Thrissur district

Last updated

Thrissur district
Trichur district
Sunrise over the Pullu Padam with a Morning drizzle.jpg
Chimmini Forest (24191470004).jpg
Cape of Kodungallur.jpg
Sakthan Thampuran Palace, Thrissur.jpg
Koothambalam at Kerala Kalamandalam.jpg
The View of the Athirapally Falls during the onset of Monsoon.jpg
Sree Shivapuram
Thrissur district
Thrissur District
Coordinates: 10°31′N76°13′E / 10.52°N 76.21°E / 10.52; 76.21 Coordinates: 10°31′N76°13′E / 10.52°N 76.21°E / 10.52; 76.21
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State Kerala
Headquarters Thrissur
  Dist. CollectorHaritha V. Kumar
  Commissioner (City)R. Aadithya, IPS
  S.P (Rural)G. Poonkuzhali, IPS
  Divisional Forest Officer, ThrissurKurra Srinivas IFS
  Total3,032 km2 (1,171 sq mi)
 (2018) [1]
  Density1,070/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
  Official Malayalam, English
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registration KL08, KL45, KL46, KL47, KL48, KL64, KL75
HDI (2005)Increase2.svg 0.781 [2] ( High)

Thrissur (formerly Trichur) is a district of Kerala situated in the central part of that state. Spanning an area of about 3,032 km2 (1,171 sq mi), Thrissur district is home to over 9% of Kerala's population.


Thrissur district is bordered by the districts of Palakkad and Malappuram to the north, and the districts of Ernakulam and Idukki to the south and Coimbatore to the east. The Arabian Sea lies to the west and Western Ghats stretches towards the east. It is part of the historical Malabar Coast, which has been trading internationally since ancient times. The main language spoken is Malayalam.

Thrissur district was formed on 1 July 1949, with the headquarters at Thrissur City. Thrissur is known as the cultural capital of Kerala, and the land of Poorams. The district is known for its ancient temples, churches, and mosques. Thrissur Pooram is the most colourful temple festival in Kerala.


The term Thrissur is the abbreviated form of the word "Thrissivaperur" which means the town of the 'Sacred Siva'. The town is built on an elevated ground, at the apex of which is the famous 'Vadakkumnatha Temple'. A place of great antiquity, Thrissur was also known as 'Vrishabhadripuram' and 'Ten Kailasam' in ancient days. [3] Thrissur interpretation is 'Tri-shiva-peroor' or the big land with three Shiva temples, which refers to the three places where Lord Shiva resides – namely Vadakkunnathan temple, Asokeswaram Siva temple and Irattachira Siva temple.[ citation needed ]


Map of City of Thrissur with Vadakkunnathan Temple prepared by John Gould in 1816. Plan of the Hindu temple at Trichur.jpg
Map of City of Thrissur with Vadakkunnathan Temple prepared by John Gould in 1816.

From ancient times, Thrissur District has played a part in the political history of Kerala.The early political history of the District is interlinked with that of the Cheras of the Sangam age, who ruled over vast portions of Kerala with their capital at Vanchi. The whole of the present Thrissur District was included in the early Chera Empire. [3] The District can claim to have played a part in fostering the trade relations between Kerala and the outside world in the ancient and medieval period.[ citation needed ]

Kodungalloor, which had the distinction of being the "Premium Emporium of India", gave shelter to all the three communities which have contributed to the prosperity of Malabar. These three communities are the Christians, the Jews and the Muslims. The history of Thrissur district from the 9th to the 12th centuries is the history of Kulasekharas of Mahodayapuram and the history since the 12th century is the history of the rise and growth of Perumpadappu Swarupam.

In 1790 Raja Rama Varma (1790–1805) popularly known as Saktan Tampuran ascended the throne of Cochin. With the accession of this ruler the English or modern period in the history of Cochin and of the District began. Saktan Tampuran was mainly responsible for the destruction of the power of the feudal Nair chieftains and increase of royal power. Another force in the public life of Trichur and its suburbs was the Namboodithiri community and Menons of royal ancestry. A large part of the Trichur Taluk was for long under the domination of the Yogiatiripppads, the ecclesiastical heads of the Vadakkunnathan and Perumanam Devaswoms.

The wave of nationalism and political consciousness which swept through the country since the early decades of this century has its repercussions in the District as well. Thrissur District has been in the forefront of the country-wide movement for temple entry and abolition of untouchability. The Guruvayur Satyagraha is a memorable episode in the history of the national movement.[ citation needed ]


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
source: [4]

Source: Official Statistics 2007 [5]

Population (2011)31,21,200
Sex ratio : Females/10001,092
Density of Population1031
Per Capita Income (in Rs)21,362
Literacy rate95.08%; Male 96.78%; Female 93.56%
Coastal line in km.54
Water bodied area in ha.5,573
Forest area in ha.103619

According to the 2018 Statistics Report, Thrissur district has a population of 3,243,170, [1] roughly equal to the nation of Mongolia [6] or the US state of Iowa. [7] The 2011 Census of India gives it a ranking of 113th in India (out of a total of 640). [8] The district has a population density of 1,026 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,660/sq mi) . [8] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 4.58%. [8] Thrissur has a sex ratio of 1109 females for every 1000 males, [8] and a literacy rate of 95.32%. [8] Thrissur was also the second highest urbanized district in Kerala after Ernakulam. [9]


Religions in Thrissur District
Distribution of religions
Source: 2011 Census.
Vadakkumnathan Temple during the Maha Shivaratri festival Vadakkumnathan Temple.jpg
Vadakkumnathan Temple during the Maha Shivaratri festival
Guruvayur Sri Krishna Temple Guruvayoor Temple 1.jpg
Guruvayur Sri Krishna Temple

Hinduism is the majority religion in Trissur, with 58.4%.Christians and Muslim form significant minority.

The Hindu community consists of mainly Nairs, Ezhavas, Ambalavasis, Brahmins (including the local Namboodiris and migrants like Iyers and Gouda Saraswat Brahmins) etc. The Scheduled Castes, around 12% of the population of the district, also form a section among the Hindus of the district.

The Catholics (Syro Malabar Church and Latin), Orthodox and Chaldeans are the main sections of the Christian Community in the district. Catholics constitute 90% of the Christian population of the district. Kunnamkulam, a small town in the northern part of the district is the center for the Orthodox, Thoziyur Church and Marthomites .

Muslims live predominantly in the coastal belt of the district, from north Punnayoorkkulam to South Azhikode. They are dominant in Guruvayur and Chavakkad, in good in numbers Kodungalloor, Kaipamangalam and Nattika areas Sunnis are the major section in Muslim community.

Cheraman Juma Mosque

Cheraman Juma Mosque Cheraman Masjid 2.jpg
Cheraman Juma Mosque

Cheraman Juma Mosque is a mosque The First mosque in India. Mosque Methala, Kodungallur Taluk, Thrissur District in the Indian state of Kerala. A legend claims that it was built in 629 CE, which makes it the oldest mosque in the Indian subcontinent which is still in use. It was built by Malik Deenar, Persian tābiʿūn of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, on the orders of the successor of Cheraman Perumal, the Chera King of modern-day Kerala. The mosque was constructed in Kerala style with hanging lamps, making the historicity of its date claims more convincing

Geography and climate

Rivers and Lakes in Thrissur District Thrissur Rivers and Lakes Map.png
Rivers and Lakes in Thrissur District

Thrissur is situated in southwestern India ( 10°31′N76°13′E / 10.52°N 76.21°E / 10.52; 76.21 ) and is in the central part of Kerala. Thrissur is at sea level and spans an area of about 3,032 km2 (1,171 sq mi). It is bounded on the north by small parts of Malappuram district, on the east and north by Palakkad district, on the east by small parts of Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu, on the south by Ernakulam district, and on the west by the Arabian Sea (54 km (34 mi)). Descending from the heights of the Western Ghats in the east, the land slopes towards the west forming three distinct natural divisions – the highlands, the plains and the sea board. Karimala Gopuram is the highest point in Trissur situated in the border of Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary of Palakkad.

The Periyar, the Chalakudy, the Karuvannur, the Kurumali River (main tributary of the Karuvannur River) and the Ponnani (Bharatha Puzha) are the main river systems in the district. They take their origin from the mountains on the east, and flow westward and discharge into the Arabian Sea. There are a number of tributaries also joining these main rivers. There are waterfalls such as Athirappilly Falls which is widely known as the "Indian Niagara" nowadays. This is the only district in Kerala with the presence of both Periyar and Bharathappuzha, though they flow only a small distance through the district.

The district has a tropical humid climate with an oppressive hot season and plentiful and seasonal rainfall. Annual rainfall is about 3,000 mm (120 in). The hot season from March to May is followed by the South West Monsoon season from June to September. The period from December to February is the North East Monsoon season. However the rain stops by the end of December and the rest of the period is generally dry.


Thriprayar Shree Ramaswami Temple at Triprayar Great temple.jpg
Thriprayar Shree Ramaswami Temple at Triprayar
Chalakudy River Chalakudy River bank on a summer sunrise.jpg
Chalakudy River

Thrissur is known as cultural capital of Kerala.The district is known for the Thrissur Pooram. An ancient cultural center, Thrissur houses the Kerala Kalamandalam, the Kerala Sahitya Academy, the Kerala Lalitakala Academy and the Kerala Sangeeta Nataka Academy.The town is built around a hillock, crowned by the Vadakkumnathan (Siva) Temple. The temple is a classical example of Kerala style of architecture and houses several sacred shrines.

According to the myth, Malik Bin Deenar and 20 others who were the followers Muhammad, the founder of Islam, first landed in Kodungallur in Thrissur district when they came to India. Islam received royal patronage in some places here, and later spread to other parts of India. He built the mosque Cheraman Juma Masjid [10] which makes it the first mosque in India [11] [12]

Thrissur also has added to its name The Church of Our Lady of Dolors , popularly known as the New Church. It is the third tallest church in Asia and the tallest in India. The first church of India is also situated in Thrissur, the St. Thomas Church at Palayoor. The Metropolitan of the Chaldean Syrian Church (the name used for the Church of the East in India) is also headquartered in Thrissur, and many religious publications are printed by Mar Narsai Press. The largest Christian pilgrim center in the district, St.Joseph's Shrine is situated at Pavaratty. There is a legend which tells Saint Thomas (Apostle) was landed in kodungallur, Muziris in 52 AD. The Saint Thomas Church established by him houses many ancient relics.

Guruvayur, home to the Sree Krishna Temple, is 25 km (16 mi) to the north of the city. It is a sacred place not only for Keralites but for Hindus all over the world as well. The adjacent towns of Chavakkad and Kunnamkulam are important centers of Muslims and Christians respectively. The Temple at Thriprayar is another important place of worship. This ancient temple is one of the few Temples dedicated to Lord Srirama in Kerala. Incidentally, two other temples dedicated to Lord Rama, viz., the Thiruvilwamala Temple and the Kadavallur Temple, fall in Thrissur district. Thirumangalam Temple situated at Thirumangalam desam, Engandiyur, Thrissur District. The Temple facing to Gurvayur Ernakulam National Highway. In this temple, there are two idols, one is Siva and the other is Maha Vishnu. Both have same the importance. But Siva is the main Idol. Because of this the temple listed in the 108 Siva temples list. The temple faces to the eastern side and has very good Sreekovil.

Kodungallur, the capital of the erstwhile Chera Empire, is a region of great archeological and historical significance. The Bhagavathi Temple here attracts thousands of devotees from all over Kerala. The Cheraman Juma Masjid, believed to be the oldest Mosque in India is situated here. Irinjalakkuda, where the only Bharatha Temple in India is located, is another place of importance. The Unnayi Warrier Smaraka Kalanilayam which is located near the Koodalmanickyam Temple is an important center of Kathakali Learning. Since ancient times Thrissur has been the most important center of Vedic Learning in Kerala. Yagas are still conducted in her soil with the same fervour as they used to be. The only centre of traditional Vedic Learning left in Kerala is situated at the heart of Thrissur Town.


Education in Thrissur district

Administration of Thrissur

Taluks in Thrissur District Subdistricts of Thrissur.svg
Taluks in Thrissur District

The district is divided into two Revenue Sub Divisions; Thrissur and Irinjalakuda and is headed by Revenue Divisional Officer (RDO)

Thrissur District has four types of administrative hierarchies:

Taluks & its Headquarters
Mukundapuram taluk

There are 13 constituencies from the district of Thrissur: Thrissur Assembly Constituency, Ollur Assembly Constituency, Guruvayoor, Chalakkudy, Kaipamangalam, Nattika, Kodungallur, Irinjalakuda, Puthukad, Manaloor, Kunnamkulam, Wadakkancheri and Chelakkara. There are two parliament constituencies: Thrissur Lok Sabha constituency and Chalakudy. T. N. Prathapan is the Thrissur MP and Benny Behanan is the Chalakudy MP. Thrissur municipal corporation is the only municipal corporation in the district. For administrative purposes, the district of Thrissur is divided into two Revenue Divisions and seven taluks. These seven taluk centres are administrative hubs for 255 villages in Thrissur.


The first newspaper which published from Thrissur was Lokamanyan in 1920. Then came Deenabandhu in 1941. Major Malayalam newspapers published in Thrissur include Malayala Manorama , Mathrubhumi , Deshabhimani , Deepika , Kerala Kaumudi and Madhymam. A number of evening papers are also published from the city. Newspapers in other regional languages like Hindi, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu are also sold in large numbers.


MLAs by constituency(2021 Results)

Sl. NoConstituencyMemberPartyAlliance
1 Chelakkara K. Radhakrishnan CPI(M)   LDF
2 Kunnamkulam A. C. Moideen CPI(M)   LDF
3 Guruvayur N. K. Akbar CPI(M)   LDF
4 Manalur Murali Perunelli CPI(M)   LDF
5 Wadakkanchery Xavier Chittilappilly CPI(M)   LDF
6 Ollur K. Rajan CPI   LDF
7 Thrissur P. Balachandran CPI   LDF
8 Nattika C. C. Mukundan CPI   LDF
9 Kaipamangalam E. T. Tyson CPI   LDF
10 Irinjalakuda R. Bindu CPI(M)   LDF
11 Puthukkad K. K. Ramachandran CPI(M)   LDF
12 Chalakudy T. J. Saneesh Kumar Joseph INC   UDF
13 Kodungallur V. R. Sunil Kumar CPI   LDF


Thrissur is known for the power loom industry and the Textile Mills like the Alagappa Textiles in Alagappa Nagar, Kerala Lakshmi Mills at Pullazhi, Rajgopal Textiles at Athani, Sitaram Spinning and Weaving Mills Thrissur, Vanaja Textiles at Kurichikkara (now defunct), Bhagavathy Spinning Mills at Thanikkudam and Kunnath Textiles at Thrissur. Thrissur are engaged in the manufacture of hosiery products.

A view from Poomala, mountain Poomala.jpg
A view from Poomala, mountain

The coir and the tile industry offer employment for many people in the district. The first saw mill in the state was erected at Trichur (1905). Most of the timber is brought down from the forests to Thrissur and Chalakkudy, which are the most important timber marts in the District. Canning is a developing industry in Thrissur and Darlco Cannings and Kayee Plantations Cannings; both have major units at Thrissur. The Thrissur Fruits and Vegetables Marketing Society are establishing a canning industrial unit at Nadathara and it is going on very successfully. Besides all these the match stick industry, pharmaceuticals, printing etc. give Thrissur its fame as a bustling industrial centre. The first Worker's Indian Coffee House of the state was opened in Thrissur (1957).

The 400 kV Electric Power Station at Madakkathara near Thanikkudam is the major electrical hub connecting the KSEB electrical power system to the national electrical grid. The station serves more than 30% of the state's electrical energy requirements and acts as the principal feed to the northern half of Kerala.

Avinissery, a village south of Thrissur city is an important centre of Khadi and Village Industries.

Places of interest in Thrissur district

Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary - 30 km (19 mi) from Thrissur City. Chimmony Dam-10.JPG
Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary30 km (19 mi) from Thrissur City.
The Athirapally Falls flowing its usual discharge The Athirapally Falls flowing its usual discharge.jpg
The Athirapally Falls flowing its usual discharge

Important towns in Thrissur Rural District

Kulassery Narasimha Temple, Thrissur Thrissur Kulassery temple.jpg
Kulassery Narasimha Temple, Thrissur

List of villages in Thrissur district


  1. 1 2 Annual Vital Statistics Report - 2018 (PDF). Thiruvananthapuram: Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Kerala. 2020. p. 55.
  2. "Kerala | UNDP in India". UNDP.
  3. 1 2 "Trichur, Trichur kerala, Trichur pooram, Hotels in Thrissur, Trichur map, Thrissur Properties, Trichur Hotels, Trichur Real Estate". Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  4. Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  5. Official website of Thrissur district
  6. US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population" . Retrieved 1 October 2011. Mongolia 3,133,318 July 2011 est.
  7. "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Iowa 3,046,355
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 "District Census 2011". 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  10. Ron Geaves (2017). Islam and Britain: Muslim Mission in an Age of Empire. Bloomsbury. p. 6. ISBN   978-1-4742-7175-2.
  11. "Mosque in Kerala dates back to the Prophet's time".
  12. "Tinkering with the past".

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Irinjalakuda Municipal Council in Kerala, India

Irinjalakuda is a municipal town in Thrissur district, Kerala, India. It is the headquarters of Irinjalakuda Revenue Division and Mukundapuram Taluk. The place is well-known for Koodalmanikyam Temple and the Thachudaya Kaimals who had princely status until 1971.

Methala city in Kerala, India

Methala is a census town in Thrissur district in the Indian state of Kerala. Methala was added to Kodungallur Municipality on 11 November 2009.


Palayoor is famous for its Christian church, St. Thomas Church which is founded by St. Thomas the Apostle in 52 AD. It is the first Christian Church in India. St. Thomas, the Apostle, arrived in 50 AD at Muziris (Kodungallūr) with Jewish merchants for the propagation of Christ's message and through the sea route reached Palayoor in 52 AD and built the Church here. Palayoor also had an ancient Jewish settlement known as the Jews' Hill. Palayoor was connected from the first century onwards even up to this day to other ancient trade centres of Kerala, especially Muziris, by rivers and backwaters. The river and backwater system in the erstwhile Cochin State opens out into the sea at Chettuwaye, Cranganur and Cochin with the three Thomas churches at Palayoor, Kodungallur, and Parur connected together by this system. People from far off lands have found their way to Kerala and to Palayoor since ancient times. The coast was familiar country to the Phoenicians, the Romans, the Arabs and the Chinese long before Vasco da Gama arrived in 1498.

Chavakkad town in Kerala, India

Chavakkad, formerly Chowghat, is a colony in Thrissur district of Kerala state in India. It is a suburban town of Thrissur city. Chavakkad is noted for its beach and fishing. It lies on National Highway 66 is located about 75 km (47 mi) north of the city of Kochi, 25 km (16 mi) northwest of Thrissur, and 24 km (15 mi) south of Ponnani.

Ashtamichira village in Kerala, India

Ashtamichira is a village in Thrissur district in the Indian state of Kerala.

Thrissur is a district situated in the central part of Kerala state, India. Thrissur District was formed on 1 July 1949. The headquarters of the district has the same name, Thrissur city. It is an important cultural centre, and is known as the "cultural capital" of Kerala. The number of schools in Thrissur District is numerous.

Nattika Village in Kerala, India

Nattika is a small village in Thrissur district of Kerala state, South India. It is centrally located about 25 km from Thrissur, Kodungallur, Irinjalakuda, Chavakkad, Kunnamkulam and Guruvayur. Nattika is beside the Arabian Sea. There is a beach in this village called Nattika Beach. Nattika Beach was previously known as Attakuzhi Bandhar Kadapuram. Nattika is on the west coast of Thrissur. Conolly Canal is the eastern border of Nattika. There is a private bus stand in Thriprayar. Nattika is 60 km away from Cochin International Airport and 25 km away from Thrissur Railway Station. Modern transportation and better communication facilities are available in the village. This is an assembly constituency.

Aloor, Kerala Village and Panchayat in Kerala, India

Aloor is a panchayath in Chalakudy-Mukundapuram taluks in Thrissur district of Kerala, India. It is near the towns of Irinjalakuda and Chalakudi. The postal index number (PIN) of Aloor is 680683 since Aloor and a few other post offices fall under the Main Post Office of Kallettumkara. Since 1901, the name "Aloor" has been simplified to Alur by the Cochin State and the Central Government Departments. The telephone code of Aloor is +480 followed by a seven-digit phone number.

Valapad village in Kerala, India

Valapad is a village situated in the Thrissur district in the state of Kerala in southern India. It is included in the Manappuram area, and is about 24 km from Thrissur city. It lies by the National Highway 66. The geographical advantage of this village is, in a radius of 25 to 30 kilometers, there are five municipalities and one city corporation. They are Kodungallur, Irinjalakuda, Chavakkad, Guruvayur, Kunnamkulam and Thrissur. Valapad Beach is considered to be a major tourist destination.

Kadalaayimana is an Illam in the Chavakkad (Chowghat) taluk, Thrissur (Trichur) district, Kerala, India. The Mana, or Illam, is situated near Vylathur, on the Guruvayur-Ponnani route, via Punnayoorkulam, near the junction where the road from Kunnamkulam meets, about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) away from Guruvayur and Kunnamkulam. It is built on the Naalukettu pattern, based on Vastu shastra, a traditional Hindu system of architecture.

Wadakkancherry Town in Kerala, India

Wadakkancherry is a major town in Thrissur, Kerala. Up until 1860, this area was part of Chelakkara Taluk. Now, it is the headquarters of Talappilly Taluk.

Devaswom are socio-religious trusts in India whose members are nominated by both government and community. They oversee Hindu temples and their assets to ensure their smooth operation in accordance with traditional rituals and customs. The devaswom system notably exists in the state of Kerala, where most temples are either managed by Government of Kerala-controlled devaswoms or formed by private bodies/families. The properties of each temple are deemed to be the personal property of the presiding deity of the temple and are managed through a body of trustees who bear allegiance to that deity.

Karoor Village in Kerala, India

Karoor is a village in Aloor Panchayath Aloor, Kerala in Thrissur district of Kerala, India. Karoor is located 30 km from the city of Thrissur and 12 km from Irinjalakuda Town and 8 km from Chalakudy Town and 8 km from Mala, Kerala Town.

Vadanappally Census Town in Kerala, India

Vadanappally (Vatanappilly/Vadanapally) is a panchayat and census town in Thrissur district, in the state of Kerala, India.It is a suburb of thrissur city.

Venkitangu village in Kerala, India

Venkitangu is a city in Thrissur district in the state of Kerala, India.

Transport in Thrissur


Outline of Kerala Overview of and topical guide to Kerala

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Kerala:

Revenue Divisions of Kerala

The State of Kerala consist of 14 districts, 27 revenue divisions, and 78 taluks. Each revenue division is headed by a Revenue Divisional Officer and assisted by Senior Superintendent among others.

Thrissur is a district of Kerala situated in the central part of that state in South India. Spanning an area of about 3,032 km2 (1,171 sq mi), Thrissur district is home to over 9% of Kerala's population.

Administration of Thrissur district

Thrissur District has four types of administrative hierarchies: