Three Lords and Nine Ministers

Last updated

The Three Lords and Nine Ministers system (Chinese :三公九卿) was a central administrative system adopted in ancient China that was officially instituted in the Qin dynasty (221 BC – 206 BC) and was replaced by the Three Departments and Six Ministries (Chinese :三省六部) system since the Sui dynasty (AD 589–618).

Contents

Divisions

[1]

Three Lords

Three Lords referred to three highest rank officials in the imperial government, namely:

Nine Ministers

Nine Ministers comprised all the ministers of importance in the central government. They were:

See also

Related Research Articles

Liu Bian, also known as Emperor Shao of Han and the Prince of Hongnong, was the 13th emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty in China. He became emperor around the age of 13 upon the death of his father, Emperor Ling, and ruled briefly from 15 May to 28 September 189 before he was deposed, after which he became known as the "Prince of Hongnong". His emperor title, "Emperor Shao", was also used by other emperors who were in power for very short periods of time. In March 190, he was poisoned by Dong Zhuo, the warlord who deposed him and replaced him with his younger half-brother, Liu Xie.

Qiao Xuan, courtesy name Gongzu, was an official who lived during the Eastern Han dynasty of China.

The Grand Chancellor, also translated as counselor-in-chief, chancellor, chief councillor, chief minister, imperial chancellor, lieutenant chancellor and prime minister, was the highest-ranking executive official in the imperial Chinese government. The term was known by many different names throughout Chinese history, and the exact extent of the powers associated with the position fluctuated greatly, even during a particular dynasty. During the Six Dynasties period, the term denoted a number of power-holders serving as chief administrators, including zhongshun jian, zhongshu ling, shizhong, shangshu ling and puye.

The Three Ducal Ministers, also translated as the Three Dukes, Three Excellencies, or the Three Lords, was the collective name for the three highest officials in Ancient China and Imperial China. These posts were abolished by Cao Cao in 208 AD and replaced with the position of Grand Chancellor. When Cao Cao's son Cao Pi became King of Wei after his father's death, he reinstated the three positions. Hua Xin was made Chancellor, Jia Xu was made Grand Commandant and Wang Lang was made Grand Secretary. When Cao Pi declared himself emperor in late 220, Hua Xin was made Cao Wei's first Minister of the Masses, Jia Xu remained as Grand Commandant, and Wang Lang was made the first Minister of Works.

Huangfu Song, courtesy name Yizhen, was a military general who lived during the Eastern Han dynasty of China. He is best known for helping to suppress the Yellow Turban Rebellion and Liang Province Rebellion. He was one of three imperial commanders when the Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out, along with Zhu Jun and Lu Zhi. He was known to be a modest and generous person. Lu Zhi was removed from command after the eunuch Zuo Feng (左豐) made false accusations against him; Lu Zhi had refused to bribe Zuo Feng. Huangfu Song, who took over command of the imperial troops from Lu Zhi, continued to use Lu as a strategist and reported his contributions to the imperial court. Thus, in the same year, Lu Zhi regained his post as Master of Writing (尚书).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wang Xiang</span> Chinese senior official (185–269)

Wang Xiang, courtesy name Xiuzheng, was a Chinese politician who lived through the late Eastern Han dynasty (25–220), the Three Kingdoms period (220–280), and the early Western Jin dynasty (266–316) of China. He served among the highest positions in the government, including Minister of Works (司空) and Grand Commandant (太尉) in the Cao Wei state during the Three Kingdoms period, and Grand Protector (太保) during the Western Jin dynasty. He was also one of The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars.

Lu Wan was a Chinese military general, monarch, and politician that served as the vassal king of the early Han dynasty. He served under Liu Bang, the founding emperor of the Han dynasty.

Cao Jie, courtesy name Hanfeng, was a Chinese court eunuch and politician during the Eastern Han dynasty. He rose to power during the reign of Emperor Ling. He was involved in a power struggle against a rival faction led by Dou Wu and Chen Fan during the reign of Emperor Huan and early reign of Emperor Ling. His son-in-law Feng Fang later became one of the 8 colonels of the Army of the Western Garden.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Government of the Han dynasty</span> Governance during the Chinese Han dynasty (202 BC–220 AD)

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, following the Qin dynasty. It was divided into the periods of Western (Former) Han and Eastern (Later) Han, briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty of Wang Mang. The capital of Western Han was Chang'an, and the capital of Eastern Han was Luoyang. The emperor headed the government, promulgating all written laws, serving as commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and presiding as the chief executive official. He appointed all government officials who earned a salary of 600 bushels of grain or more with the help of advisors who reviewed each nominee. The empress dowager could either be the emperor's actual or symbolic mother, and was in practice more respected than the emperor, as she could override his decisions. The emperor's executive powers could also be practiced by any official upon whom he bestowed the Staff of Authority. These powers included the right to execute criminals without the imperial court's permission.

The Three Departments and Six Ministries system was the primary administrative structure in imperial China from the Sui dynasty (581–618) to the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). It was also used by Balhae (698–926) and Goryeo (918–1392) and various other kingdoms in Manchuria, Korea and Vietnam.

The Nine Ministers or Nine Chamberlains was the collective name for nine high officials in the imperial government of the Han dynasty, who each headed one of the Nine Courts and were subordinates to the Three Councillors of State.

Sima Fang (149–219), courtesy name Jiangong or Wenyu, was an official who lived during the Eastern Han dynasty of China. Through his second son Sima Yi, he was an ancestor of the ruling Sima clan of the Jin dynasty (266–420) of China.

Xun Shuang, courtesy name Ciming, was a Chinese essayist, politician, and writer who lived during the Eastern Han dynasty of China. Born in the influential Xun family of Yingchuan Commandery, Xun Shuang, for most of his life, distanced himself from politics because he perceived the political arena to be corrupt and dangerous. He repeatedly turned down offers to serve in the government, and spent his time producing numerous writings and giving lectures. However, in late 189, he was forced to join the civil service and became an official. Within a span of only 95 days, he rose through the ranks quickly from his initial status as a commoner to the highly prestigious office of Minister of Works (司空). Prior to that, within the 95 days, he had held the appointments of Chancellor of Pingyuan (平原相) and Minister of the Household (光祿勳). He died of illness in 190 while secretly making plans with Wang Yun, He Yong and others to eliminate the tyrannical warlord Dong Zhuo, who had hijacked and controlled the Han central government.

The Shangshu Sheng, sometimes translated as the Department of State Affairs or the Imperial Secretariat, was one of the departments of the Three Departments and Six Ministries government structure. It was the primary executive institution of imperial China, head of the Six Ministries, the Nine Courts, and the Three Directorates. The Six Ministries consisted of the Ministry of Personnel, the Ministry of Revenue, the Ministry of Rites, the Ministry of War, the Ministry of Justice, and the Ministry of Works. The Department of State of Affairs existed in one form or another from the Han dynasty until the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), but was never re-established in the following Ming dynasty.

The Ministry of Ceremonies was one of the nine ministries of the Chinese Han dynasty. The Minister of Ceremonies, also known as Grand Master of Ceremonies, was the chief official in charge of religious rites, rituals, prayers, and the maintenance of ancestral temples and altars. The role's title was changed to Upholder of Ceremonies from 195 to 144 BC before reverting to the original title. Although his main concern was to link the emperor with the supernatural world and Heaven, he was also given the task of setting educational standards for the Imperial University and the academic chairs who specialized in the Five Classics, the canon of Confucianism.

Cao Biao, courtesy name Zhuhu, was an imperial prince of the Cao Wei state in the Three Kingdoms period of China.

Meng Guang, courtesy name Xiaoyu, was an official and scholar of the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period of China.

Han Ji, courtesy name Gongzhi, was a Chinese politician who served in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He previously served under the warlords Liu Biao and Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han dynasty.

Han Kuangsi was a physician and minister of the Liao dynasty. He wrote The Epitaph of Han Kuangsi (韩匡嗣墓志), which was discovered in the Bairin Left Banner in 1995.

References

Citations

  1. Wang 1949, pp. 150–151.

Sources

  • Li, Konghuai (2007). History of Administrative Systems in Ancient China (in Chinese). Joint Publishing (H.K.) Co., Ltd. ISBN   978-962-04-2654-4.
  • Lyu, Simian (2008). The General History of China (in Chinese). New World Publishing. ISBN   978-7-80228-569-9.
  • Wang, Yu-Ch'uan (June 1949). "An Outline of The Central Government of The Former Han Dynasty". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies . Harvard-Yenching Institute. 12 (1/2): 134–187. doi:10.2307/2718206. JSTOR   2718206.