|Three Principles of the People|
The Three Principles of the People (Chinese :三民主義; pinyin :Sān Mín Zhǔyì; also translated as the Three People's Principles, San-min Doctrine, or Tridemism ) is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to improve China made during the Republican Era. The three principles are often translated into and summarized as nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people. This philosophy has been claimed as the cornerstone of the nation's policy as carried by the Kuomintang (KMT); the principles also appear in the first line of the national anthem of the Republic of China.
In 1894 when the Revive China Society was formed, Sun only had two principles: nationalism and democracy. He picked up the third idea, welfare, during his three-year trip to Europe from 1896 to 1898.He announced all three ideas in the spring of 1905, during another trip to Europe. Sun made the first speech of his life on the "Three Principles of the People" in Brussels. He was able to organize the Revive China Society in many European cities. There were about 30 members in the Brussels branch at the time, 20 in Berlin, and 10 in Paris. After the Tongmenghui was formed, Sun published an editorial in Min Bao (民報). This was the first time the ideas were expressed in writing. Later on, in the anniversary issue of Min Bao, his long speech of the Three Principles was printed, and the editors of the newspaper discussed the issue of people's livelihood.
The ideology is said to be heavily influenced by Sun's experiences in the United States and contains elements of the American progressive movement and the thought championed by Abraham Lincoln. Sun credited a line from Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, "government of the people, by the people, for the people", as an inspiration for the Three Principles.Dr. Sun's Three Principles of the People are inter-connected as the guideline for China's modernization development as stretched by Hu Hanmin.
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The Principle of Mínzú (民族主義, Mínzú Zhǔyì) is commonly rendered as "nationalism". "Mínzú/People" clearly describing a nation rather than a group of persons united by a purpose, hence the commonly used and rather accurate translation "nationalism".
Sun sees the Chinese Nation as under threat of annihilation by the imperialist powers.To reverse the trajectory of such decline, China needs to become nationally independent both externally and internally.
Internally, national independence means independence from the Qing Manchus who ruled China for centuries.Sun thought that the Han Chinese people are the people without their own nation and thus strives for national revolution against Qing authorities.
Externally, national independence meant independence from imperialist foreign powers. Sun believed China to be threatened by imperialism in three ways: by economic oppression, by political aggression, and by the relatively slow population growth.Economically, Sun held the mercantilist position that China is being economically exploited by unbalanced trade and tariffs. Politically, he looked toward the unequal treaties signed by China as the reason of China's decline. Sun envisions a future China that is strong and capable of fighting imperialists and standing on the same stage as western powers.
To achieve "national independence", Sun believed that China must first develop a "China-nationalism," Zhonghua Minzu , as opposed to an "ethnic-nationalism". Sun developed the principles of Five Races Under One Union so as to unite the five major ethnic groups of China — Han, Mongols, Tibetans, Manchus, and the Muslims (such as the Uyghurs) — under one "Chinese Nation". This principle is symbolized by the Five Color Flag of the First Republic of China (1911–1928). He believed that China must develop a "national consciousness" so as to unite the Chinese people in the face of imperialist aggression. He argued that "minzu", which can be translated as "people", "nationality" or "race", were defined by sharing common blood, livelihood, religion, language and customs. This sense of nationalism is different from the idea of "ethnocentrism," which equates to the same meaning of nationalism in Chinese language and is rather civic and based on the shared Chinese identity regardless of the difference of 56 ethnicities. Sun also believes in a form of interculturalism that would have ethnic minorities assimilated into the dominant Han culture, not through brute force, but a process of naturalization.
The Principle of Mínquán (民權主義, Mínquán Zhǔyì) is usually translated as "democracy"; literally "the People's power" or "government by the People." To Sun, it represented a Western constitutional government. He divided political life of his ideal for China into two sets of "powers": the power of politics and the power of governance.
The power of politics (Chinese :政權; pinyin :zhèngquán) are the powers of the people to express their political wishes and keep administrative officers in check, similar to those vested in the citizenry or the parliaments in other countries, and is represented by the National Assembly. The power of the people is guaranteed by four constitutional rights: the right to election (選舉), recalling (罷免), initiative (創制), and referendum (複決). These may be equated to "civil rights".
The power of governance (Chinese :治權; pinyin :zhìquán) are the powers of the administration to govern the people. He criticized the traditional three-branch democratic government for vesting too much power in the legislative branch. He expanded and reworked the European-American three-branch government and the system of checks and balances by incorporating traditional Chinese administrative systems to create a government of five branches (each of which is called a Yuan (Chinese :院; pinyin :yuàn; lit. 'court')) in a system known as the Five Power Constitution. The state is divided into five "Yuan"s: Legislative Yuan, the Executive Yuan, and the Judicial Yuan came from Montesquieuan thought; the Control Yuan and the Examination Yuan came from Chinese tradition. (Note that the Legislative Yuan was first intended as a branch of governance, not strictly equivalent to a national parliament.)
The Principle of Mínshēng (民生主義, Mínshēng Zhǔyì) is sometimes translated as "the People's welfare/livelihood," "Government for the People" or "Socialism" . The concept may be understood as social welfare and as a direct criticism of the inadequacies of unregulated capitalism. He divided livelihood into four areas: clothing, food, housing, and mobility; and planned out how an ideal (Chinese) government can take care of these for its people.
Sun Yat-sen was influenced by the American thinker Henry George and intended to introduce a Georgist tax reform.The land value tax in Taiwan is a legacy thereof. Sun Yat-sen said that land value tax as "the only means of supporting the government is an infinitely just, reasonable, and equitably distributed tax, and on it we will found our new system."
Sun proposed a land reform system known as "equalization of land rights", which involves the implementation four different acts: regulation of land price, in which each landowner reports the value of their property sans improvement; taxation of land, which involves a land value tax set on all land properties; purchase of land, which sets up a system where government can purchase land for public use by eminent domain; and profit belongs to the public, in which a 100% tax is levied on all profit gained from trading of land (sans improvement). According to Sun, the existence of land purchase and land taxation guarantees that landowner wouldn't over-report (which would lead to high taxation on land) nor under-report (which would lead to their land being cheaply acquired for eminent domain) their land values.
However, the Kuomintang failed to achieve any successful land reform Sun envisioned in Mainland China and only succeeded in Taiwan.
Sun died before he was able to fully explain his vision of this Principle and it has been the subject of much debate within both the Chinese Nationalist and Communist Parties, with the latter suggesting that Sun supported socialism. Chiang Kai-shek further elaborated the Mínshēng principle of both the importance of social well-being and recreational activities for a modernized China in 1953 in Taiwan.
The most definite (canonical) exposition of these principles was a book compiled from notes of speeches that Sun gave near Guangzhou (taken by a colleague, Huang Changgu, in consultation with Sun), and therefore is open to interpretation by various parties and interest groups (see below) and may not have been as fully explicated as Sun might have wished. Indeed, Chiang Kai-shek supplied an annex to the Principle of Mínshēng, covering two additional areas of livelihood: education and leisure, and explicitly arguing that Mínshēng was not to be seen as supporting either communism or socialism. The French historian of Chinese history, Marie-Claire Bergère's view is that the book is a work of propaganda. Its purpose is to appeal to action rather than to thought. As Sun Yat-sen declared, a principle is not simply an idea; it is "a faith, a power."
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The Three Principles of the People were claimed as the basis for the ideologies of the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek, the Reorganized National Government of China under Wang Jingwei, and an inspiration of the Chinese Communist Party under Mao Zedong as the stage of ‘old democracy’. The Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party largely agreed on the meaning of nationalism but differed sharply on the meaning of democracy and people's welfare, which the former saw in Western social democratic terms and the latter interpreted in Marxist and communist terms. The Japanese collaborationist government interpreted nationalism less in terms of anti-imperialism and more in terms of cooperating with Japan to advance theoretically pan-Asian, but in practice, typically Japanese interests.
There were several higher-education institutes (university departments/faculties and graduate institutes) in Taiwan that used to devote themselves to the 'research and development' of the Three Principles in this aspect. Since the late 1990s, these institutes have re-oriented themselves so that other political theories are also admitted as worthy of consideration, and have changed their names to be more ideologically neutral (such as Democratic Studies Institute).
In addition to this institutional phenomenon, many streets and businesses in Taiwan are named "Sān-mín" or for one of the three principles. In contrast to other politically derived street names, there has been no major renaming of these streets or institutions in the 1990s.
Although the term "Sanmin Zhuyi" (三民主義) has been less explicitly invoked since the mid-1980s, no political party has explicitly attacked its principles with practices under the Martial Law ruling era then except the Tangwai movement groups such as Democratic Progressive Party. The Three Principles of the People remains explicitly part of the platform of the Kuomintang and in the Constitution of the Republic of China.
As for Taiwan independence supporters, some have objections regarding the formal constitutional commitment to a particular set of political principles. Also, they have been against the mandatory indoctrination in schools and universities, which have now been abolished in a piecemeal fashion beginning in the late 1990s. However, there is little fundamental hostility to the substantive principles themselves. In these circles, attitudes toward the Three Principles of the People span the spectrum from indifference to reinterpreting the Three Principles of the People in a local Taiwanese context rather than in a pan-Chinese one.
The Three Principles of the People has been reinterpreted by the Chinese Communist Party to argue that the communist is a necessary conclusion of the Three Principles of the People and thus provide legitimacy for the communist government. This reinterpretation of the Three Principles of the People is commonly referred to as the New Three Principles of the People (also translated as Neo-tridemism), a word coined by Mao's 1940 essay On New Democracy, in which he argued that the Communist Party is a better enforcer of the Three Principles of the People compared to the bourgeois Nationalist Party and that the new three principles are about allying with the communists and the Russians (Soviets), and supporting peasants and the workers.Proponents of the New Three Principles of the People often points to the fact that Sun's book Three Principles of the People acknowledges that the principles of welfare is inherently socialistic and communistic.
The Vietnam Revolutionary League was a union of various Vietnamese nationalist groups, run by the pro-Chinese Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng. The Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng translates directly into Vietnamese Kuomintang, and it was based on the Chinese Kuomintang party. Its stated goal was for unity with China under the Three Principles of the People, and opposition to Japanese and French Imperialists.The Revolutionary League was controlled by Nguyễn Hải Thần, who was born in China. General Zhang Fakui shrewdly blocked the Communists of Vietnam, and Ho Chi Minh from entering the league, as his main goal was Chinese influence in Indo China. The KMT utilized these Vietnamese nationalists during World War II against Japanese forces.
The motto of Independence - Freedom - Happiness of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, despite its communist political background, was also taken from the Three Principles of People.
The pro-Kuomintang and pro-ROC Khamba revolutionary leader Pandatsang Rapga, who established the Tibet Improvement Party, adopted Dr. Sun's ideology including the Three Principles, incorporating them into his party and using Sun's doctrine as a model for his vision of Tibet after achieving his goal of overthrowing the Tibetan government.
Pandatsang Rapga hailed the Three Principles of Dr. Sun for helping Asian peoples against foreign imperialism and called for the feudal system to be overthrown. Rapga stated that "The Sanmin Zhuyi was intended for all peoples under the domination of foreigners, for all those who had been deprived of the rights of man. But it was conceived especially for the Asians. It is for this reason that I translated it. At that time, a lot of new ideas were spreading in Tibet", during an interview in 1975 by Dr. Heather Stoddard.Dr. Sun's ideology was put into a Tibetan translation by Rapga.
He believed that change in Tibet would only be possible in a manner similar to when the Qing Dynasty was overthrown in China. He borrowed the theories and ideas of the Kuomintang as the basis for his model for Tibet. The party was funded by the Kuomintangand by the Pandatsang family.
The establishment of the People's Power Party in May 2015 by opposition politician Goh Meng Seng marks the first time in contemporary Singaporean politics that a political party was formed with the Three Principles of the People and its system of having five branches of government as espoused by Sun Yat-Sen as its official guiding ideology.
The People's Power Party has adapted the ideas with a slight modification to the concepts of the Five Powers in order to stay relevant to modern contemporary political and social structures. The emphasis is put on the separation of the Five Powers which naturally means the separation of certain institutions from the Executive's control.
The Power of Impeachment (originally under the Control Yuan) has been expanded to include various contemporary functional government institutions. Examples include the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau, advocacy of Ombudsman Commission, Equal Opportunity Commission, Free Press and Freedom of Expression.
The Power of Examination has been adapted and modified to fit the modern concept of Selection for both political leaders as well as civil servants. This involves institutions like the Elections Department and Public Service Commission.
The People's Power Party advocates that the institutions included in these two powers, namely the Power of Impeachment and the Power of Selection, to be put under the supervision of Singapore's Elected President.
The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a major political party in the Republic of China (Taiwan). It was the dominant party in China during the Republican Era from 1928 to 1949, when most of the Chinese mainland was under its control. The party retreated from the mainland to Taiwan on 7 December 1949, following its defeat in the Chinese Civil War. Chiang Kai-Shek declared martial law and retained its authoritarian rule over Taiwan under the Dang Guo system until democratic reforms were enacted in the 1990s. In Taiwanese politics, the KMT is the dominant party in the Pan-Blue Coalition and primarily competes with the rival Democratic Progressive Party (DPP). It is currently the largest opposition party in the Legislative Yuan. The current chairman is Eric Chu.
Sun Yat-sen, also known as Sun Yat-sun, Sun Chung-shan, Sun Yi-hsien, Sun Wen, Sun Jih-hsin, Suen Yat-sen, Suen Yat-sun, Sun Yixian and Sun Rixin, was a Chinese statesman, physician, and political philosopher, who served as the first provisional president of the Republic of China and the first leader of the Kuomintang. He is called the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China, and the "Forerunner of the Revolution" in the People's Republic of China for his instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. Sun is unique among 20th-century Chinese leaders for being widely revered in both Mainland China and Taiwan.
Chinese nationalism is a form of nationalism in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan) which asserts that the Chinese people are a nation and promotes the cultural and national unity of all Chinese people, it is slightly distinct from Han Chinese nationalism i.e. nationalism of main ethnicity of China, a form of Chinese nationalism applied exclusively to the Han Chinese, and in extreme cases a sense of jingoism that is felt by purely Han Chinese people who deem themselves superior to ethnic minorities in China. According to Sun Yat-sen's philosophy in the Three Principles of the People, Chinese nationalism should be a form of civic nationalism constructed on top of a united value, however this has not been fully recognised or applied in practice by successors.
The flag of the Republic of China, also known as the Blue Sky, White Sun, and a Wholly Red Earth (青天白日滿地紅) and retroactively the National Flag of China, consists of a red field with a blue canton bearing a white disk surrounded by twelve triangles; said symbols symbolize the sun and rays of light emanating from it, respectively.
The Constitution of the Republic of China is the fifth and current constitution of the Republic of China (ROC), ratified by the Kuomintang during the Constituent National Assembly session on 25 December 1946, in Nanjing, and adopted on 25 December 1947. The constitution, along with its Additional Articles, remains effective in ROC-controlled territories.
The "Three Principles of the People" is the party anthem of the Kuomintang as well as the national anthem of the Republic of China (ROC) adopted in 1930 by the ROC as the "National Anthem of the Republic of China". It was used as such in mainland China until 1949, when the central government of the Republic of China relocated to Taiwan following its defeat by the Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War. It replaced the "Song to the Auspicious Cloud", which had been used as the Chinese national anthem before. The national anthem was adopted on October 25, 1945, after the surrender of Japan. Mainland China, being governed by the People's Republic of China today, discontinued this national anthem for "March of the Volunteers".
The history of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty in 1912, when the Xinhai Revolution and the formation of the Republic of China put an end to 2,000 years of imperial rule. The Republic experienced many trials and tribulations after its founding which included being dominated by elements as disparate as warlord generals and foreign powers.
The Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang (RCCK), also commonly known, especially when referenced historically, as the Left Kuomintang or Left Guomindang, is one of the eight legally recognised minor political parties in the People's Republic of China that follow the direction of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). It was founded in January 1948, during the height of the Chinese Civil War, by members of the left wing of the Kuomintang (KMT), especially those who were against Chiang Kai-shek's policies. The first Chairman of the party was General Li Jishen, a senior Nationalist military commander who had many disputes with Chiang over the years, while Soong Ching-ling was named Honorary Chairwoman. Other early leading members were Wang Kunlun, Cheng Qian, He Xiangning and Tao Zhiyue. The party claims to be the true heir of Sun Yat-sen's legacy and his Three Principles of the People. By the end of 2017, it had 131,410 members.
Dai Jitao or Tai Chi-t'ao was a Chinese journalist, an early Kuomintang member, and the first head of the Examination Yuan of the Republic of China. He is often referred to as Dai Chuanxian or by his other courtesy name, Dai Xuantang.
The Government of the Republic of China, commonly known as the Government of Taiwan, is the national government of the Republic of China whose de facto territory currently consists of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other island groups in the "free area". The president is the head of state. The government consists of the presidency and five branches (Yuan): the Executive Yuan, Legislative Yuan, Judicial Yuan, Examination Yuan, and Control Yuan.
The Young China Party (YCP), also known as the Chinese Youth Party (CYP), is a minor political party in Taiwan. Before the end of martial law, it was, along with the Kuomintang and the China Democratic Socialist Party, one of three legal political parties in Taiwan. The YCP was an important political party during the early history of the Republic of China.
The national flower of the Republic of China was officially designated as the plum blossom by the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China on 21 July 1964. The plum blossom, known as the meihua, is a symbol for resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity, because plum blossoms often bloom most vibrantly even amidst the harsh winter snow. As the plum tree can usually grow for a long time, ancient trees are found throughout China. Huangmei county in Hubei features a 1,600-year-old plum tree from the Jin Dynasty which is still flowering. The three stamens represents Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People, while the five petals symbolize the five branches of the government: Executive Yuan, Legislative Yuan, Judicial Yuan, Examination Yuan and Control Yuan. The flower has also been proposed to be one of the national flowers for the People's Republic of China.
The Kuomintang (KMT) is a Chinese political party that ruled mainland China from 1927 to 1949 prior to its relocation to Taiwan as a result of the Chinese Civil War. The name of the party translates as "China's National People's Party" and was historically referred to as the Chinese Nationalists. The Party was initially founded on 23 August 1912, by Sun Yat-sen but dissolved in November 1913. It reformed on October 10th 1919, again led by Sun Yat-sen, and became the ruling party in China. After Sun's death, the party was dominated from 1927 to 1975 by Chiang Kai-shek. After the KMT lost the civil war with the Chinese Communist Party in 1949, the party retreated to Taiwan and remains a major political party of the Republic of China based in Taiwan.
The historical socialist ideology of the Kuomintang is a form of socialism and socialist thought developed in mainland China during the early Republic of China. The Tongmenghui revolutionary organization led by Sun Yat-sen was the first to promote socialism in China.
Dang Guo was the one-party system adopted by the Republic of China under the Kuomintang.
Hualien City is a county-administered city and the county seat of Hualien County, Taiwan. It is located on the east coast of Taiwan on the Pacific Ocean, and has a population of 106,368 inhabitants.
Zhonghua minzu is a political term in modern Chinese nationalism related to the concepts of nation-building, ethnicity, and race in the Chinese nationality.
The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign state recognised as the official designation of China between 1912 and 1949, when it was based on Mainland China, prior to the relocation of its central government to Taiwan as a result of the Chinese Civil War. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometres, it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which rules mainland China today, considers ROC as a country that ceased to exist since 1949; thus, the history of ROC before 1949 is often referred to as Republican Era of China. The ROC, now based in Taiwan, today considers itself a continuation of the country, thus calling the period of its mainland rule as the Mainland Period of the Republic of China in Taiwan.
The Grand Alliance for China's Reunification under the Three Principles of the People is a pro-Kuomintang political association in the Republic of China (Taiwan), dedicated to the unification of Mainland China with Taiwan. The association believes that the unification will take place only on the basis of the Three Principles of the People of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen and a de jure Taiwan should be kept. The association is active in the Republic of China, Canada and the United States.
The teachings of your single-taxer, Henry George, will be the basis of our program of reform.
Chang Fa-Kuei vnqdd.