Thrinkophyton

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Thrinkophyton
Temporal range: Early Devonian [1]
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Lycophytes
Plesion: Zosterophylls
Genus: Thrinkophyton

Thrinkophyton was a genus of Early Devonian land plant with branching axes. [2] Known fossils are of Lochkovian to Pragian age ( 419 to 408 million years ago ). [3]

A cladogram published in 2004 by Crane et al. places Thrinkophyton in the core of a paraphyletic stem group of broadly defined "zosterophylls", basal to the lycopsids (living and extinct clubmosses and relatives). [4]

lycophytes

Hicklingia

†basal groups ( Adoketophyton , Discalis , Distichophytum (=Rebuchia), Gumuia , Huia , Zosterophyllum  myretonianum, Z. llanoveranum, Z. fertile)

†'core'  zosterophylls  ( Zosterophyllum divaricatum, Tarella , Oricilla , Gosslingia , Hsua, Thrinkophyton , Protobarinophyton , Barinophyton  obscurum, B. citrulliforme, Sawdonia , Deheubarthia , Konioria , Anisophyton , Serrulacaulis , Crenaticaulis )

†basal groups ( Nothia , Zosterophyllum  deciduum)

lycopsids (extant and extinct members)

Hao and Xue in 2013 listed the genus as a zosterophyll. [1]

Related Research Articles

<i>Zosterophyllum</i>

Zosterophyllum was a genus of Silurian-Devonian vascular land plants with naked branching axes on which usually kidney-shaped sporangia were arranged in lateral positions. It is the type genus for the group known as zosterophylls, thought to be part of the lineage from which modern lycophytes evolved. More than 20 species have been described.

Crenaticaulis was an early genus of slender, dichotomously branching, leafless land plants, known from the Devonian period and first described in 1969. They were probably allied to the zosterophylls, and are assigned to subdivision Zosterophyllophytina, or class Zosterophyllopsida. They bore branches and scalariform tracheids.

Horneophytopsida

The Horneophytopsida, informally called horneophytes, are a class of extinct plants which consisted of branched stems without leaves, true roots or vascular tissue, found from the Late Silurian to the Early Devonian. They are the simplest known polysporangiophytes, i.e. plants with sporophytes bearing many spore-forming organs (sporangia) on branched stems. They were formerly classified among the rhyniophytes, but it was later found that some of the original members of the group had simple vascular tissue and others did not. The group has also been treated as the division Horneophyta.

<i>Yunia</i>

Yunia is a genus of extinct vascular plants from the Early Devonian. It was first described from the Posongchong Formation of Yunnan, China. The leafless plant consisted of spiny stems, some 2 to 5 cm wide, which branched dichotomously at wide angles in a cruciate arrangement. Each stem contained vascular tissue with one or two strands of protoxylem. The spore-forming organs (sporangia) were elongated and borne on short stalks. The spores had a relatively smooth sculptural pattern and were trilete.

Hicklingia is a genus of extinct plants of the Middle Devonian. Compressed specimens were first described in 1923 from the Old Red Sandstone of Scotland. Initially the genus was placed in the "rhyniophytes", but this group is defined as having terminal sporangia, and later work showed that the sporangia of Hicklingia were lateral rather than strictly terminal, so that it is now regarded as having affinities with the zosterophylls.

Huia is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Early Devonian. The genus was first described in 1985 based on fossil specimens from the Posongchong Formation, Wenshan district, Yunnan, China.

Gumuia is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Early Devonian. The genus was first described in 1989 based on fossil specimens from the Posongchong Formation, Wenshan district, Yunnan, China.

<i>Adoketophyton</i>

Adoketophyton is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Early Devonian. The plant was first described in 1977 based on fossil specimens from the Posongchong Formation, Wenshan district, Yunnan, China. These were originally named Zosterophyllum subverticillatum; later the species was transferred to a new genus as Adoketophyton subverticillatum. One cladistic analysis suggested that it is a lycophyte, related to the zosterophylls. Other researchers regard its placement within the vascular plants as uncertain.

Discalis is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Early Devonian. The name is derived from the Greek δίσκος, referring to the disc-shaped sporangia. The genus was first described by Hao in 1989 based on fossil specimens from the Posongchong Formation, Wenshan district, Yunnan, China.

Distichophytum is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Late Silurian (Ludfordian) to Early Devonian (Emsian), around 426 to 393 million years ago. The genus has a tangled taxonomic history, also being known as Bucheria and Rebuchia.

Gosslingia was a genus of Early Devonian land plant with branching axes. Fossils have been from the Lochkovian to the Pragian, 419 to 408 million years ago.

Serrulacaulis was a genus of early land plant with branching axes. Known fossils are of Late Devonian age.

Tarella was a genus of Early Devonian land plant with branching axes. Fossils came from Pragian age rocks.

Oricilla was a genus of Early Devonian land plant with branching axes. Fossils have been found from the Pragian to the Emsian.

Konioria was a genus of early land plant with branching axes. Known fossils are of Early Devonian age.

Deheubarthia was a genus of Early Devonian land plant with branching axes.

Barinophyton was a genus of early land plant with branching axes. It is placed in a group of early vascular plants (tracheophytes), the barinophytes, a group that has been given various ranks and scientific names. Known fossils are of Devonian to Carboniferous age.

Protobarinophyton was a genus of Silu-Devonian land plant with branching axes. It is placed in a group of early vascular plants (tracheophytes), the barinophytes, a group that has been given various ranks and scientific names.

Anisophyton was a genus of Early Devonian land plant with branching axes. Known fossils are of Emsian age.

The barinophytes are a group of extinct vascular plants (tracheophytes). Their relationship with other vascular plants is unclear. They have been treated as the separate class Barinophytopsida, the order Barinophytales of uncertain class and as a family or clade Barinophytaceae within the zosterophylls. They have also been considered to be possible lycopodiopsids.

References

  1. 1 2 Hao, Shougang & Xue, Jinzhuang (2013), The early Devonian Posongchong flora of Yunnan: a contribution to an understanding of the evolution and early diversification of vascular plants, Beijing: Science Press, p. 329, ISBN   978-7-03-036616-0 , retrieved 2019-10-25
  2. Boyce, C.K. (2008). "How green was Cooksonia? The importance of size in understanding the early evolution of physiology in the vascular plant lineage". Paleobiology. 34 (2): 179–194. doi:10.1666/0094-8373(2008)034[0179:HGWCTI]2.0.CO;2. ISSN   0094-8373.
  3. Hao & Xue (2013), p. 329.
  4. Crane, P.R.; Herendeen, P.; Friis, E.M. (2004). "Fossils and plant phylogeny". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1683–99. doi: 10.3732/ajb.91.10.1683 . PMID   21652317 . Retrieved 2011-01-27.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)