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Thrinacia (Homeric Greek ΘρινακίαThrinakíā, from θρῖναξ "trident"; English pronunciation /, -/ ) is the island home of the Cattle of Helios in Book XII of Homer's Odyssey , guarded by Helios' daughters Lampetia and Phaethusa.
Odysseus and his crew arrive at Thrinacia after passing Scylla and Charybdis. Odysseus has been warned by both Circe and the shade of Tiresias to avoid Thrinacia, but his men beg him to let them stop and rest. He reluctantly agrees, but makes them swear an oath not to touch the cattle on the island. However, for the next month unfavorable winds blow continuously and they are unable to leave. When Odysseus goes to pray for a safe return to Ithaca, his crew, fearing starvation, slaughter and eat some of Helios' cattle. In punishment, when they finally sail away from the island, Helios successfully pleads to Zeus to send a thunderbolt at their ship, killing all the men except Odysseus. Odysseus is spared but, as forewarned by Circe and Tiresias, is himself punished when his return to Ithaca is delayed by a seven-year sojourn on Ogygia.
Homeric Thrinacia was later identified with Sicily, and its name re-interpreted as Trinakria (Τρινακρία, from τρεῖς and ἄκραι, as "[island] with three headlands").But Homeric Thrinacia is also associated with Malta, and Sicily is instead also identified with the episode of the Cyclops Polyphemus.
The Odyssey is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad, the other Homeric epic. The Odyssey is fundamental to the modern Western canon; it is the second-oldest extant work of Western literature, while the Iliad is the oldest. Scholars believe the Odyssey was composed near the end of the 8th century BC, somewhere in Ionia, the Greek coastal region of Anatolia.
Odysseus, also known by the Latin variant Ulysses, is a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey. Odysseus also plays a key role in Homer's Iliad and other works in that same epic cycle.
Helios, also Helius, in ancient Greek religion and myth, is the god and personification of the Sun, often depicted in art with a radiant crown and driving a horse-drawn chariot through the sky.
Telemachus is a figure in Greek mythology, the son of Odysseus and Penelope, and a central character in Homer's Odyssey. The first four books of the Odyssey focus on Telemachus's journeys in search of news about his father, who has yet to return home from the Trojan War, and are traditionally given the title the Telemachy.
In Greek and Roman mythology, Achaemenides was a son of Adamastos of Ithaka, and one of Odysseus's crew. He was marooned on Sicily when Odysseus fled the Cyclops Polyphemus, until Aeneas arrived and took him to Italy with his company of refugee Trojans.
In Greek mythology, Lampetia was the daughter of Helios and Neaera; she was the personification of light. Her sister, Phaethusa, and she were taken by their mother to guard the cattle and sheep of Thrinacia. She looked after 700 animals in total. She ran to her father when Odysseus' men slaughtered and sacrificed some of his ageless and deathless cattle. Her father, Helios, was enraged and asked the gods to avenge the deaths of his cattle, threatening to bring sunlight to the underworld if the men were not punished. Zeus then sent a lightning bolt down and a storm, killing all of Odysseus' men, a doom that was portended by the meat writhing and lowing on the spits.
In Greek mythology, Eurylochus appears in Homer's Odyssey as second-in-command of Odysseus' ship during the return to Ithaca after the Trojan War. He also was the husband of Odysseus's sister, Ctimene. He is portrayed as an unpleasant cowardly individual who undermines Odysseus and stirs up trouble.
In Greek mythology, Polites the friend of Odysseus was a minor character in the epics by Homer. Polites was a member of Odysseus's crew. Odysseus refers to him as his dearest friend, though he is only mentioned twice, once as part of Eurylochus's scouting group on Circe's island and then when, after a year, he convinces Odysseus to leave Circe. He is killed either by Scylla or the lightning bolt that Zeus throws at Odysseus' ship for his crew eating the cattle of Helios.
The Laestrygonians or Laestrygones were a tribe of man-eating giants from ancient Greek mythology. They were said to have sprung from Laestrygon, son of Poseidon.
Aeaea, Ææa or Eëä was a mythological island said to be the home of the goddess-sorceress Circe. In Homer's Odyssey, Odysseus tells Alcinous that he stayed here for one year on his way home to Ithaca. He says that he could not resist the need to be on this island, not so much for Circe but so that he does not resist the pull. The modern Greek scholar Ioannis Kakridis insists that any attempt at realistic identification is vain, arguing that Homer vaguely located Aeaea somewhere in the eastern part of his world, perhaps near Colchis, since Circe was the sister of Aeëtes, king of Colchis, and because their paternal aunt the goddess Eos had her palace there.
The Telegony is a lost ancient Greek epic poem about Telegonus, son of Odysseus by Circe. His name is indicative of his birth on Aeaea, far from Odysseus' home of Ithaca. It was part of the Epic Cycle of poems that recounted the myths of the Trojan War as well as the events that led up to and followed it. The story of the Telegony comes chronologically after that of the Odyssey and is the final episode in the Epic Cycle. The poem was sometimes attributed in antiquity to Cinaethon of Sparta, but in one source it is said to have been stolen from Musaeus by Eugamon or Eugammon of Cyrene. The poem comprised two books of verse in dactylic hexameter.
Katabasis or catabasis is a descent of some type, such as moving downhill, the sinking of the winds or sun, a military retreat, a trip to the underworld, or a trip from the interior of a country down to the coast. The term has multiple related meanings in poetry, rhetoric, and modern psychology.
The Odyssey is a 1997 American mythology–adventure television miniseries based on the ancient Greek epic poem by Homer, the Odyssey. Directed by Andrei Konchalovsky, the miniseries aired in two parts beginning on May 18, 1997 on NBC. It was filmed in Malta, Turkey, parts of England, and many other places around the Mediterranean, where the story takes place. The cast includes Armand Assante, Greta Scacchi, Irene Papas, Isabella Rossellini, Bernadette Peters, Eric Roberts, Geraldine Chaplin, Christopher Lee and Vanessa Williams.
The Odyssean gods are the ancient Greek gods referenced in Homer's Odyssey.
The Returns from Troy are the stories of how the Greek leaders returned after their victory in the Trojan War. Many Achaean heroes did not return to their homes, but died or founded colonies outside the Greek mainland. The most famous returns are those of Odysseus, whose wanderings are narrated in the Odyssey, and Agamemnon, whose murder at the hands of his wife Clytemnestra was portrayed in Greek tragedy.
Events in the main sequence of the Odyssey take place in the Peloponnese and in what are now called the Ionian Islands. Incidental mentions of Troy and its house, Phoenicia, Egypt, and Crete hint at geographical knowledge equal to, or perhaps slightly more extensive than that of the Iliad. However, scholars both ancient and modern are divided as to whether or not any of the places visited by Odysseus were real.
Nostos is a theme used in Ancient Greek literature which includes an epic hero returning home by sea. In Ancient Greek society, it was deemed a high level of heroism or greatness for those who managed to return. This journey is usually very extensive and includes being shipwrecked in an unknown location and going through certain trials that test the hero. The return isn't just about returning home physically but also about retaining certain statuses and retaining your identity upon arrival. The theme of Nostos is brought to life in Homer's The Odyssey, where the main hero Odysseus tries to return home after battling in the Trojan War. Odysseus is challenged by many temptations, such as the Sirens and the Lotus-eaters. If Odysseus had given into these temptations it would have meant certain death and thus failing to return home. Nostos is used today in many forms of literature and movies.
In Greek mythology, the Cattle of Helios, also called the Oxen of the Sun, are cattle pastured on the island of Thrinacia.
In Greek mythology, Telegonus was the youngest son of Circe and Odysseus and thus, brother to Agrius and Latinus or Nausithous.
Trinacria may refer to: