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A throttle body spacer is usually a 1-inch (25 mm) thick piece of metal that is bolted to the outlet of the throttle body of an automotive engine upstream of air flow into the manifold. By changing the airflow, this after-market add-on claims to be a performance enhancing accessory that can increase an engine's horse power, torque and fuel economy. It functions by swirling or directing the air flow to maximize air volume to the manifold. There is much debate about the veracity of the manufacturers' claims for these devices. The general consensus is that it works well on some engine configurations, and not at all or adversely on others.
In 2009 the BBK Performance R&D Department performed extensive dyno testing of off the shelf throttle body spacers from other manufacturers. The intention was to determine whether or not throttle body spacers were a viable product that BBK could manufacture that would provide notable results for their customers. The tests were performed on Ford 4.6L 3-V, GM LS, and Mopar HEMI V8 applications using a Dynojet 248C dynamometer. The tests consisted of a baseline dyno run, cool down period, and a repeat test after the spacers were installed. None of the spacers produced any additional horsepower or torque when tested. The only notable change was a loss of 4 horsepower to the tires on the Mopar application with the spacer installed. An additional test was run after removing the spacer, resulting in a return of the lost horsepower. Proving that some spacers can actually rob power from an engine. After seeing the results, it was clear that throttle body spacers were simply gimmicks and provided no real performance value. BBK scrapped all plans to manufacture throttle body spacers.
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A turbocharger, colloquially known as a turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra compressed air into the combustion chamber. This improvement over a naturally aspirated engine's power output is due to the fact that the compressor can force more air—and proportionately more fuel—into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone.
A nitrous oxide engine is an internal combustion engine in which oxygen for burning the fuel comes from the decomposition of nitrous oxide, N2O, rather than air. The system increases the engine's power output by allowing fuel to be burned at a higher-than-normal rate, because of the higher partial pressure of oxygen injected with the fuel mixture. Nitrous oxide is not flammable at room temperature or while not under extensive pressure. Nitrous injection systems may be "dry", where the nitrous oxide is injected separately from fuel, or "wet" in which additional fuel is carried into the engine along with the nitrous. Nitrous oxide systems may not be permitted for street or highway use, depending on local regulations. Nitrous oxide use is permitted in certain classes of auto racing. Reliable operation of an engine with nitrous injection requires careful attention to the strength of engine components and to the accuracy of the mixing systems, otherwise destructive detonations or exceeding engineered component maximums may occur. Nitrous oxide injection systems were applied as early as World War II for certain aircraft engines.
The Ford Small Block is a series of automobile V8 engines built by the Ford Motor Company beginning in July 1961. The engine was discontinued in new trucks (F-Series) after 1996, and new SUVs (Explorer) after 2001, but remains available for purchase from Ford Racing and Performance Parts as a crate engine. Sometimes called the "Windsor" family by enthusiasts, the designation is a misnomer, as Ford itself never named the engine family; the designation was only officially adopted to distinguish the 351 cu in (5.8 L) version from the Cleveland 335-family engine that had the same displacement, but a significantly different configuration. The designations of 'Windsor' and 'Cleveland' were derived from the locations of manufacture: Windsor, Ontario and Cleveland, Ohio.
The LA engines are a family of pushrod OHV 90° V-configured gasoline engines built by Chrysler Corporation. It was factory-installed in passenger vehicles, trucks and vans, commercial vehicles, marine and industrial applications from 1964 through 2003. The combustion chambers are wedge-shaped, rather than the polyspherical combustion chambers in the predecessor A engine or the hemispherical combustion chambers in the Chrysler Hemi engine. All versions are made of cast iron, except for the Viper V10 which is aluminum. LA engines have the same 4.46 in (113 mm) bore spacing as the A engines. LA engines were made at Chrysler's Mound Road Engine plant in Detroit, Michigan, as well as plants in Canada and Mexico. The "LA" stands for "Light A", as the older "A" engine it was closely based on was nearly 50 pounds heavier. Willem Weertman, who later became Chief Engineer – Engine Design and Development, was in charge of the conversion. The basic design of the LA engine would go unchanged through the development of the "Magnum" upgrade (1992-1993) and into the 2000s with changes to enhance power and efficiency.
The Chevrolet "Big Block" is a term for a series of large displacement V8 engines that have been developed and produced in the United States from the 1950s until 2009. As American automobiles grew in size and weight following the Second World War, the engines powering them had to keep pace. Chevrolet had introduced its popular small block V8 in 1955, but needed something larger to power its medium duty trucks and the heavier cars that were on the drawing board.
The Chevrolet small-block engine is a series of V8 automobile engines used in normal production by the Chevrolet division of General Motors between 1954 and 2003, using the same basic engine block. Referred to as a "small-block" for its comparative size relative to the physically much larger Chevrolet big-block engines, the family spanned from 262 cu in (4.3 L) to 400 cu in (6.6 L) in displacement. Engineer Ed Cole is credited with leading the design for this engine.
The GM High Feature engine is a family of modern General Motors DOHC V6 engines. The series was introduced in 2004 with the Cadillac CTS and the Holden Commodore (VZ).
A dynamometer or "dyno" for short, is a device for simultaneously measuring the torque and rotational speed (RPM) of an engine, motor or other rotating prime mover so that its instantaneous power may be calculated, and usually displayed by the dynamometer itself as kW or bhp.
In automotive engineering, an inlet manifold or intake manifold is the part of an engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders. The word manifold comes from the Old English word manigfeald and refers to the multiplying of one (pipe) into many.
An intake is an opening or structure through which a fluid is admitted to a space or machine as a consequence of a pressure differential between the outside and the inside. The pressure difference may be generated on the inside by a mechanism, or on the outside by ram pressure or hydrostatic pressure. Flow rate through the intake depends on pressure difference, fluid properties, and intake geometry. An intake can be an outlet at the same time – the intake for a hydro-electric generator turbine may be an outlet for a dam, where the turbine is inside relative to the dam, and the dam is inside relative to the river valley below.
The manifold absolute pressure sensor is one of the sensors used in an internal combustion engine's electronic control system.
The anti-lag system (ALS) is a method of reducing turbo lag or effective compression used on turbocharged engines to minimize turbo lag on racing or performance cars. It works by delaying the ignition timing very slightly to balance an inherent loss in combustion efficiency with increased pressure at the charging side of the turbo. This is achieved as a small amount of fuel/air mixture escapes through the exhaust valves and combusts in the hot exhaust manifold spooling the turbocharger creating higher usable pressure.
The Chrysler Hemi engines, known by the trademark Hemi, are a series of I6 and V8 gasoline engines built by Chrysler with hemispherical combustion chambers. Three different types of Hemi engines have been built by Chrysler for automobiles: the first from 1951 to 1958, the second from 1964 to 1971, and the third beginning in 2003. Although Chrysler is most identified with the use of "Hemi" as a marketing term, many other auto manufacturers have incorporated similar designs.
An -engine control unit (ECU), also commonly called an engine control module (ECM), is a type of electronic control unit that controls a series of actuators on an internal combustion engine to ensure optimal engine performance. It does this by reading values from a multitude of sensors within the engine bay, interpreting the data using multidimensional performance maps, and adjusting the engine actuators. Before ECUs, air-fuel mixture, ignition timing, and idle speed were mechanically set and dynamically controlled by mechanical and pneumatic means.
A throttle is the mechanism by which fluid flow is managed by constriction or obstruction.
The Suzuki GSX-R1000 is a sport bike from Suzuki's GSX-R series of motorcycles. It was introduced in 2001 to replace the GSX-R1100 and is powered by a liquid-cooled 999 cc (61.0 cu in) inline four-cylinder, four-stroke engine.
An engine test stand is a facility used to develop, characterize and test engines. The facility, often offered as a product to automotive OEMs, allows engine operation in different operating regimes and offers measurement of several physical variables associated with the engine operation.
Callaway Cars Inc. is an American specialty vehicle manufacturer and engineering company that designs, develops and manufactures high performance product packages for cars, pickup trucks and SUV's. They specialize in Corvettes and GM vehicles. New GM vehicles are delivered to Callaway facilities where these special packages and components are installed. Then the vehicles are delivered to GM new car dealers where they are sold to retail customers, branded as Callaway. Callaway Cars is one of four core Callaway Companies, including Callaway Engineering, Callaway Carbon and Callaway Competition.
The Not-To-Exceed (NTE) standard promulgated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ensures that heavy-duty truck engine emissions are controlled over the full range of speed and load combinations commonly experienced in use. NTE establishes an area under the torque curve of an engine where emissions must not exceed a specified value for any of the regulated pollutants. The NTE test procedure does not involve a specific driving cycle of any specific length. Rather it involves driving of any type that could occur within the bounds of the NTE control area, including operation under steady-state or transient conditions and under varying ambient conditions. Emissions are averaged over a minimum time of thirty seconds and then compared to the applicable NTE emission limits.
The Reece-Fish carburettor was a carburettor used by Mini Se7en racers in the 60s and 70s.