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The ellipsis, , or , also known informally as dot-dot-dot, is a series of dots that indicates an intentional omission of a word, sentence, or whole section from a text without altering its original meaning. The word, originates from the Ancient Greek: ἔλλειψις, élleipsis meaning 'leave out'.
The ampersand is the logogram, representing the conjunction "and". It originated as a ligature of the letters et—Latin for "and".
Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language. The process of writing in shorthand is called stenography, from the Greek stenos (narrow) and graphein. It has also been called brachygraphy, from Greek brachys (short), and tachygraphy, from Greek tachys, depending on whether compression or speed of writing is the goal.
The tilde,or ), is a grapheme with several uses. The name of the character came into English from Spanish and from Portuguese, which in turn came from the Latin titulus, meaning "title" or "superscription".
Pitman shorthand is a system of shorthand for the English language developed by Englishman Sir Isaac Pitman (1813–1897), who first presented it in 1837. Like most systems of shorthand, it is a phonetic system; the symbols do not represent letters, but rather sounds, and words are, for the most part, written as they are spoken. As of 1996, Pitman shorthand was the most popular shorthand system used in the United Kingdom and the second most popular in the United States.
The equals sign or equality sign,, is a mathematical symbol used to indicate equality in some well-defined sense. It was invented in 1557 by Robert Recorde. In an equation, the equals sign is placed between two expressions that have the same value, or for which one studies the conditions under which they have the same value. In Unicode and ASCII, it has the code point 3D.
Gregg shorthand is a form of shorthand that was invented by John Robert Gregg in 1888. Like cursive longhand, it is completely based on elliptical figures and lines that bisect them. Gregg shorthand is the most popular form of pen stenography in the United States; its Spanish adaptation is fairly popular in Latin America. With the invention of dictation machines, shorthand machines, and the practice of executives writing their own letters on their personal computers, the use of shorthand has gradually declined in the business and reporting world. However, Gregg shorthand is still in use today.
Scribal abbreviations or sigla are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in various languages, including Latin, Greek, Old English and Old Norse. In modern manuscript editing "sigla" are the symbols used to indicate the source manuscript and to identify the copyists of a work. See Critical apparatus.
The dollar sign or peso sign is a symbol used to indicate the units of various currencies around the world, particularly most currencies denominated in pesos and dollars. The symbol can interchangeably have one or two vertical strokes. In common usage, the sign appears to the left of the amount specified, e.g. "$1", read as "one dollar".
Notation plays a relatively minor role in the oral traditions of Indonesian gamelan but, in Java, Sunda and Bali, several systems of gamelan notation were devised beginning at the end of the 19th century, initially for archival purposes.
Procedure signs or prosigns are shorthand signals used in Morse code radio telegraphy procedures, for the purpose of simplifying and standardizing communications related to radio operating issues among two or more radio operators. They are distinct from general Morse code abbreviations, which consist mainly of brevity codes that convey messages to other parties with greater speed and accuracy.
Sentence boundary disambiguation (SBD), also known as sentence breaking, sentence boundary detection, and sentence segmentation, is the problem in natural language processing of deciding where sentences begin and end. Natural language processing tools often require their input to be divided into sentences; however, sentence boundary identification can be challenging due to the potential ambiguity of punctuation marks. In written English, a period may indicate the end of a sentence, or may denote an abbreviation, a decimal point, an ellipsis, or an email address, among other possibilities. About 47% of the periods in the Wall Street Journal corpus denote abbreviations. Question marks and exclamation marks can be similarly ambiguous due to use in emoticons, computer code, and slang.
This comparison of programming languages compares the features of language syntax (format) for over 50 computer programming languages.
The dereference operator or indirection operator, sometimes denoted by "
*", is a unary operator found in C-like languages that include pointer variables. It operates on a pointer variable, and returns an
l-value equivalent to the value at the pointer address. This is called "dereferencing" the pointer. For example, the C code
In logical argument and mathematical proof, the therefore sign,, is generally used before a logical consequence, such as the conclusion of a syllogism. The symbol consists of three dots placed in an upright triangle and is read therefore. While it is not generally used in formal writing, it is used in mathematics and shorthand.
Pahawh Hmong, known also as Ntawv Pahawh, Ntawv Keeb, Ntawv Caub Fab, Ntawv Soob Lwj) is an indigenous semi-syllabic script, invented in 1959 by Shong Lue Yang, to write two Hmong languages, Hmong Daw (Hmoob Dawb White Miao) and Hmong Njua AKA Hmong Leng (Moob Leeg Green Miao).
The full stop, period or full pointis a punctuation mark. It is used for several purposes, most often to mark the end of a declarative sentence ; this sentence-terminal use, alone, defines the strictest sense of full stop.
English Braille, also known as Grade 2 Braille, is the braille alphabet used for English. It consists of 250 or so letters (phonograms), numerals, punctuation, formatting marks, contractions, and abbreviations (logograms). Some English Braille letters, such as ⠡ ⟨ch⟩, correspond to more than one letter in print.
In computer programming, ellipsis notation is used to denote ranges, an unspecified number of arguments, or a parent directory. Most programming languages require the ellipsis to be written as a series of periods; a single (Unicode) ellipsis character cannot be used.
The Duployan shorthand, or Duployan stenography, was created by Father Émile Duployé in 1860 for writing French. Since then, it has been expanded and adapted for writing English, German, Spanish, Romanian, and Chinook Jargon. The Duployan stenography is classified as a geometric, alphabetic stenography and is written left-to-right in connected stenographic style. The Duployan shorthands, including Chinook writing, Pernin's Universal Phonography, Perrault's English Shorthand, the Sloan-Duployan Modern Shorthand, and Romanian stenography, were included as a single script in version 7.0 of the Unicode Standard / ISO 10646