Thriasian Plain

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The Thriasian Plain (Greek : Θριάσιο Πεδίο, romanized: Thriasio Pedio) is a plain in western Attica, immediately to the west of Athens, in Greece. It is bounded by Mount Egaleo to the east, Mount Parnitha to the north, Mount Pateras to the west, and the Bay of Eleusina to the south.

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History

The Thriasian Plain owes its name to the ancient deme of Thria (Greek : Θρία), one the demes of ancient Athens. The largest town in the plain was Eleusis (modern-day Eleusina), location of the famous Eleusinian mysteries. In Greek mythology, when the goddess Athena won the contest for control of Attica over Poseidon, Poseidon flooded the plain in wrath, until called to order by Zeus [1]

In antiquity, as today, the area was connected to central Athens by two passes: the Sacred Way (Greek : Ιερά Οδός) to the west, today used by the main AthensCorinth highway, and another pass to the northwest nowadays used by the Attiki Odos highway. [2] During the Peloponnesian War (431404 BC) the Thriasian Plain was ravaged by the Spartan armies of King Archidamus II in his campaign against the Athenians. [3]

Modern times

Today it is largely an industrial area, hosting some of Greece's major industrial facilities, such as its largest oil refineries and steel mills. There are four towns in the Thriasian Plain: Eleusina (anc. Eleusis), Mandra, Magoula, and Aspropyrgos. The plain hosts a major air force base outside of Eleusina, as well as a major station of the Athens Suburban Rail. As of 2010, there are plans to create a major center for the transshipment of commercial goods unloaded in the nearby port of Pireas(Athens port) to the rest of Greece and neighboring countries. [4]

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Thria was an important deme of ancient Athens, from which the Eleusinian plain, or, at all events, the central or eastern part of it, was called the Thriasian Plain. When Attica was invaded from the west, the Thriasian Plain was the first to suffer from the ravages of the enemy. A portion of the Eleusinian plain was also called the Rharian Plain (Ράριον), in ancient times, but its site is unknown.

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Nisaea port in ancient Megara, Greece

Nisaea or Nisaia was the Saronic port town of the ancient polis Megara. In Greek mythology, Nisaea was founded by one of Pandion II's sons, Nisos, who named the region given to him by his father Nisaea, after himself. Control of Nisaea slipped back and forth between Athens and Megara both before and during the Peloponessian War. Athenian allies of the Megarians built long walls which connected Nisaea to Megaris. According to Thucydides, the length of the walls that connected the port to Megara were eight Greek stadia, while Strabo claims the walls to have been 18 stadia in length. A temple of Demeter was located on the road near Nisaea, and a temple of Poseidon located within the port town. Nisaean Megara is thought to have been the birthplace of poet Theognis, but his birthplace is not known for certain The location of the ancient port town remains in debate by historians.

References

  1. Olga Palagia. The pediments of the Parthenon. BRILL, 1998, ISBN   978-90-04-11198-1, p. 40
  2. Hans Rupprecht Goette. Athens, Attica, and the Megarid: an archaeological guide. Routledge, 2001, ISBN   978-0-415-24370-4, p. 280
  3. Thucydides, Martin Hammond, Peter John Rhodes. The Peloponnesian War. Oxford University Press, 2009, ISBN   978-0-19-282191-1, p. 84
  4. Ta Nea, Sept. 19 2010

Coordinates: 38°04′41″N23°34′59″E / 38.078°N 23.583°E / 38.078; 23.583