Three Rules of Discipline and Eight Points for Attention

Last updated

The Three Rules of Discipline and Eight Points for Attention (Chinese :三大纪律八项注意; pinyin :Sān dà jìlǜ bā xiàng zhùyì) is a military doctrine that was issued in 1928 by Mao Zedong and his associates for the Chinese Red Army, who were then fighting against the Kuomintang. The contents vary slightly in different versions. One of the major distinctions of the doctrine was its respect for the civilians during wartime. The following version is obtained from Stephen Uhalley in 1975. [1]

Contents

Statement

The three rules enjoined

The eight points were:

Alternate

An alternative, more literal translation into English was presented by the People's Daily . [2]

The Three Main Rules of Discipline:

The Eight Points for Attention:

History

These injunctions were usually complied with and, according to historian Stephen Uhalley, came to make the Chinese Red Army a distinctive army in China and an exceptionally popular one. [1] The attitude of the Three Rules and the Eight Points heavily contrasted with the Nationalist Kuomintang armies led by Chiang Kai-shek, who were fighting the Chinese Red Army in the Chinese Civil War. For example, Nationalist armies tended to board in civilian houses without permission, tended to be rude and disrespectful towards civilians, or sometimes even confiscated material from the peasants in order to gain supplies. The Chinese Red Army however, under the Three Points of Discipline and Eight Points of Attention requested permission to take supplies and to board at houses instead, and any confiscation of peasant property were exceptions and violators were promptly punished. [1] For example, Red Army soldiers would be shot on the spot if they were found looting peasant homes. [3]

Many impressed villagers gave supplies and shelter to the Red Army voluntarily, greatly helping their war efforts. Eventually, many villagers and their sons and daughters joined the Red Army, providing the Red Army with sufficient manpower to combat the Japanese and Kuomintang. [3]

It was common after a confiscation of items from warlords that the items would be redistributed among the people, in addition to supplying the Chinese Red Army. As a result, the peasants tended to spread disinformation to the Kuomintang when they arrived to pursue the Chinese Red Army, while showing the Chinese Red Army hospitality whenever they arrived at villages. This invariably resulted in attrition of the Kuomintang forces.

This contrasting doctrine in comparison with the Kuomintang inevitably became one of the major reasons for winning most of the Chinese people's support, and thus the victory of the Chinese Red Army over the Kuomintang in 1949. The people's support for the Red Army proved to be more important than the raw manpower that Kuomintang initially enjoyed.

See also

Related Research Articles

Mao Zedong Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

Mao Zedong, also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who was the founding father of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which he ruled as the chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. Ideologically a Marxist–Leninist, his theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism.

Chinese Civil War 1927–1950 intermittent civil war between the Kuomintang government and the Communist Party

The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Communist Party of China (CPC) lasting intermittently between 1927 and 1949. The war is generally divided into two phases with an interlude: from August 1927 to 1937, the KMT-CPC Alliance collapsed during the Northern Expedition, and the Nationalists controlled most of China. From 1937 to 1945, hostilities were put on hold, and the Second United Front fought the Japanese invasion of China with eventual help from the Allies of World War II. The civil war resumed with the Japanese defeat, and the CPC gained the upper hand in the final phase of the war from 1945 to 1949, generally referred to as the Chinese Communist Revolution.

Long March Military campaign during the Chinese Civil War

The Long March was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang army. There was not one Long March, but a series of marches, as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west. The best known is the march from Jiangxi province which began in October 1934 and ended in Yan'an, Shaanxi province in October 1935. The First Front Army of the Chinese Soviet Republic, led by an inexperienced military commission, was on the brink of annihilation by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's troops in their stronghold in Jiangxi province. The Communists, under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north, which reportedly traversed over 9,000 kilometers over 370 days. The route passed through some of the most difficult terrain of western China by traveling west, then north, to Shaanxi.

Wang Zhen (general)

Wang Zhen was a Chinese political figure and one of the Eight Elders of the Communist Party of China. He was the 4th Vice President of China and served under Chinese Presidents Yang Shangkun and Li Xiannian. Wang Zhen was the first Vice Chairman to serve in the Central Advisory Commission.

Yuan Wencai, also Yuan Xuansan was a former bandit chieftain who operated in the Jinggang Mountains of Jiangxi, from 1923, and then joined the Communist Party of China, becoming a protégé of Mao Zedong during their formative period in the Jiangxi Soviet. However, it cost his own life in the following power struggle within the Communist Party of China.

He Long

He Long was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and one of the ten marshals of the People's Liberation Army. He was from a poor rural family in Hunan, and his family was not able to provide him with any formal education. He began his revolutionary career after avenging the death of his uncle, when he fled to become an outlaw and attracted a small personal army around him. Later his forces joined the Kuomintang, and he participated in the Northern Expedition.

The history of the Chinese People's Liberation Army began in 1927 with the start of the Chinese Civil War and spans to the present, having developed from a peasant guerrilla force into the largest armed force in the world.

Project 571 alleged plot by supporters of Lin Biao to overthrow Mao Zedong

Project 571 was the numeric codename given to an alleged plot to execute a coup d'état against Chinese leader Mao Zedong in 1971 by the supporters of Lin Biao, then Vice-Chairman of the Communist Party of China. In Chinese, the numbers "5-7-1" sound like the term "armed uprising". The Chinese government initially claimed that Lin Biao himself had devised Project 571, but evidence inside and outside of China has made it more likely that Lin's son, Lin Liguo, a high-ranking officer in the People's Liberation Army Air Force, instead developed the plot. Any plots that may have been planned or attempted by Lin Biao or his family ultimately failed. Lin's family attempted to flee China for the Soviet Union, but died when their plane crashed over Mongolia on September 13, 1971. A draft copy of the Project 571 Outline was discovered following Lin's death, and was publicly circulated by the Chinese government as a means of explaining the event.

Li Min (daughter of Mao Zedong) Daughter of Mao Zedong

Li Min, original name Mao Jiaojiao, is a Chinese politician who is the daughter of Mao Zedong and his third wife, He Zizhen. Her surname is Li rather than Mao, because Mao had changed his name to "Li Desheng" for a period of time to prevent from being chased by the Kuomintang army during the Chinese Civil War.

This article details the history of the Chinese Communist Party.

Yanan Forum

The Yan'an Forum on Literature and Art was a May 1942 forum held at the city of Yan'an in Communist-controlled China and significant event in the Yan'an Rectification Movement. It is most notable for the speeches given by Mao Zedong, later edited and published as Talks at the Yan'an Forum on Literature and Art which dealt with the role of literature and art in the country. The two main points were that (1) all art should reflect the life of the working class and consider them as an audience, and (2) that art should serve politics, and specifically the advancement of socialism. The excesses of the latter point during the Cultural Revolution led to current Party policy rejecting that point, but retaining Mao's encouragement of peasant-focused art and literature.

<i>Dang Guo</i>

Dang Guo, or Party-State, is a version of the one-party state ideology that was formerly the official policy of the Republic of China under the Kuomintang.

Hundred Regiments Offensive 1940 military offensive of the Second Sino-Japanese War

The Hundred Regiments Offensive was a major campaign of the Communist Party of China's National Revolutionary Army divisions commanded by Peng Dehuai against the Imperial Japanese Army in Central China. The battle had long been the focus of propaganda in the history of Chinese Communist Party but had become Peng Dehuai's "crime" during the Cultural Revolution. Certain issues regarding its launching and consequences are still controversial.

<i>The East Is Red</i> (1965 film) 1965 film by Wang Ping

The East Is Red, is a 1965 Chinese film directed by Wang Ping. It is a "song and dance epic" dramatizing the history of the Chinese Revolution and the Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong, from the beginnings of the May Fourth Movement, to the Civil War against the Nationalist Party, to the victory of the Communists and the founding of the People's Republic. "The east is red" consists of the prelude "Sunflower to the Sun" and "Eastern Dawn", "Starfire and Liaoyuan", "Thousands of Waters and Mountains", "Anti-Japanese Beacon", "Buried Jiang Family", "Motherland People Stand Up", "Motherland is Moving Forward" 8. The eight scenes of "The World Is Moving Forward"The musical is commercially available today on both CD and video, as well as online with English subtitles.

Xia Minghan

Xia Minghan was an early leader of the Chinese revolution, revolution martyr, and a pioneer of Communist Party of China (CPC). He was arrested and executed by the Kuomintang (KMT) in 1928.

Chinese Communist Revolution 1945–1950 revolution establishing the Peoples Republic of China

The Chinese Communist Revolution, known in the mainland China as the War of Liberation, was the conflict, led by the Communist Party of China and Chairman Mao Zedong, that resulted in the proclamation of the People's Republic of China, on 1 October 1949. The revolution began in 1946 after the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45) and was the second part of the Chinese Civil War (1945–49).

Liu Zhixun

Liu Zhixun, also known as Liu Keming, was a member of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army. He was purged by Communist leader Xia Xi and executed.

Zhang Huizan was a Lieutenant general in the Chinese National Revolutionary Army.

Chinese Peasants Association

The Chinese National Peasants' Association, otherwise known as the Chinese Peasants' Association, was a peasant organization created in 1927 with the specific aim of transforming the peasantry via Socialism. It was led by the Communist Party of China until its dissolution in 1964. Its successor was the Chinese National Poor and Lower-Middle Peasants' Association, created in 1964 and dissolved de facto in 1986.

Red August

The Red August, originally meaning August 1966 of the Cultural Revolution, is also used to indicate a series of massacres in Beijing which mainly took place during the period. According to the official statistics in 1980, from August to September in 1966, a total of 1,772 people—including teachers and principals of many schools—were killed in Beijing by Red Guards; in addition, 33,695 homes were ransacked and 85,196 families were forced to leave the city. The killing by the Red Guards also made an impact on several rural districts of Beijing, causing the "Daxing Massacre", for example, during which 325 people were killed from August 27 to September 1 in Daxing District of Beijing. The oldest killed during the Daxing Massacre was 80 years old, while the youngest was only 38 days old; 22 families were wiped out. Scholars have also pointed out that, according to the official statistics in 1985, the actual death toll during the Red August was over 10,000.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Uhalley, Stephen, (1985). Mao Tse-tung, a critical biography. New Viewpoints Publishing. ISBN   0-531-05363-6.
  2. http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/dengxp/vol2/note/B0060.html
  3. 1 2 Slavicek, Louise Chipley (2004). Mao Zedong. Great Military Leaders of the 20th Century. Philadelphia: Chelsea House. pp. 37–39. ISBN   0-7910-7407-2 . Retrieved 8 October 2015.