, with one rhyme being used throughout the poem. Also, and definitionally, the tonal profile of the poem is controlled. Furthermore, semantic and tonal parallelism is generally required of certain interior couplets. During the Tang Dynasty, the "Shen-Song" team of Shen Quanqi and Song Zhiwen greatly contributed to the development of this Classical Chinese verse form.

Lüshi refers to a specific form of Classical Chinese poetry verse form. One of the most important poetry forms of classical Chinese poetry, the lüshi refers to an eight-line regulated verse form with lines made up of five, six, or seven characters; thus:

Sun Zhu (1711–1778) was a Qing scholar. He was also known as Hengtang Tuishi and was the original compiler and editor of the anthology Three Hundred Tang Poems, a popular compilation of Tang poetry, partly designed as a study aid for students. An enduring classic, Sun Zhu's version has often been reprinted, often in revised or re-edited editions.

References

  1. 1 2 Yu, 64–65
  2. Rexroth, xvi
  3. 1 2 Weichang Chan, ed. (1997). "Home of 300 Tang Poems". Chinese Text Initiative (in Chinese and English). Translated by Witter Bynner. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2007-09-25. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
  4. "Tang Shi – 300 Tang poems". Wengu – Chinese Classics and Translations (in Chinese, English, and French). AFPC. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
  5. Watson 127
  6. https://www.amazon.com/Three-Hundred-Everymans-Library-Pocket/dp/0307269736

Sources