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In the field of international relations, the Three Worlds Theory (simplified Chinese :三个世界的理论; traditional Chinese :三個世界的理論; pinyin :Sān gè Shìjiè de Lǐlùn), by Mao Zedong, proposes three politico-economic worlds: the First world, the Second world, and the Third world. In 1974, at the United Nations, Vice-Premier Deng Xiaoping applied the Three Worlds Theory during the New International Economic Order presentations about the problems of raw materials and development, to explain the PRC's economic co-operation with non-communist countries.
The First world comprises the US and the USSR, the superpower countries respectively engaged in imperialism and in social imperialism. The Second world comprises Japan and Canada, Europe and the countries of the global North–South divide. The Third world comprises the countries of Africa, Latin America, and continental Asia.
As political science, the Three Worlds Theory is a Maoist interpretation and geopolitical reformulation of international relations, which is different from the Three-World Model, created by the demographer Alfred Sauvy, wherein the First World comprises the US, Great Britain, and their allies; the Second World comprises the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, and their allies; and the Third World comprises the economically underdeveloped countries and the countries, including the 120 countries of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).
Deng Xiaoping was a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1992. After Chairman Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng gradually rose to power and led China through a series of far-reaching market-economy reforms, which earned him the reputation as the "Architect of Modern China."
Maoism, or Mao Zedong Thought, is a variety of Marxism–Leninism that Mao Zedong developed for realising a socialist revolution in the agricultural, pre-industrial society of the Republic of China and later the People's Republic of China. The philosophical difference between Maoism and Marxism–Leninism is that the peasantry are the revolutionary vanguard in pre-industrial societies rather than the proletariat. This updating and adaptation of Marxism–Leninism to Chinese conditions in which revolutionary praxis is primary and ideological orthodoxy is secondary represents urban Marxism–Leninism adapted to pre-industrial China. The claim that Mao Zedong had adapted Marxism–Leninism to Chinese conditions evolved into the idea that he had updated it in a fundamental way applying to the world as a whole.
Jiang Zemin is a Chinese retired politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002 as Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2004 and as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003. Jiang has been described as the "core of the third generation" of Communist Party leaders since 1989.
Hua Guofeng was a Chinese politician who served as Chairman of the Communist Party of China and Premier of the People's Republic of China. Hua held the top offices of the government, party, and the military after Premier Zhou and Chairman Mao's death, but was forced out of major political power by more influential party leaders by June 1981 and subsequently retreated from the political scene.
In September 1976, after Chairman Mao Zedong's death, the People's Republic of China was left with no central authority figure, either symbolically or administratively. The Gang of Four was dismantled, but new Chairman Hua Guofeng continued to persist on Mao-era policies. After a bloodless power struggle, Deng Xiaoping came to the helm to reform the Chinese economy and government institutions in their entirety. Deng, however, was conservative with regard to wide-ranging political reform, and along with the combination of unforeseen problems that resulted from the economic reform policies, the country underwent another political crisis with the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
The Sino-Albanian split was the gradual worsening of relations between the People's Socialist Republic of Albania and the People's Republic of China in the period 1972–78. Both countries had supported each other in the Soviet–Albanian and Sino-Soviet splits, together declaring the necessity of defending Marxism–Leninism against what they regarded as Soviet revisionism within the international communist movement. By the early 1970s, however, Albanian disagreements with certain aspects of Chinese policy deepened as the visit of Nixon to China along with the Chinese announcement of the "Three Worlds Theory" produced strong apprehension in Albania's leadership under Enver Hoxha. Hoxha saw in these events an emerging Chinese alliance with American imperialism and abandonment of proletarian internationalism. In 1978, China broke off its trade relations with Albania, signalling an end to the informal alliance which existed between the two states.
Rong Yiren was the Vice President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 1998 and was heavily involved with the opening of the Chinese economy to western investment. Rong is known both in China and in the Western world as "the Red Capitalist" because his family were some of the few pre-1949 industrialists to have been treated well by the Communist Party of China in return for their co-operation with the government of the People's Republic of China.
The history of the People's Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War. The PRC has for seven decades been synonymous with China, but it is only the most recent political entity to govern mainland China, preceded by the Republic of China (ROC) and thousands of years of imperial dynasties. The paramount leaders have been Mao Zedong (1949-1976), Hua Guofeng (1976-1978), Deng Xiaoping (1978-1989), Jiang Zemin (1989-2002), Hu Jintao (2002-2012) and Xi Jinping. They took China from a traditional peasant society with unrelenting poverty and frequent deadly famines to the world second-largest and fastest growing economy with a specialty in high productivity factories and leadership in some areas of high technology. After receiving support from the USSR in the 1950s, the two nations became bitter enemies on a worldwide basis until the USSR collapsed in 1991. Communism remains the official ideology, with the party in full control, but with a new large middle class and hundreds of very rich entrepreneurs in the 21st century. The new wealth and technology led to a contest for primacy in Asian affairs versus India, Japan and the United States, and after 2017 a growing trade war with the U.S.
Deng Xiaoping Theory, is the series of political and economic ideologies first developed by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. The theory does not claim to reject Marxism–Leninism or Mao Zedong Thought but instead seeks to adapt them to the existing socio-economic conditions of China.
The Anti-Spiritual-Pollution Campaign was a political campaign spearheaded by conservative factions within the Communist Party of China that lasted from October 1983 to December 1983. In general, its advocates wanted to curb Western-inspired liberal ideas among the Chinese populace, a by-product of nascent economic reforms begun in 1978.
The Scientific Outlook on Development, sometimes translated to either the scientific development concept, or as the scientific development perspective, is one of the guiding socio-economic principles of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the central feature of former Party General Secretary Hu Jintao's attempts to create a "harmonious society."
The 8th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 1956 to 1969. It was most certainly preceded by the 7th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. It held 12 plenary sessions in this period of 13 years. It was the longest serving central committee ever held by the Communist Party.
Qiushi is a bi-monthly political theory periodical published by the Central Party School and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. It is the Communist party’s main theoretical journal. The headquarters is in Beijing.
The 3rd Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was a pivotal meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held in Beijing, China, from December 18 to December 22, 1978.
The theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is a broad term for political theories and policies that are seen by their proponents as representing Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese circumstances and specific time periods. For instance, in this view Xi Jinping Thought is considered to represent Marxist–Leninist policies suited for China's present condition while Deng Xiaoping Theory was considered relevant for the period when it was formulated.
Deng Liqun was a Chinese politician and theorist who was one of the leading figures of the Communist Party of China during the 1980s, most well known for his involvement with the party's propaganda work. Deng was born in Guidong County, Hunan province, and joined the Communist Party in 1936. He came from an intellectual family and joined the party out of intellectual commitment. He was often referred to as "Little Deng", to be distinguished from Deng Xiaoping, the "Old Deng".
The Guangming Daily, Guangming Ribao, or Enlightenment Daily is a national Chinese-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China. It was established in 1949 as the official paper of the China Democratic League. As one of China's "big three" newspapers during the Cultural Revolution, it played an important role in the political struggle between Hua Guofeng and the Gang of Four in 1976 and between Hua and Deng Xiaoping in 1978.
Yu Guangyuan was a prominent Chinese economist, philosopher and government official. Yu is recognized as one of the first scholars to put forward the socialist market-oriented economic system in China and to propose the theory of "the Primary Stage of Socialism" and served as a close adviser and speech-writer to the Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping.
Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, simply known as Xi Jinping Thought, is a political theory derived from the Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Xi Jinping.
Ye Jizhuang was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and politician nicknamed the "Red Manager". He served as the logistics head of the Red Army during the Long March and of the Yan'an Communist headquarters during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1945, he was among the first three officers awarded the rank of lieutenant general by the Communist Party of China, together with Peng Zhen and Chen Yun. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he served as the country's first Minister of Trade and then Minister of Foreign Trade until his death in 1967.
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