The Three Supremes (Chinese :三个至上; pinyin :Sān ge Zhìshàng) is a doctrine first articulated by CPC General secretary, Chinese president Hu Jintao in December 2007, which requires the judiciary to subordinate the written law to the interests of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the maintenance of "social stability." As Hu Jintao put it during the National Conference on Political-Legal Work, "In their work, the grand judges and grand procurators shall always regard as supreme the party's cause, the people's interest and the constitution and laws."
The “Three Supremes” are as follows: 1. “Supremacy of the business of the CCP” (党的事业至上) 2. “Supremacy of the interests of the people” (人民利益至上) 3. “Supremacy of the Constitution and the laws” (宪法法律至上)
In March 2008 Party functionary Wang Shengjun was confirmed as the president of the Supreme People's Court (SPC). Unlike predecessors who had placed emphasis on legal training, the tenure of Wang Shengjun (who has no formal legal training himself) has been defined by mandating the study of the Three Supremes theory, and by his emphasis on the need to uphold the leadership of the Communist Party.
The launch of the Three Supremes, and corresponding appointment of Wang Shengjun to the SPC, has been viewed by some legal scholars as an example of backsliding in the development of an independent, autonomous, and competent legal community. Many legal scholars in China believe that the Three Supremes serves to "enshrine the notion that the law must serve the basic strategic interests of the CCP by taking into primary consideration the CCP’s own notion of pressing national priorities, interests and realities."
Jiang Zemin is a Chinese retired politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002 as Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2004 and as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003. Jiang has been described as the "core of the third generation" of Communist Party leaders since 1989.
The Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China, usually known as the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), is a committee consisting of the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. Historically it has been composed of five to eleven members, and currently has seven members. Its officially mandated purpose is to conduct policy discussions and make decisions on major issues when the Politburo, a larger decision-making body, is not in session. According to the party's Constitution, the General Secretary of the Central Committee must also be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee.
Hu Jintao is a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012. He held the offices of General Secretary of the Communist Party from 2002 to 2012, President of the People's Republic from 2003 to 2013 and Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 2004 to 2012. He was a member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body, from 1992 to 2012.
The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law of the People's Republic of China. It was adopted by the 5th National People's Congress on December 4, 1982, with further revisions in 1988, 1993, 1999, 2004 and 2018. It is the fourth constitution in the country's history, superseding the 1954 constitution, the 1975 constitution, and the 1978 constitution.
The Orders of precedence in China is the ranking of political leaders in China for the purposes of event protocol and to arrange the ordering of names in official news bulletins, both written and televised. It is also sometimes used to assess perceived level of political power. Although there is no formally published ranking, there is usually an established convention and protocol, and the relative positions of Chinese political figures can usually be deduced from the order in meetings and especially by the time and order in which figures are covered by the official media.
The Central Secretariat of the Communist Party of China is a body serving the Politburo of the Communist Party of China and its Standing Committee. The secretariat is mainly responsible for carrying out routine operations of the Politburo and the coordination of organizations and stakeholders to achieve tasks as set out by the Politburo. It is empowered by the Politburo to make routine day-to-day decisions on issues of concern in accordance to the decisions of the Politburo, but it must consult the Politburo on substantive matters.
The 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China was held in Beijing between November 8 and 14, 2002. It was preceded by the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. 2,114 delegates and 40 specially invited delegates attended this and elected a 356-member 16th CPC Central Committee, as well as a 121-member Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI). The Congress marked the nominal transition of power between Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao, who replaced Jiang as General Secretary, and a newly expanded Politburo Standing Committee line-up. The institutional transition would be completed in state organs by the 2003 National People's Congress in March. Jiang, however, remained head of the Central Military Commission, therefore in practice, the power transition was not complete. The Party National Congress examined and adopted the amendment to the Constitution of the Communist Party of China proposed by the 15th CPC Central Committee, and decided to come into force as from the date of its adoption. An amendment to the Constitution was approved the Party National Congress, with Jiang Zemin's signature ideology of "Three Represents" written into it. This congress was succeeded by the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China.
Elections in China are based on a hierarchical electoral system, whereby local People's Congresses are directly elected, and all higher levels of People's Congresses up to the National People's Congress (NPC), the national legislature, are indirectly elected by the People's Congress of the level immediately below. The NPC Standing Committee may partially alter laws passed by the NPC when the NPC is not in session, which is significant since the Standing Committee meets more frequently than the NPC.
Law of the People's Republic of China, officially referred to as the Socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics, is the legal regime of China, with the separate legal traditions and systems of Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau.
The Supreme People's Court is the highest level of court in the mainland area of the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong and Macau, as special administrative regions, have their own separate judicial systems based on British common law traditions and Portuguese civil-law traditions respectively, and are out of the jurisdiction of the Supreme People's Court.
Administrative law in China was virtually non-existent before the economic reform era. Since the 1980s, China has constructed a new legal framework for administrative law, establishing control mechanisms for overseeing the bureaucracy and disciplinary committees for the Communist Party of China. However, many have argued that the usefulness of these laws are vastly inferior in terms of controlling government actions, largely because of institutional and systemic obstacles like a weak judiciary, poorly trained judges and lawyers, and corruption.
The 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China was held in Beijing, China, at the Great Hall of the People from 15 to 21 October 2007. Congress marked a significant shift in the political direction of the country as CPC General Secretary Hu Jintao solidified his position of leadership. Hu's signature policy doctrine, the Scientific Development Concept, which aimed to create a "Socialist Harmonious Society" through egalitarian wealth distribution and concern for the country's less well-off, was enshrined into the Party Constitution. It was succeeded by the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China.
The Scientific Outlook on Development, sometimes translated to either the scientific development concept, or as the scientific development perspective, is one of the guiding socio-economic principles of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the central feature of former Party General Secretary Hu Jintao's attempts to create a "harmonious society."
The 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 2002 to 2007. It held seven plenary sessions. It was set in motion by the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. The 15th Central Committee preceded it. It was followed by the 17th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.
Wang Shengjun was the President of the Supreme People's Court of China from March 2008 to March 2013.
The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China began on November 8, 2012 at the Great Hall of the People. It was preceded by the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. Due to term and age limits restrictions, seven of the nine members of the powerful Politburo Standing Committee (PSC) retired during the Congress, including Hu Jintao, who was replaced by Xi Jinping as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China. The Congress elected the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, and saw the number of Politburo Standing Committee seats reduced from nine to seven. It was succeeded by the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China.
Wang Huning is a Chinese political theorist and one of the top leaders of the Communist Party of China, a current member of the party's Politburo Standing Committee and first-ranked secretary of the party's Secretariat. He served as secretary of the Secretariat between 2007 and 2012, and as the head of the Central Policy Research Office since 2002. He was named chairman of Central Guidance Commission on Building Spiritual Civilization in November 2017.
The Weiquan movement is a non-centralized group of lawyers, legal experts, and intellectuals in China who seek to protect and defend the civil rights of the citizenry through litigation and legal activism. The movement, which began in the early 2000s, has organized demonstrations, sought reform via the legal system and media, defended victims of human rights abuses, and written appeal letters, despite opposition from Communist Party authorities. Among the issues adopted by Weiquan lawyers are property and housing rights, protection for AIDS victims, environmental damage, religious freedom, freedom of speech and the press, and defending the rights of other lawyers facing disbarment or imprisonment.
The Four Comprehensives, or the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy is a list of political goals for China, put forward by Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China in 2014. They are:
The Confidence Doctrine is a signature political philosophy of Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China. It calls for Communist Party members, government officials, and the Chinese people to be "confident in our chosen path, confident in our political system, and confident in our guiding theories." Initially, the doctrine was termed the Three Confidences (三个自信), although Xi Jinping seems to have injected a 'fourth' confidence, "confidence in our culture," into the mix in December 2014. Along with the Four Comprehensives and the Chinese Dream, it has, since 2013, become a central theme in political slogans of the Communist Party of China, often recited at official meetings, conferences, and by state-owned media.
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