Three Mills

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Three Mills
Clock Mill, Three Mill Lane.jpg
The Clock Mill at Three Mills
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Three Mills
Location within Greater London
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district E3
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°31′38″N0°00′27″W / 51.5273°N 0.0075°W / 51.5273; -0.0075 Coordinates: 51°31′38″N0°00′27″W / 51.5273°N 0.0075°W / 51.5273; -0.0075

The Three Mills are former working mills and an island of the same name on the River Lea. [1] It is one of London’s oldest extant industrial centres. The mills lie in the London Borough of Newham; and, despite lying on the Newham side of the Lea, access is principally from the western, London Borough of Tower Hamlets, side of the river.

Contents

The River Lea Tidal Mill Trust Ltd owns the House Mill and the Miller's House buildings, which are used for educational projects and as conference spaces. The Lower Lea Project is also based at Three Mills in The Miller's House.

History

It is thought that there were eight or possibly nine mills on the River Lea in Stratford at the time of the Domesday Book (though this number may refer to the number of pairs of millstones rather than buildings). These are the earliest recorded examples of a tidal mill system. In the clock mill there were 16 workers.

Stratford Langthorne Abbey, founded in 1135, acquired Three Mills some time in the 12th or 13th centuries, and the local area became known by the name. By the time Henry VIII dissolved the abbey in the 1530s, the mills were grinding flour for the bakers of Stratford-atte-Bow, who were celebrated for the quality of their bread and who supplied the huge City of London market.

In 1588, one of the mills was described as a "gunpowder mill". During the 16th century the three mills were reduced to two (which today are the House Mill and the Clock Mill). In the 17th century, the mills were used to grind grain, which was then used to distill alcohol; the mills became a major supplier to the alcohol trade and gin palaces of London.

The House Mill was built in 1776 (and after a fire destroyed it, quickly rebuilt) by Daniel Bisson. It is a grade I listed building. [2] The Clock Mill was rebuilt by Philip Metcalfe between 1815 and 1817 incorporating the old clock, and an older bell. There was also a windmill which survived until about 1840. The House Mill continued to operate until 1940 and the Clock Mill until 1952.

House Mill from across the water Three Mills area House Mill.jpg
House Mill from across the water

Ownership changed relatively frequently during the 17th to the late 19th centuries, until 1872 when it was purchased by gin distillers J&W Nicholson & Co of Clerkenwell. Initially producing Lamplighter Gin on site, the company eventually moved production of all of their brands to the site. Distilling ceased in 1941 during the rationing shortages of World War II. The Nicholson family, headed by Sir Richard Nicholson, sold the business to the Distillers Company.

House Mill and the Miller's House at low tide House Mill 2009a.JPG
House Mill and the Miller's House at low tide

Three Mills sustained severe air-raid damage during the Second World War. The Miller's House was destroyed in 1941 and rebuilt in 1995 with a modern interior and rear part, but retaining the original facade. Three Mills was used for bottling and warehousing by Bass Charrington and Hedges & Butler. The latter, one of the oldest wine merchants in Britain located their main working offices at Three Mills. Here, Bacardi was bottled and a large portfolio of wines and spirits was marketed.

The House Mill remains the largest tidal mill in the world, although the water wheels are currently not in operation. The building is owned by The River Lea Tidal Mill Trust Ltd and is open to visitors on Sunday afternoons during the summer. It is one of only four Grade I listed buildings in the London Borough of Newham.

The creation of the Three Mills Lock on the Prescott Channel and the Three Mills Wall River Weir, for the 2012 Summer Olympics construction work, has created a head of water behind the mill. This may mean that it can be operated again although it has partially removed the tidal benefits of the site.

The Clock Mill is the temporary site of East London Science School.

In 2017, J&W Nicholson re-launched the gin brand which was launched in 1736 as Nicholson Gin. [3] [4]

Three Mills Island

Three Mills Green and open playspace on Three Mills Island Three Mills Green on Three Mills Island.jpg
Three Mills Green and open playspace on Three Mills Island

Three Mills Island is in Bromley-by-Bow in east London. It forms part of the 50-mile Lea Valley Walk celebrated in The Telegraph, The Guardian and The Newham Recorder.

The Prescott Channel, a former flood relief channel passes to the east, making the land an island. The mills share Three Mills Island with the 3 Mills Studios, a 10-acre film and TV studio, which makes a large number of major films and television programmes and an open green and play area called Three Mills Green.

The 26-acre area of land opposite the mills, shown in historical surveys as the Three Mills District, once housed a large cooperage producing barrels to support the mills, as well as a wide range of industries, from the manufacture of innovative inks to sugar refining. Called Sugar House Island, the development is being delivered by Vastint and will bring 2,500 jobs to the area, with a new business district [5] as well as waterside homes and amenity. [6]

Operation

Three Mills Lane Three Mills Lane near Bromley by Bow.jpg
Three Mills Lane

In 1878 there were seven waterwheels at Three Mills. [7] Most of them were around 20 ft in diameter and 3 ft in width, but one was 8 ft in width. There were four in the House Mill and three in the Clock Mill. They drove fourteen pairs of millstones and produced a total of 150 HP (112KW). The average output of the House Mill was about 2 tons of maize and 5 tons of barley per tide rising to 10 and 14 tons respectively on spring tides. The average weekly throughput of the two mills was 125 tons per week.

Clock Mill was powered by three iron undershot water wheels, two of 6.1m diameter and one of 5.9m diameter. These wheels drove six pairs of millstones at 130 revolutions per minute. This mill operated until 1952. When the mills were both operating in 1938, the site employed one millwright and four carpenters. During the daily 7-8 hours of tidal power, the water wheels ran at 16 revolutions per minute with a working head of 3.0-3.7m. This produced some 7-9kW to turn each millstone. [8]

Related Research Articles

Stratford, London Human settlement in England

Stratford is a district in the East End of London, in the London Borough of Newham, England. It is 6 miles (10 km) east-northeast of Charing Cross and is in East London. Stratford is part of the Lower Lea Valley and includes the localities of Maryland, East Village, Mill Meads, Stratford City and Forest Gate. It is historically part of the ancient parish and subsequent County Borough of West Ham, which became the western half of the modern borough within a Greater London in 1965. Historically an agrarian settlement in the county of Essex, Stratford was transformed into an industrial suburb after the introduction of the railway in 1839.

London Borough of Newham London borough in United Kingdom

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River Lea River in southern England

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Bromley-by-Bow Human settlement in England

Bromley, commonly known as Bromley-by-Bow, is a district in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets in East London, located on the western banks of the River Lea, in the Lower Lea Valley in East London.

Bow Creek (London) long tidal estuary of the English River Lea

Bow Creek is a 2.25-mile (3.6 km) long tidal estuary of the English River Lea and is part of the Bow Back Rivers. Below Bow Locks the creek forms the boundary between the London Boroughs of Newham and Tower Hamlets, in East London.

Bow Back Rivers

Bow Back Rivers or Stratford Back Rivers is a complex of waterways between Bow and Stratford in east London, England, which connect the River Lea to the River Thames. Starting in the twelfth century, works were carried out to drain Stratford Marshes and several of the waterways were constructed to power watermills. Bow Creek provided the final outfall to the Thames, and the other channels were called Abbey Creek, Channelsea River, City Mill River, Prescott Channel, Pudding Mill River, Saint Thomas Creek, Three Mills Back River, Three Mills Wall River and Waterworks River.

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The Lea Valley, the valley of the River Lea, has been used as a transport corridor, a source of sand and gravel, an industrial area, a water supply for London, and a recreational area. The London 2012 Summer Olympics were based in Stratford, in the Lower Lea Valley. It is very important for London's water supply, as the source of the water transported by the New River aqueduct, but also as the location for the Lee Valley Reservoir Chain, stretching from Enfield through Tottenham and Walthamstow.

Philip Metcalfe 18th/19th-century English politician, distiller, and philanthropist

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North Woolwich railway station railway station

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Old Ford Lock

Old Ford Lock is a paired lock and weir on the River Lee Navigation, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, England. It is at Fish Island in Old Ford and takes it namesake from after the natural ford which used to exist in the area crossing the uncanalised River Lea.

House Mill tide mill in Bromley-by-Bow, London, United Kingdom

The House Mill is a major Grade I listed building on the River Lea in Mill Meads, Stratford and part of the Three Mills complex. The original tidal mills at this site date back to the Domesday book of 1086, and the present structure of the House Mill was built in 1776 by Daniel Bisson. It was damaged by fire in 1802, and then rebuilt by Philip Metcalfe.

Three Mills Lock

Three Mills Lock, also known as the Prescott Lock is a lock on the Prescott Channel on the River Lea in London. The project was led by British Waterways and the lock officially opened on 5 June 2009.

Three Mills Wall River Weir

Three Mills Wall River Weir is a weir on the Bow Back Rivers, in Mill Meads in the London Borough of Newham, England, near to Three Mills. It was built in 2009, when the Bow Back Rivers were refurbished to make them a key feature of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, and maintains water levels through much of the park in conjunction with the Three Mills Lock and sluice on the Prescott Channel.

Carpenters Road Lock

Carpenter's Road Lock is a rising radial lock in the London Borough of Newham, near Marshgate Lane in Stratford, England. It is located on the Bow Back Rivers and was constructed in 1933/34. It is the only lock in Britain with rising radial gates at both ends. British Waterways were hoping to restore it as part of the upgrade to Bow Back Rivers which took place for the 2012 Summer Olympics, but the gantries which enabled the gates to be raised were demolished to accommodate a wide bridge giving access to the main stadium. After the Games, most of the overbridge was removed. Funding for the restoration of the lock was in place by early 2016, and it is expected to be brought back into use in 2017.

Waterworks River river in United Kingdom

Waterworks River is a river, at one time a tidal river, in the London Borough of Newham, one of the Bow Back Rivers that flow into the Bow Creek part of the River Lea, which in turn flows into the River Thames.

J&W Nicholson & Co was a London-based wine and spirits company founded by two brothers from the famous Nicholson gin family: John Nicholson (1778-1846) and William Nicholson (1780-1857) based in Clerkenwell.

Mill Meads Human settlement in England

Mill Meads is an area in the borough of Newham in east London, located on the border with Tower Hamlets.

Three Mills Residential Moorings

Three Mills Residential Moorings is a community of twenty residential narrowboats moored on the Three Mills Wall River Weir near Three Mills in Mill Meads.

References

  1. http://www.housemill.org.uk
  2. Historic England. "Tide Mill  (Grade I) (1080970)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  3. "Nicholson Gin rebooted in 2017. We review the historic London Dry Gin". Gin Foundry. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  4. "How Nicholson gin first made in 1736 has been brought back to life in 2017". The Buyer. 5 September 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  5. "New 'cut price' office space seeks to lure start-ups from Shoreditch". Evening Standard. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  6. "Where young Londoners should look for new waterside homes without paying a Thames-side premium". Homes and Property. 1 May 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  7. Martin Watts (1998). The House Mill, Bromley by Bow, London. River Lee Tidal Mill Trust Ltd.
  8. "Engineering Timelines - Three Mills". www.engineering-timelines.com. Retrieved 26 May 2017.