Thrinkophyton

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Thrinkophyton
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Lycophytes
Plesion: Zosterophylls
Genus:Thrinkophyton

Thrinkophyton was a genus of Silu-Devonian land plant with branching axes. [1]

A cladogram published in 2004 by Crane et al. places Thrinkophyton in the core of a paraphyletic stem group of broadly defined "zosterophylls", basal to the lycopsids (living and extinct clubmosses and relatives). [2]

Zosterophyll extinct class of plants

The zosterophylls were a group of extinct land plants that first appeared in the Silurian period. The taxon was first established by Banks in 1968 as the subdivision Zosterophyllophytina; they have since also been treated as the division Zosterophyllophyta or Zosterophyta and the class or plesion Zosterophyllopsida or Zosteropsida. They were among the first vascular plants in the fossil record, and had a world-wide distribution. They were probably stem-group lycophytes, forming a sister group to the ancestors of the living lycophytes. By the late Silurian a diverse assemblage of species existed, examples of which have been found fossilised in what is now Bathurst Island in Arctic Canada.

lycophytes

Hicklingia

†basal groups ( Adoketophyton , Discalis , Distichophytum (=Rebuchia), Gumuia , Huia , Zosterophyllum  myretonianum, Z. lianoveranum, Z. fertile)

Adoketophyton is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Early Devonian. The plant was first described in 1977 based on fossil specimens from the Posongchong Formation, Wenshan district, Yunnan, China. These were originally named Zosterophyllum subverticillatum; later the species was transferred to a new genus as Adoketophyton subverticillatum. Cladistic analysis suggests that it is a lycophyte, related to the zosterophylls.

Discalis is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Early Devonian. The name is derived from the Greek δίσκος, referring to the disc-shaped sporangia. The genus was first described by Hao in 1989 based on fossil specimens from the Posongchong Formation, Wenshan district, Yunnan, China.

Distichophytum is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Late Silurian (Ludfordian) to Early Devonian (Emsian), around 426 to 393 million years ago. The genus has a tangled taxonomic history, also being known as Bucheria and Rebuchia.

†'core'  zosterophylls  ( Zosterophyllum divaricatum, Tarella , Oricilla , Gosslingia , Hsua, Thrinkophyton , Protobarinophyton , Barinophyton  obscurum, B. citrulliforme, Sawdonia , Deheubarthia , Konioria , Anisophyton , Serrulacaulis , Crenaticaulis )

<i>Zosterophyllum</i> genus of plants

Zosterophyllum was a genus of Silurian-Devonian vascular land plant with branching axes on which kidney-shaped sporangia were arranged in lateral positions.

Tarella was a genus of Silu-Devonian land plant with branching axes.

Oricilla was a genus of Silu-Devonian land plant with branching axes.

†basal groups ( Nothia , Zosterophyllum  deciduum)

lycopsids (extant and extinct members)

Hao and Xue in 2013 listed the genus as a zosterophyll. [3]

Related Research Articles

Crenaticaulis was an early genus of slender, dichotomously branching, leafless land plants, known from the Devonian period and first described in 1969. They were probably allied to the zosterophylls, and are assigned to subdivision Zosterophyllophytina, or class Zosterophyllopsida. They bore branches and scalariform tracheids.

<i>Yunia</i> genus of plants

Yunia is a genus of extinct vascular plants from the Early Devonian. It was first described from the Posongchong Formation of Yunnan, China. The leafless plant consisted of spiny stems, some 2 to 5 cm wide, which branched dichotomously at wide angles in a cruciate arrangement. Each stem contained vascular tissue with one or two strands of protoxylem. The spore-forming organs (sporangia) were elongated and borne on short stalks. The spores had a relatively smooth sculptural pattern and were trilete.

Hicklingia is a genus of extinct plants of the Middle Devonian. Compressed specimens were first described in 1923 from the Old Red Sandstone of Scotland. Initially the genus was placed in the "rhyniophytes", but this group is defined as having terminal sporangia, and later work showed that the sporangia of Hicklingia were lateral rather than strictly terminal, so that it is now regarded as having affinities with the zosterophylls.

Huia is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Early Devonian. The genus was first described in 1985 based on fossil specimens from the Posongchong Formation, Wenshan district, Yunnan, China.

Gumuia is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Early Devonian. The genus was first described in 1989 based on fossil specimens from the Posongchong Formation, Wenshan district, Yunnan, China.

Gosslingia was a genus of Silu-Devonian land plant with branching axes.

Serrulacaulis was a genus of Silu-Devonian land plant with branching axes.

Konioria was a genus of Silu-Devonian land plant with branching axes.

Deheubarthia was a genus of Silu-Devonian land plant with branching axes.

Barinophyton was a genus of Silu-Devonian land plant with branching axes. It is placed in a group of early vascular plants (tracheophytes), the barinophytes, a group that has been given various ranks and scientific names.

Protobarinophyton was a genus of Silu-Devonian land plant with branching axes. It is placed in a group of early vascular plants (tracheophytes), the barinophytes, a group that has been given various ranks and scientific names.

Anisophyton was a genus of Silu-Devonian land plant with branching axes.

Danziella is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Early Devonian. Fossils found in the Artois region of northern France were first described as Zosterophyllum artesianum, but a later review by Edwards showed that they did not fit the circumscription of that genus.

The barinophytes are a group of extinct vascular plants (tracheophytes). Their relationship with other vascular plants is unclear. They have been treated as the separate class Barinophytopsida, the order Barinophytales of uncertain class and as a family or clade Barinophytaceae within the zosterophylls. They have also been considered to be possible lycopodiopsids.

References

  1. Boyce, C.K. (2008). "How green was Cooksonia? The importance of size in understanding the early evolution of physiology in the vascular plant lineage". Paleobiology. 34: 179. doi:10.1666/0094-8373(2008)034[0179:HGWCTI]2.0.CO;2. ISSN   0094-8373.
  2. Crane, P.R.; Herendeen, P.; Friis, E.M. (2004). "Fossils and plant phylogeny". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1683–99. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1683. PMID   21652317 . Retrieved 2011-01-27.
  3. Hao, Shougang & Xue, Jinzhuang (2013), The early Devonian Posongchong flora of Yunnan: a contribution to an understanding of the evolution and early diversification of vascular plants, Beijing: Science Press, p. 329, ISBN   978-7-03-036616-0 , retrieved 2019-10-25