Thria (Attica)

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Thria (Ancient Greek : Θρία) was an important deme of ancient Athens, from which the Eleusinian plain, or, at all events, the central or eastern part of it, was called the Thriasian Plain (Θριάσιον πεδίον). When Attica was invaded from the west, the Thriasian Plain was the first to suffer from the ravages of the enemy. [1] [2] [3] A portion of the Eleusinian plain was also called the Rharian Plain (Ράριον), in ancient times, but its site is unknown. [4]

The territory of Thria appears to have been extended as far as the salt-springs Rheiti, since the temple of Aphrodite Phila is said to have been in Thria. [5] The site of Thria is located southeast of modern Aspropyrgos. [6] [7]

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Acharnae ancient Athenian deme

Acharnae or Acharnai was a deme of ancient Athens. It was part of the phyle Oineis.

Decelea, modern Dekeleia or Dekelia, Deceleia or Decelia, was a deme and ancient village in northern Attica serving as a trade route connecting Euboea with Athens, Greece. It was situated near the entrance of the eastern pass across Mount Parnes, which leads from the northeastern part of the Athenian plain to Oropus, and from thence both to Tanagra on the one hand, and to Delium and Chalcis on the other. It was situated about 120 stadia from Athens, and the same distance from the frontiers of Boeotia: it was visible from Athens, and from its heights also might be seen the ships entering the harbour of Peiraeeus.

Oropus or Oropos was a town on the borders of ancient Attica and Boeotia, and the capital of a district, called after it Oropia This district is a maritime plain, through which the Asopus flows into the sea, and extends for 5 miles (8.0 km) along the shore. It is separated from the inland plain of Tanagra by some hills, which are a continuation of the principal chain of the Diacrian mountains. Oropus was originally a town of Boeotia; and, from its position in the maritime plain of the Asopus, it naturally belonged to that country. It was, however, a frequent subject of dispute between the Athenians and Boeotians; and the former people obtained possession of it long before the Peloponnesian War. It continued in their hands till 412 BCE, when the Boeotians recovered possession of it. A few years afterwards (402 BCE) the Boeotians, in consequence of a sedition of the Oropians, removed the town 7 stadia from the sea. During the next 60 years the town was alternately in the hands of the Athenians and Boeotians, till at length Philip II of Macedon after the Battle of Chaeronea (338 BCE) gave it to the Athenians. In 318 BCE the Oropians recovered their liberty. In 312 BCE Cassander obtained possession of the city; but Polemon, the general of Antigonus, soon afterwards expelled the Macedonian garrison, and handed over the city to the Boeotians. It has been concluded from a passage of Dicaearchus that Oropus continued to belong to Thebes in the next century; but the expression οἰκία Θηβῶν is corrupt, and no safe conclusion can therefore be drawn from the passage. Dicaearchus calls the inhabitants Athenian Boeotians, an epithet which he also applies to the inhabitants of Plataeae. Strabo also describes Oropus as a Boeotian town; but Livy, Pausanias, and Pliny the Elder place it in Attica. How long the Oropians inhabited the inland city is uncertain. Pausanias expressly says that Oropus was upon the sea; and the inhabitants had probably returned to their old town long before his time.

Pentele was a deme of ancient Attica, situated at the north-eastern extremity of the Athenian plain, at the marble quarries of Mount Brilessus, which was called Mount Pentelicus from this place. The fact of Pentele being a deme rests upon the authority of Stephanus of Byzantium alone, and has not yet been confirmed by inscriptions.

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Oenoe or Oinoe was a deme of Athens, situated upon the confines of Boeotia and Attica, near Eleutherae, and upon the regular road to Plataea and Thebes. Hysiae and Oenoe are mentioned as the frontier demi of Attica in 507 BCE, when they were both taken by the Boeotians. From this time Hysiae continued to be a Boeotian town; but Oenoe was recovered by the Athenians, and was fortified by them before the commencement of the Peloponnesian War. In 411 BCE, the Boeotians again obtained possession of Oenoe; but it must have been recovered a second time by the Athenians, as it continues to be mentioned as an Attic demus down to the latest times.

The Thriasian Plain is a plain in western Attica, immediately to the west of Athens, in Greece. It is bounded by Mount Egaleo to the east, Mount Parnitha to the north, Mount Pateras to the west, and the Bay of Eleusina to the south.

Diacria

Diacria (Διακρία) is an ancient name for the highlands in the north-east of Attica in Greece, surrounding the Plain of Marathon.

Oenoe was one of four demoi of ancient Athens situated in the small plain of Marathon open to the sea between Mount Parnes and Mount Pentelicus, originally formed with the other three demoi, the Attic Tetrapolis, one of the twelve ancient divisions of ancient Attica. Oenoe belonged to the tribe Aeantis, and Lucian speaks of the area as "the parts of Marathon about Oenoe".

Tricorythus or Trikorythos or Tricorynthus or Trikorynthos (Τρικόρυνθος) or Tricorinthus or Trikorinthos (Τρικόρινθος) was a deme of ancient Athens, in the plain of Marathon in northeast Attica. It along with Oenoe, Marathon, and Probalinthus, formed the Attic Tetrapolis, one of the twelve districts into which Attica was divided before the time of Theseus. The plain near Tricorythus was where the right of the Persian army were forced into the marsh during the Battle of Marathon.

Oeum Deceleicum or Oion Dekeleikon was a deme of ancient Attica near Deceleia, so called to distinguish it from the Oeum Cerameicum.

Cropia or Kropia or Cropeia or Kropeia (Κρωπειά), also known as Cropidae or Kropidai, was a deme of ancient Attica.

Peleces or Pelekes were three demoi of ancient Attica, forming a community, as τρίκωμολ, and probably, therefore, adjacent. If the reading in Thucydides is correct, διὰ Κρωπειᾶς, these demoi should be placed in the north of the Athenian plain, but many editors read διὰ Κεκροπίας.

Athmonum or Athmonon, also Athmonia (Ἀθμονία), was a deme of ancient Attica, situated on the site of the Marousi (Amarousion). The name of the modern village has been derived from Amarysia, a surname of Artemis, who was worshipped under this designation at Athmonum. An inscription found near Marousi, in which the temenos of this goddess is mentioned, puts the matter beyond dispute. Athmonum also possessed a very ancient temple of Aphrodite Urania. The inhabitants of this deme appear to have been considered clever wine-dressers.

Phyle was a strong fortress and deme of ancient Attica, on a steep rock, commanding the narrow pass across Mount Parnes, through which runs the direct road from Thebes to Athens, past Acharnae. On the northern side of the pass was the territory of Tanagra. Phyle is situated at the distance of more than 120 stadia from Athens, not 100 stadia, as Diodorus states, and was one of the strongest Athenian fortresses on the Boeotian frontier. The precipitous rock upon which it stands can only be approached by a ridge on the eastern side. It is memorable in history as the place seized by Thrasybulus and the Athenian exiles in Battle of Phyle in 404 BCE, and from which they commenced their operations against the Thirty Tyrants. The height of Phyle commanded a magnificent view of the whole Athenian plain, of the city itself, of Mount Hymettus, and the Saronic Gulf. In Phyle there was a building called the Daphnephoreion, containing a picture, which represented the Thargelia.

Harma was a fortress and town, but not a deme, of ancient Attica, near Phyle, situated on a height visible from Athens.

Plotheia was a deme of ancient Attica and appears to have belonged to the district of Epacria, and to have been not far from Halae Araphenides. It was noted for its festival celebrating the hero Pandion.

Phlya was a deme of ancient Attica that lay in the Mesogaea. It must have been a place of importance from the number of temples which it contained, and from its frequent mention in inscriptions.

Delphinium or Delphinion was a town of ancient Boeotia or of ancient Attica, the port-town of Oropus. Strabo, calls the harbour "sacred" and says it was opposite ancient Eretria in Euboea at a distance of 60 stadia; he places it at the beginning of Boeotia, 20 stadia from Oropus. Thucydides writes that during the last part of the Peloponnesian War, the port was fortified by the Athenians.

References

  1. Strabo. Geographica . ix. p.395. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon 's edition.
  2. Herodotus. Histories . 9.7.
  3. Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War . 1.114, 2.19.
  4. Homeric Hymn to Artemis, 450.
  5. Athen. 6.255c.
  6. Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.
  7. Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World . Princeton University Press. p. 59, and directory notes accompanying.

PD-icon.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain :  Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Attica". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography . London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 38°03′16″N23°35′32″E / 38.0545°N 23.5923°E / 38.0545; 23.5923