Three Red Banners

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Three Red Banners
Chinese 三面红旗
Literal meaningthree face red banners

Three Red Banners (Chinese: 三面红旗) was an ideological slogan in the late 1950s which called on the Chinese people to build a socialist state. The "Three Red Banners" also called the "Three Red Flags," consisted of the General Line for socialist construction, the Great Leap Forward and the people's communes. [1] [2] [3]

Great Leap Forward economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China

The Great Leap Forward of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1962. The campaign was led by Chairman Mao Zedong and aimed to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a socialist society through rapid industrialization and collectivization. These policies proved to lead to an exponential social and economic disaster, but these failures were hidden by widespread exaggeration and deceitful reports. In short order, large resources were diverted to use on expensive new industrial operations, which, in turn, failed to produce much, and deprived urgently needed resources from the agricultural sector. An important result was a drastic decline in food output, which caused millions of deaths in the Great Chinese Famine.

After the first Five-Year Plan, the People's Republic of China continued its socialist construction by introducing "Three Red Banners Movement". The General Line directed the Chinese people to "go all out, aim high, and build socialism with greater, faster, better, and more economical results." [2] By the end of 1958, nearly all Chinese peasants had been organized into communes averaging 5000 households each. All privately owned property was taken for or contributed to the communes and people were not allowed to cook their own food and instead ate in communal dining halls. The Great Leap Forward, begun in 1958, was a campaign to rapidly modernize by using China's vast labor resources in agricultural and industrial projects. The Leap instead resulted in economic destruction and tens of millions of famine deaths, and had been mostly abandoned by early 1962. Membership in communes was gradually reduced in the early 1960s, with some private property ownership and enterprise again being allowed. The communes continued until being dismantled in the early 1980s under Deng Xiaoping.

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<i>Hungry Ghosts: Maos Secret Famine</i> book by Jasper Becker

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Crimes against humanity under Communist regimes

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Chinese property law has existed in various forms for centuries. After the Chinese Communist Revolution in 1949, most land is owned by collectivities or by the state; the Property Law of the People's Republic of China passed in 2007 codified property rights.

<i>The Tragedy of Liberation</i> book by Frank Dikötter

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Li Jingquan Chinese politician

Li Jingquan was a Chinese Hakka politician and the first Party Committee Secretary of Sichuan following the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. Considered by scholars to be one of Mao's most enthusiastic adherents, he took a hard line on land reform in Tibetan areas of Sichuan in 1956 and played a central role in the massive starvation of Chinese citizens in Sichuan province and Chongqing during the Great Leap Forward.

Part of Mao Zedong's land reform during the late phase of the Chinese Civil War and the early People's Republic of China was a campaign of mass killings of landlords in order to redistribute land to the peasant class and landless workers which resulted in millions of deaths. Those killed were targeted on the basis of class rather than ethnicity, therefore terming the campaign "genocide" is incorrect and the neologism "classicide" is more accurate. Class-motivated mass killings continued almost throughout the 30 years of social and economic transformation in Maoist China, resulting in the deaths of 90% to 95% of the what used to be 15 million members of the landlord class in China according to Harry Wu.

Beidaihe Conference (1958)

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"On the Great Road", commonly known as We Walk on the Great Road, is a Chinese patriotic song written and composed by Li Jiefeng in 1962 and published the following year. The song alludes to the metaphorical road to development for the Chinese people and state after the disastrous Great Leap Forward, as well as to the Long March undertaken by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party in 1934. We Walk on the Great Road was a popular patriotic songs during the Cultural Revolution, and its optimistic tone and simple lyrics cemented it as one of the most popular and enduring patriotic songs of the era, being ranked by the Chinese National Culture Promotion Association as one of the 124 greatest Chinese musical works. Notably, the song was sung extensively during the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, and featured prominently in the 50th Anniversary of the People's Republic Parade in 1999.

References

  1. Woo, X. L. ; Two Republics in China: How Imperial China Became the PRC; Algora Publishing, New York, NY;(2014) p. 155
  2. 1 2 Yang Jisheng (2012). Tombstone: The Great Chinese Famine, 1958-1962 (Kindle edition). Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p.87. ISBN   9781466827790.
  3. The Other China: Hunger Part I - The Three Red Flags of Death (1976)