Three Years (Russian : Три года, romanized: Tri goda) is an 1895 novella by Anton Chekhov originally published in the January and February 1895 issues of Russkaya Mysl . At 130 pages it is Chekhov's second-longest narrative. The story takes a negative position on the progress of society, featuring individuals of the merchant and factory owner class and their workers, without offering political solutions.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history. His career as a playwright produced four classics, and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics. Along with Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, Chekhov is often referred to as one of the three seminal figures in the birth of early modernism in the theatre. Chekhov practiced as a medical doctor throughout most of his literary career: "Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress."
In a September 1894 letter Chekhov informed Maria Chekhova that he was writing "a novel from the Moscow life for Russkaya Mysl. In his December letter to the singer Elena Shavrovahe expressed his dissatisfaction with the way the work was going. "The original idea was one thing, but something different evolves out of it, something more languid... I am sick of writing of all these habitual things, I'd like to write of demons, of frightening, volcanic women, of wizards, but alas! – what they demand of me is right-minded novellas about Ivan Gavrilovichs and their wives."
Maria Pavlovna Chekhova was a Russian teacher, artist, founder of the Chekhov Memorial House museum in Yalta, and a recipient of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour. Anton Chekhov was her brother.
The novella came out with huge gaps caused by censorship. "The January issue of Russkaya Mysl has been arrested, then acquitted. From my story the censors threw out everything that had anything to do with religion. Russkaya Mysl is the journal that has to send its articled for the preliminary censorship procedure. Such things kill off all the urge to write, leaves with the feeling of a bone stuck in your throat," Chekhov complained in a January 1895 letter to his friend Alexey Suvorin.
Generally the response to the novella was warm, even if some reviewers found the plotline 'hazy' and its characters 'sketchy'. Alexander Skabichevsky reviewed the novella positively and expressed his delight with the Alexey Laptev character whom he described as 'the Hamlet of Zamoskvorechye'.
Alexander Mikhailovich Skabichevsky was a Russian literary historian, critic and memoirist, part of the Narodnik movement, best known for his series of biographies of the 19th century Russian writers.
Along with three other stories and novellas, "The Ward No. 6", "The Story of an Unknown Man" and "A Woman's Kingdom", Three Years served as a turning point in Chekhov's career. The critics started to recognize him as a new major force in Russian literature and 'a worthy heir to the old masters', according to Sergey Andreevsky.
This is a partial list of Anton Chekhov's works:
Gleb Ivanovich Uspensky, was a Russian Empire writer, and a prominent figure of the Narodnik movement.
Russkaya Mysl was one of Russia's most popular magazines of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was founded in Moscow in 1880 by Vukol Lavrov, closed in 1918 by Bolsheviks, resurrected abroad first in Sofia, then Prague and in Paris. In 1927 Russkaya Mysl closed for good.
The Steppe, subtitled The Story of a Journey, is a novella by Russian writer Anton Chekhov. In a narrative that drifts with the thought processes of the characters, Chekhov evokes a chaise journey across the steppe through the eyes of a young boy sent to live away from home, along with several companions, including his parish priest and his uncle, a merchant.
The Story of an Unknown Man, translated also as The Story of a Nobody and An Anonymous Story, is an 1893 novella by Anton Chekhov first published by Russkaya Mysl, in Nos. 2 and 3 1893 issues. In a revised version Chekhov included into Volume 6 of his Collected Works, published by Adolf Marks in 1899–1901.
My Life is an 1896 novella by Anton Chekhov, set in a provincial southern Russian city like Chekhov's own hometown of Taganrog.
Viktor Alexandrovich Krylov was a Russian playwright, theatre critic, librettist, Imperial Theatres official and one of the major contributors to the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary.
"The Huntsman" is an 1885 short story by Anton Chekhov.
A Dreary Story is an 1889 novella by Anton Chekhov, subtitled "From the Notebooks of an Old Man". Influenced by the death of Chekhov's brother Nikolay from tuberculosis, it has been described as one of Chekhov's most enduring works, and as "a penetrating study into the mind of an elderly and dying professor of medicine".
"In the Ravine" is a 1900 story by Anton Chekhov first published in the No.1, January issue of Zhizn magazine.
"The Teacher of Literature" is an 1894 short story by Anton Chekhov.
"About Love" is 1898 a short story by Anton Pavlovich Chekhov. The third and final part of the Little Trilogy, started by "The Man in the Case" and continued by "Gooseberries". It was first published in the August 1898 issue of Russkaya Mysl, and later included into Volume XII of the second, 1903 edition of the Collected Works by A.P. Chekhov, published by Adolf Marks.
"Ariadne" is an 1895 short story by Anton Chekhov.
"The House with the Mezzanine" is an 1896 short story by Anton Chekhov, subtitled "An Artist's Story".
"Peasants" is an 1897 novella by Anton Chekhov. Upon its publication it became a literary sensation of the year, caused controversy but in retrospect is regarded as one of Chekhov's masterpieces.
"The Man in the Case" is an 1898 short story by Anton Chekhov, the first part of what has been later referred as The Little Trilogy, along with "Gooseberries" and "About Love".
"Ionych" is an 1898 short story by Anton Chekhov.
"A Doctor's Visit" is an 1898 short story by Anton Chekhov, also translated as "A Case History".
A Nervous Breakdown is an 1889 short story by Anton Chekhov.