Thriving

Last updated

Thriving is a condition beyond mere survival, implying growth and positive development.

Contents

Youth development

The synthesis of existing lines of research has given a lens through which to view research, theory, and practice in the field of youth development. [1] Whereas positive youth development theory has focused on resiliency and competence, thriving encourages youth development researchers, scholars, and practitioners to view youth as community and social assets to be nurtured and developed. 4-H Center for Youth Development researchers, Heck, Subramaniam, and Carlos (2010), capture it this way: “Thriving is intentional and purposeful. It connotes optimal development across a variety of life domains, such as social, academic and professional/career development, towards a positive purpose.”

Thriving in youth is an upward trajectory marked by: The knowledge of and ability to tap into inner sources of motivation, or spark (Benson, 2008); [2] an incremental, growth mindset oriented towards learning (Dweck, 2006); [3] and the goal management skills necessary to succeed and grow. Youth who are on the path to reaching their fullest potential possess the following indicators of thriving: Love of learning; life skills; healthy habits; emotional competence; social skills; positive relationships; spiritual growth; character; caring; confidence; persistent resourcefulness; and purpose.

Despite the concept of thriving having existed in clinical and medical literature and research for many years, its application to positive youth development has evolved more recently. Starting in 2000, the Thrive Foundation for Youth stimulated a study of thriving within the field of positive youth development. Making significant investments in scientific research to define thriving in youth and ways that caring adults can encourage youth thriving trajectories. The Thrive Foundation for Youth funded prominent scientists in the field of positive youth development to define thriving and indicators of thriving.

The University of California 4-H Youth Development Program [4] is the first youth development organization in the country to utilize the thriving framework and concepts on a large scale basis, focusing on statewide youth-adult partnership training and positive youth outcome evaluation. [5]

See also

Related Research Articles

Developmental psychology Scientific study of psychological changes in humans over the course of their lives

Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire lifespan. Developmental psychologists aim to explain how thinking, feeling, and behaviors change throughout life. This field examines change across three major dimensions: physical development, cognitive development, and social emotional development. Within these three dimensions are a broad range of topics including motor skills, executive functions, moral understanding, language acquisition, social change, personality, emotional development, self-concept, and identity formation.

Adolescence Transitional stage of physical and psychological development

Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood. Adolescence is usually associated with the teenage years, but its physical, psychological or cultural expressions may begin earlier and end later. For example, puberty now typically begins during preadolescence, particularly in females. Physical growth and cognitive development can extend into the early twenties. Thus, age provides only a rough marker of adolescence, and scholars have found it difficult to agree upon a precise definition of adolescence.

Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated. These behaviors are often referred to as "antisocial behaviors." It is often seen as the precursor to antisocial personality disorder, which is per definition not diagnosed until the individual is 18 years old. Conduct disorder is estimated to affect 51.1 million people globally as of 2013.

Peer group A primary group of people with similar interests, age, background, or social status

In sociology, a peer group is both a social group and a primary group of people who have similar interests (homophily), age, background, or social status. The members of this group are likely to influence the person's beliefs and behaviour. Peer groups contain hierarchies and distinct patterns of behavior. In a high school setting for example, 18 year olds are a peer group with 14 year olds because they share similar and paralleled life experiences in school together. In contrast, teachers do not share students as a peer group because teachers and students fall into two different roles and experiences.

William Damon

William Damon is a professor at Stanford University, director of the Stanford Center on Adolescence, and senior fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution. He is one of the world's leading researchers on the development of purpose in life and the author of the influential book The Path to Purpose. Damon also helped develop innovative educational methods such as peer collaboration, project-based learning, and the youth charter. Damon is also known for his studies of purposeful philanthropy. His current work includes a scientific study that explores the development of purpose in higher education and a study of family purpose across generations. Dr. Damon writes on intellectual and social development through the lifespan. He is the founding editor of New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development and editor-in-chief of The Handbook of Child Psychology. Damon has been elected to the National Academy of Education and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In January 2018, Damon was named one of "The 50 Most Influential Psychologists in the World".

Relational aggression or alternative aggression is a type of aggression in which harm is caused by damaging someone's relationships or social status.

Positive youth development

Positive youth development (PYD) programs are designed to optimize youth developmental progress.

Paul B. Baltes was a German psychologist whose broad scientific agenda was devoted to establishing and promoting the life-span orientation of human development. He was also a theorist in the field of the psychology of aging. He has been described by American Psychologist as one of the most influential developmental psychologists.

Parenting styles

A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. The quality of parenting can be more essential than the quantity of time spent with the child. For instance, a parent can spend an entire afternoon with his or her child, yet the parent may be engaging in a different activity and not demonstrating enough interest towards the child. Parenting styles are the representation of how parents respond to and make demands on their children. Parenting practices are specific behaviors, while parenting styles represent broader patterns of parenting practices. There are various theories and opinions on the best ways to rear children, as well as differing levels of time and effort that parents are willing to invest.

Emerging adulthood is a phase of the life span between adolescence and also full-fledged adulthood which encompasses late adolescence and early adulthood, proposed by Jeffrey Arnett in a 2000 article in the American Psychologist. It primarily describes people living in developed countries, but it is also experienced by young people in urban wealthy families in the Global South. The term describes young adults who do not have children, do not live in their own home, or do not have sufficient income to become fully independent. Arnett suggests emerging adulthood is the distinct period between 18 and 25 years of age where adolescents become more independent and explore various life possibilities. Arnett argues that this developmental period can be isolated from adolescence and young adulthood. Emerging adulthood's state as a new demographic is contentiously changing, and some believe that twenty-somethings have always struggled with "identity exploration, instability, self-focus, and feeling in-between". Arnett called this period "roleless role" because emerging adults do a wide variety of activities, but are not constrained by any sort of "role requirements". The developmental theory is highly controversial within the developmental field, and developmental psychologists argue over the legitimacy of Arnett's theories and methods.

Positive adult development is a subfield of developmental psychology that studies positive development during adulthood. It is one of four major forms of adult developmental study that can be identified, according to Michael Commons; the other three forms are directionless change, stasis, and decline. Commons divided positive adult developmental processes into at least six areas of study: hierarchical complexity, knowledge, experience, expertise, wisdom, and spirituality.

Social competence consists of social, emotional, cognitive and behavioral skills needed for successful social adaptation. Social competence also reflects having an ability to take another's perspective concerning a situation, learn from past experiences, and apply that learning to the changes in social interactions.

Melanie Killen

Melanie Killen is a developmental psychologist and Professor of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, and Professor of Psychology (Affiliate) at the University of Maryland, and Honorary Professor of Psychology at the University of Kent, Canterbury, UK. She is supported by funding from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) for her research. In 2008, she was awarded Distinguished Scholar-Teacher by the Provost's office at the University of Maryland. She is the Director of the Social and Moral Development Lab at the University of Maryland.

Ethnic identity development includes the identity formation in an individual's self-categorization in, and psychological attachment to, (an) ethnic group(s). Ethnic identity is characterized as part of one's overarching self-concept and identification. It is distinct from the development of ethnic group identities.

Richard M. Lerner is professor of Human Development at Tufts University, occupying the Bergstrom Chair in Applied Developmental Science. Also at Tufts, he directs the Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development.

Religious identity is a specific type of identity formation. Particularly, it is the sense of group membership to a religion and the importance of this group membership as it pertains to one's self-concept. Religious identity is not necessarily the same as religiousness or religiosity. Although these three terms share a commonality, religiousness and religiosity refer to both the value of religious group membership as well as participation in religious events. Religious identity, on the other hand, refers specifically to religious group membership regardless of religious activity or participation.

Peter Lorimer Benson (1946–2011) was a psychologist and CEO/President of Search Institute. He pioneered the developmental assets framework, which became the predominant approach to research on positive facets of youth development. According to the American Psychologist,

When [Benson] introduced the developmental assets [approach] in 1989, the predominant approach to youth development was naming youth problems and trying to prevent them. In contrast, the assets approach focused on building strengths. The developmental assets framework became the predominant positive youth development approach in the world, cited more than 17,000 times, and the framework and surveys developed to measure the assets have been used with more than 3 million youths in more than 60 countries.

The adolescent community reinforcement approach (A-CRA) is a behavioral treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders that helps youth, young adults, and families improve access to interpersonal and environmental reinforcers to reduce or stop substance use.

Achievement orientation refers to how an individual interprets and reacts to tasks, resulting in different patterns of cognition, affect and behavior. Developed within a social-cognitive framework, achievement goal theory proposes that students’ motivation and achievement-related behaviors can be understood by considering the reasons or purposes they adopt while engaged in academic work. The focus is on how students think about themselves, their tasks, and their performance. In general, an individual can be said to be “mastery” or “performance” oriented, based on whether one's goal is to develop one's ability or to demonstrate one's ability, respectively. Achievement orientations have been shown to be associated with individuals’ academic achievement, adjustment, and well-being.

Robert L. Selman is an American-born educational psychologist and perspective-taking theorist. who specializes in adolescent social development. He is married to Anne Selman and father to Jesse Selman and Matt Selman. He is the Roy E. Larsen Professor of Education and Human Development at the Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE) and a Professor of Psychology in Medicine at Harvard University. Robert Selman founded the Risk and Prevention masters program —at the Harvard Graduate School of Education in 1992,— and served as its first director through to 1999. Selman served as the chair of the Human Development and Psychology department at HGSE from 2000 to 2004. At the Harvard Medical School, he is professor of psychology in the Department of Psychiatry, where he serves as senior associate at the Judge Baker Children's Center and at the Department of Psychiatry at Children's Hospital Boston.

References

  1. Heck, K., Subramaniam, A., Carlos, R. (Spring 2010) "The Step-It-Up-2-Thrive Theory of Change" http://www.ca4h.org/files/4046.pdf
  2. Scales, P. C. (2012, December). "Finding the Student Spark: Missed Opportunities in School Engagement" Search Institute Insights & Evidence, 5 (1) http://www.search-institute.org/system/files/I%2526E-Nov-2010-Brief.pdf%5B%5D
  3. Blackwell, L., Trzesniewski, K., & Dweck, C. (2007). "Implicit Theories of Intelligence Predict Achievement Across an Adolescent Transition: A Longitudinal Study and an Intervention" Child Development, Vol. 78, No. 1, pp. 246-263. https://www.stanford.edu/dept/psychology/cgi-bin/drupalm/system/files/Implicit%20Theories%20of%20Intelligence%20Predict%20Achievement%20Across%20an%20Adolescent%20Transition.pdf
  4. University of California 4-H Youth Development Program http://www.ca4h.org/About/Thrive/
  5. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. (2010) "Healthy Families and Communities Strategic Initiative Plan" http://ucanr.org/sites/HFC/files/57631.pdf

Further reading