Thrixspermum

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Thrixspermum
Thrixspermum-saruwatarii.jpg
Thrixspermum saruwatarii
Scientific classification
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Thrixspermum

Type species
Thrixspermum centipeda
Synonyms [1]

Thrixspermum, commonly known as hairseeds [2] or 白点兰属 (bai dian lan shu), [3] is a genus of flowering plants in the family Orchidaceae. Orchids in this genus are epiphytes, lithophytes or terrestrial plants with flat, leathery leaves and short-lived flowers with the sepals and petals more or less similar to each other. The labellum is rigidly fixed to the column and has three lobes. The side lobes are erect and the middle lobe is thick and fleshy. There are about 190 species distributed from tropical and subtropical Asia to the Western Pacific. Most species grow in lowland or tropical rainforests up to an altitude of 1,200 m.

Contents

Description

Orchids in the genus Thrixspermum are epiphytic or lithophytic, rarely terrestrial, monopodial herbs with long thick roots, and flat, fleshy leaves arranged in two ranks with their bases sheathing the stem. The flowers are arranged on a pendulous or arching flowering stem arising from a leaf axil. The flowers are usually short-lived and often open for less than a day. The sepals are free from and more or less similar to each other. The petals are free from each other and similar to, but slightly shorter than the sepals. The labellum is stiffly attached to the column with a pouched base and three lobes, the side lobes erect, usually short and blunt and the middle lobe thick and fleshy. The fruit is a long, thin capsule. [2] [3] [4]

Taxonomy and naming

The genus Thrixspermum was first formally described in 1790 by João de Loureiro in Flora Cochinchinensis. [1] [5] The name Thrixspermum is derived from the Ancient Greek words thrix (θρίξ), meaning "hair" and sperma (σπέρμα) meaning "seed". [6]

Species

The following is a list of species of Thrixspermum recognised by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as at January 2019:

Thrixspermum pensile Thrixspermum pensile Schltr., Beibl. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 104 59 (1911) (44834515771).jpg
Thrixspermum pensile

Distribution

Orchids in the genus Thrixspermum are found in China, Japan, Korea, the Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, India (including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, northern Australia (including Christmas Island), Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Vanuatu and the Caroline Islands. About fourteen species, two of which are endemic occur in China, nine are found in Taiwan and three in Australia. [1] [2] [3] [7]

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<i>Coelogyne</i> genus of plants

Coelogyne is a genus of over 200 sympodial epiphytes from the family Orchidaceae, distributed across India, China, Indonesia and the Fiji islands, with the main centers in Borneo, Sumatra and the Himalayas. They can be found from tropical lowland forests to montane rainforests. A few species grow as terrestrials or even as lithophytes in open, humid habitats. The genera BolborchisLindl., HologynePfitzer and PtychogynePfitzer are generally included here. The genus is abbreviated Coel. in trade journals.

<i>Calanthe</i> genus of plants

Calanthe, commonly known as Christmas orchids, is a genus of about 220 species of orchids in the family Orchidaceae. They are evergreen or deciduous terrestrial plants with thick roots, small oval pseudobulbs, large corrugated leaves and upright, sometimes arching flowering stems. The sepals and petals are narrow and a similar size to each other and the labellum usually has spreading lobes.

<i>Zeuxine</i> genus of plants

Zeuxine, commonly known as verdant jewel orchids, is a genus of about eighty species of orchids in the tribe Cranichideae. They are native to parts of tropical Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Australia and some Pacific Islands. They have relatively narrow, dark green leaves and small, dull-coloured resupinate flowers with the dorsal sepal and petals overlapping to form a hood over the column. The labellum has a pouched base and its tip has two lobes.

<i>Gastrochilus</i> genus of plants

Gastrochilus, abbreviated Gchls in horticultural trade, is a genus of plant in family Orchidaceae. It is native to eastern and southeastern Asia, including China, Japan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, etc.

<i>Pinalia</i> genus of plants

Pinalia, commonly known as gremlin orchids, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Orchidaceae. Orchids in this genus are large epiphytic or lithophytic plants with prominent pseudobulbs, each with up to three thin, flat leaves and cup-shaped, relatively short-lived flowers with scale-like brown hairs on the outside. There are about 120 species occurring from tropical to subtropical Asia to the south-west Pacific.

Appendicula, commonly known as stream orchids or 牛齿兰属 , is a genus of flowering plants in the family Orchidaceae. Orchids in this genus are epiphytic, lithophytic or rarely terrestrial plants herbs with many flat, often twisted leaves and small resupinate, white or greenish flowers. The sepals are free from each other but the lateral sepals and labellum are fused to the base of the column.

<i>Ceratostylis</i> genus of plants

Ceratostylis is a genus of orchids with more than 140 species distributed in China, India, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, the Philippines, and Melanesia.

<i>Robiquetia</i> genus of plants

Robiquetia, commonly known as pouched orchids, or 寄树兰属 , is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae. Plants in this genus are epiphytes with long, sometimes branched, fibrous stems, leathery leaves in two ranks and large numbers of small, densely crowded flowers on a pendulous flowering stem. There are about eighty species found from tropical and subtropical Asia to the Western Pacific.

<i>Trichoglottis</i> genus of plants

Trichoglottis, commonly known as cherub orchids or 毛舌兰属 , is a genus of flowering plants in the family Orchidaceae. Orchids in this genus are epiphytic plants with thick roots, relatively thick, fibrous stems and many large, thick, leathery leaves arranged in two ranks. The flowers are usually small and yellowish with light brown or purple markings. The flowers have broad sepals, narrower petals and a labellum which has three lobes and is often hairy. There are about 85 species distributed from tropical and subtropical Asia to the north-western Pacific. Most species grow in rainforest.

<i>Brachypeza</i> genus of plants

Brachypeza, commonly known as sage orchids, is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae. Orchids in this genus have short stems with fleshy leaves and arching flowering stems with short-lived flowers. The sepals and petals are similar in size and shape and the labellum is pouch-like and suspended at the base of the flower. Sage orchids occur in tropical areas from Indochina to New Guinea.

<i>Thelasis</i> genus of plants

Thelasis, commonly known as fly orchids, is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae. Plants in this genus are usually epiphytes, sometimes lithophytes or rarely terrestrials. Some species have pseudobulbs with up to three leaves, whilst others have several leaves in two ranks. A large number of small, white or greenish yellow flowers are borne on a thin, arching flowering stem. There are about thirty species, distributed from tropical and subtropical Asia to the southwest Pacific.

<i>Malleola</i> genus of plants

Malleola is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae. It has about 30 species, native to Southeast Asia, China, New Guinea and Melanesia.

  1. Malleola aberrans(Schltr.) J.J.Sm.
  2. Malleola andamanicaN.P.Balakr. & N.Bhargava
  3. Malleola batakensis(Schltr.) Schltr.
  4. Malleola bicruris(J.J.Sm.) Garay
  5. Malleola brevisaccataJ.J.Sm.
  6. Malleola cladophylax(Schltr.) J.J.Sm. & Schltr.
  7. Malleola constrictaAmes
  8. Malleola culicifera(Ridl.) Garay
  9. Malleola dentiferaJ.J.Sm.
  10. Malleola eburneaW.Suarez & Cootes
  11. Malleola flammeaBoos, Cootes & W.Suarez
  12. Malleola forbesii(Ridl.) J.J.Sm.
  13. Malleola gautierensisJ.J.Sm.
  14. Malleola glomerata(Rolfe) P.F.Hunt
  15. Malleola honhoffiiSchuit. & A.Vogel
  16. Malleola insectifera(J.J.Sm.) J.J.Sm. & Schltr.
  17. Malleola juliaeP.O'Byrne
  18. Malleola kawakamii(J.J.Sm.) J.J.Sm. & Schltr.
  19. Malleola ligulata(J.J.Sm.) J.J.Sm.
  20. Malleola lyoniiAmes
  21. Malleola pallida(Schltr.) Schltr.
  22. Malleola palustris(J.J.Sm.) J.J.Sm. & Schltr.
  23. Malleola penangiana(Hook.f.) J.J.Sm. & Schltr.
  24. Malleola punctataJ.J.Wood & A.L.Lamb
  25. Malleola sanguinicorsP.O'Byrne & J.J.Verm.
  26. Malleola seidenfadeniiChristenson
  27. Malleola serpentina(J.J.Sm.) Schltr.
  28. Malleola sphingoidesJ.J.Sm.
  29. Malleola steffensii(Schltr.) J.J.Sm. & Schltr.
  30. Malleola sylvestris(Ridl.) Garay
  31. Malleola warianaSchltr.
  32. Malleola witteana(Rchb.f.) J.J.Sm. & Schltr.

Pennilabium is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae. It is native to Southeast Asia and the Himalayas.

  1. Pennilabium acuminatum(Ridl.) Holttum - Malaysia
  2. Pennilabium angraecoides(Schltr.) J.J.Sm. - Borneo
  3. Pennilabium angraecum(Ridl.) J.J.Sm. - Malaysia, Java
  4. Pennilabium armaniiP.O'Byrne, Phoon & P.T.Ong - Malaysia
  5. Pennilabium aurantiacumJ.J.Sm. - Java
  6. Pennilabium confusum(Ames) Garay - Philippines
  7. Pennilabium kidmancoxiiJ.J.Wood - Sabah
  8. Pennilabium lampongenseJ.J.Sm. - Sumatra
  9. Pennilabium longicauleJ.J.Sm. - Sumatra
  10. Pennilabium luzonense(Ames) Garay - Philippines
  11. Pennilabium najaP.O'Byrne - Sulawesi
  12. Pennilabium poringense(J.J.Wood & A.L.Lamb) Schuit. - Sabah
  13. Pennilabium proboscidcumA.S.Rao & J.Joseph - Arunachal Pradesh, Assam
  14. Pennilabium struthioCarr - Malaysia, Thailand
  15. Pennilabium yunnanenseS.C.Chen & Y.B.Luo - Yunnan, Thailand
<i>Peristylus</i> genus of plants in the family Orchidaceae

Peristylus, sometimes commonly known as ogre orchids or bog orchids is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae. It consists of over 100 known species found across much of eastern and southern Asia as well as in Australia and on many islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Pteroceras is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae. It is native to China, the Indian Subcontinent, and Southeast Asia.

<i>Trachoma</i> (plant) genus of plants

Trachoma, commonly known as spectral orchids, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Orchidaceae. Orchids in this genus are epiphytic plants with leafy stems, crowded, leathery leaves arranged in two ranks and a large number of relatively small, short-lived flowers that often open in successive clusters. The sepals and petals are free from and more or less similar to each other, except that the petals are often smaller. The labellum is rigidly fixed to the column and is more or less sac-shaped. There are about 17 species distributed from Assam to the Western Pacific Ocean. Most species grow in rainforests, often on emergent trees such as hoop pine.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Thrixspermum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  2. 1 2 3 Jones, David L. (2006). A complete guide to native orchids of Australia including the island territories. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: New Holland. p. 456. ISBN   1877069124.
  3. 1 2 3 Chen, Xinqi; Wood, Jeffrey J. "Thrixspermum". Flora of China. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  4. "Thrixspermum". Trin keys. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  5. de Loureiro, João (1790). Flora Cochinchinensis (Volume 2). Lisbon. pp. 519–520. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  6. Backer, C.A. (1936). Verklarend woordenboek der wetenschappelijke namen van de in Nederland en Nederlandsch-Indië in het wild groeiende en in tuinen en parken gekweekte varens en hoogere planten (Edition Nicoline van der Sijs).
  7. "Thrixspermum". Digital Flora of Taiwan. Retrieved 7 January 2019.