Through a Glass Darkly (film)

Last updated

Through a Glass Darkly
Sasom i en spegel.jpg
Swedish theatrical release poster
Directed by Ingmar Bergman
Produced by Allan Ekelund
Written byIngmar Bergman
Starring Harriet Andersson
Gunnar Björnstrand
Max von Sydow
Lars Passgård
Music by Erik Nordgren
Johann Sebastian Bach
Cinematography Sven Nykvist
Edited by Ulla Ryghe
Distributed by Janus Films
Release date
  • 16 October 1961 (1961-10-16)
[1]
Running time
91 minutes [2]
CountrySweden
LanguageSwedish

Through a Glass Darkly (Swedish : Såsom i en spegel, lit.  'As in a Mirror') is a 1961 Swedish drama film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman, and starring Harriet Andersson, Gunnar Björnstrand, Max von Sydow and Lars Passgård. The film tells the story of a schizophrenic young woman (Andersson) vacationing with her family on a remote island, during which time her author father attempts to use her illness in his work, her brother experiences sexual frustration, and she experiences delusions about meeting God, who appears to her in the form of a monstrous spider.

Contents

Bergman structured the film as a three-act play, drawing on his personal experiences and relationships. The film was his first of several shot on the island of Fårö, at the recommendation of cinematographer Sven Nykvist. The score incorporates the music of Johann Sebastian Bach. Themes explored include the equation of God with love, exploitation in art, psychosis, and sexuality.

Through a Glass Darkly was released to positive reviews, specifically for Andersson's performance, and won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. It was followed by Bergman's thematically related 1963 films Winter Light and The Silence .

Plot

The story takes place during a 24-hour period while four family members take their vacation on a remote island, shortly after one of them, Karin, is released from an asylum where she has been treated for schizophrenia. Karin's husband Martin (von Sydow), a respected doctor, tells her father David (Björnstrand) that Karin's disease is almost incurable. Meanwhile, Minus (Passgård), Karin's 17-year-old brother, tells Karin that he wishes he could have a real conversation with his father and feels deprived of his father's affection. David is a novelist suffering from "writer's block" who has just returned from a long trip abroad. He announces he will leave again in a month, though he promised he would stay. The others perform a play for him that Minus has written. David, while feigning approval of the play, takes offence since the play can be interpreted as an attack on his character.

That night, after rejecting Martin's erotic overtures, Karin wakes up and follows the sound of a foghorn to the attic. She faints after an episode in which she hears voices behind the peeling wallpaper. She then enters David's room and looks through his desk and finds his diary, seeing he described her disease as incurable. She discovers his callous desire to record the details of her deterioration. The following morning, David and Martin, while fishing, confront each other over Karin. Martin accuses David of sacrificing his daughter for his art and of being self-absorbed, callous, cowardly, and phony. David is evasive but admits that much of what Martin says is true. David says that he recently tried to kill himself by driving over a cliff but was saved by a faulty transmission. He says that after that, he discovered that he loves Karin, Minus and Martin, and this gives him hope. Meanwhile, Karin tells Minus about her episodes, and that she is waiting for God to appear behind the wallpaper in the attic. Minus is somewhat sexually frustrated, and Karin teases him, even more so after she discovers that he hides a pornographic magazine. Later, on the beach, when Karin sees that a storm is coming, she runs into a wrecked ship and huddles in fear. Minus goes to her and they engage in incestuous sexual activity.

Minus tells the other men about the incident in the ship and Martin calls for an ambulance. Karin asks to speak with her father alone. She confesses her misconduct toward Martin and Minus, saying that a voice told her to act that way and also to search David's desk. She tells David she would like to remain at the hospital, because she cannot go back and forth between two realities but must choose one. While they are packing to go to the hospital, she runs to the attic where Martin and David observe her actions. She says that God is about to walk out of the closet door, and asks her husband to allow her to enjoy the moment. She becomes fixated on a crack in the wall out of which a spider emerges. The ambulance, a helicopter, flies by the window, making a lot of noise and shaking the door open. Karin moves toward the door eagerly but then she runs from it, terrified, and goes into a frenzy of panic. Karin vanishes and, reappearing in a frenzy, is sedated. When she stands, she tells them of God: an evil-faced spider who tried to penetrate her. She looked into God's eyes, and they were "cold and calm," and when God failed to penetrate her he retreated onto the wall. "I have seen God," she announces.

Karin and Martin leave in the helicopter. Minus tells his father that he is afraid, because when Karin had grabbed him in the ship, he began leaving ordinary reality. He asks his father if he can survive that way. David tells him he can if he has "something to hold on to". He tells Minus of his own hope: love. David and his son discuss the concept of love as it relates to God, and they find solace in the idea that their own love may help sustain Karin. Minus is grateful and in awe that he finally had a real conversation with his father, uttering: "Papa spoke to me".

Themes

The genre of "family drama" is one analytic approach, with academic Frank Gado referring to Minus as the "consciousness" of this portrayal of family. [3] The tense relationship between the family members is revealed in the meal scene, where David's children are dismayed by his intentions to leave soon after returning to the family, placing a damper on the joy of the occasion. [4] Minus expresses his desire, "I wish I could talk to Papa just once". [5] Minus' play also reveals conflicts. Gado wrote that the story within a story takes place in Saint Teresa's Chapel, with Saint Teresa having used the "interior castle" as a symbol of the soul. [3] While appearing to be "Gothic nonsense", Gado argued that Minus was attempting to tell David that he has always fallen short of greatness as a writer, and that Minus' character uses art to explain his failings in love, in much the same way David retreats to writing to avoid being with Karin. Gado further argued that David's blindfolding before the performance signifies his eyes opening to reality. [6]

The fact that David plans to use Karin's condition as a source for his writing creates a "portrait of the artist as charlatan, windbag, and heartless exploiter", essayist Peter Matthews wrote. [7] In the end, when David shares his thoughts of love as God to Minus, Gado believed Minus is most impressed not by the theory but the "face to face" encounter with his father and the sharing of love, signified in Minus' closing line "Papa spoke to me". [8]

In Karin's relationship with her husband, psychiatrist Barbara Young wrote Karin appears "withdrawn" sexually from Martin, but her sexuality is "still alive in her psychosis". [5] Young observed what she described as a "flirtatious" relationship she has with Minus, and when she hears voices, she "massages her thighs in a sexual way". [5] Her sexuality and knowledge of Minus' sexual frustration is what leads her to incest with Minus, and why they defy the incest taboo, Young wrote. [9] She believed it was this episode of incest that finally led Karin to realize that she "can't live in two worlds". [9]

Karin envisions God as a "spider-god". Bergman's next film, Winter Light explains the metaphor when the character Tomas, played by Björnstrand, relates the spider-god to suffering, as opposed to his previous ideas of a God of love that provides comfort. [10] . The story ends with a discussion of how God is love, a question further explored in Winter Light, which asks if understanding God is as simple as that. [11] One Winter Light character mocks the idea of God as love, quoting the end of Through a Glass Darkly exactly. [12] The title Through a Glass Darkly is derived from 1 Corinthians 13, which Gado observed also follows themes of "faith, hope and love". [13]

Production

Development

Bergman's relationship with his wife Kabi Laretei influenced the film, which is dedicated to her. Kabi-Laretei-Ingmar-Bergman.jpg
Bergman's relationship with his wife Käbi Laretei influenced the film, which is dedicated to her.

After Ingmar Bergman made notes on his ideas for the film in his diary, drawing on his personal experiences in planning to meet and reconcile with his parents Karin and Erik Bergman, [14] Ingmar wrote the screenplay on the island of Torö in the Stockholm archipelago. [15] He imagined it as a three-act play, where the acts serve as "mirror panels," showing the same thing from different angles. [13] This led to the phrase from the Biblical passage 1 Corinthians 13 being used as the film's title. [13]

Bergman claimed the inspiration for the character of Karin was a woman he had lived with when he was younger. He reported she heard voices telling her to do things. [3] The scene where David describes his attempted suicide is also inspired by Bergman's real-life attempt in Switzerland, before making Smiles of a Summer Night in 1955. [16] Bergman explained that "while I was preparing the film, I became interested in the human drama surrounding another human being who really was in the process of slipping away". [17] He also referred to his screenplay as "a desperate attempt to present a simple philosophy: God is love, and love is God". [18] Bergman later regretted that message as lacking truth, [19] and acknowledged that the optimistic epilogue was "tacked loosely onto the end," causing him to feel "ill at ease" when later confronted with it. [20] He added that "I was touching on a divine concept that is real, but then smeared a diffuse veneer of love all over it." [21]

While working on Through a Glass Darkly, he was adapting The Seagull by Anton Chekhov in the Royal Dramatic Theatre, and borrowed an idea from The Seagull in having Minus write a play. [3] Bergman dedicated the film to his then-wife Käbi Laretei, [15] with influence from what he described as their "complicated, staged relationship". [16]

Casting

ActorRole
Harriet Andersson ...Karin
Gunnar Björnstrand ...David
Max von Sydow ...Martin
Lars Passgård ...Minus

In keeping with his idea of the film being a "chamber play" in the mold of the work of August Strindberg, Bergman referred to his cast as a "string quartet". [22] Bergman sent Andersson the screenplay, with Andersson initially declining, saying the role would be too challenging for her. She said Bergman replied with "Don't give me that load of shit!" [23] To prepare, Andersson contacted a nurse to discuss schizophrenia. [23] At the time, Lars Passgård was a novice actor. [24]

Filming

Cinematographer Sven Nykvist and director Ingmar Bergman shoot Through a Glass Darkly. Ingmar Bergman & Sven Nykvist.jpg
Cinematographer Sven Nykvist and director Ingmar Bergman shoot Through a Glass Darkly.

Through a Glass Darkly was filmed on the island of Fårö, at cinematographer Sven Nykvist's recommendation. [15] It was Bergman's first film shot there, where he would film several more. [25] Nykvist developed his style with the film, employing few camera movements. [25] The director and cinematographer had very serious conversations in which they rethought how lighting should be employed. [26] Nykvist and Bergman also planned to make Through a Glass Darkly as their first colour film collaboration, but were unhappy with the look of the colour shots they tested. [17]

The film relies on natural sounds to convey silence in the characters' lives, with cello music after the incest scene being an exception. [8] Four interpretations of Sarabande from Suite No. 2 in D minor for Cello, BWV 1008 by Johann Sebastian Bach are used in the film, with cellist Erling Blöndal Bengtsson providing all of them. [27]

Release

In Sweden, the film was released by SF Studios on 16 October 1961. [1] The film also screened at the 12th Berlin International Film Festival during June and July 1962. [28]

Janus Films launched the film's U.S. release in New York City on 13 March 1962, delaying it until the finalists for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film were announced. Janus also promoted its Oscar campaign by screening it for Academy members in Los Angeles before voting occurred. [24] On 19 August 2003, The Criterion Collection released the film on DVD in Region 1, along with Begman's films Winter Light and The Silence and Vilgot Sjöman's documentary Ingmar Bergman Makes a Movie . [29] On 20 November 2018, Criterion included a Blu-ray version, along with 38 other Bergman films, in the set Ingmar Bergman's Cinema in Region A. [30]

Reception

Critical reception

Numerous critics praised the performance of Harriet Andersson. Harriet Andersson 1952.jpg
Numerous critics praised the performance of Harriet Andersson.

In Sweden, the film received positive reviews for its characters, minimalist screenplay, and Harriet Andersson's performance. [24] Variety staff described Through a Glass Darkly as "Not a pleasant film, it is a great one". [31] Time's review praised it as "one of the best and certainly the ripest of Ingmar Bergman's creations". [32] In The New York Times , Bosley Crowther called the film "tightly constructed and starkly realistic," and Andersson "beautifully expressive of the haunting awareness, the agony of madness, that move the girl". [33] U.S. critic Brendan Gill called Andersson "well-nigh perfect". [24] U.K. critic Tom Milne wrote that despite a concept suggesting "angst and self-torture," the film is "warm and highly controlled," and Andersson is brilliant. [34] The New Republic critic Stanley Kauffmann, calling it "a Strindbergian study in mental torment," wrote its scenes were "gripping" and Andersson is "stark, beleaguered, volatile". [35]

Much of the criticism focused on the ending, where the characters appear overly calm despite losing Karin, and God is simply equated with love. [8] In 2008, Roger Ebert added the film to his Great Movies list, impressed by Nykvist's lighting and concluding "we're struck by Bergman's deep concern that humans see the world as through a glass, darkly, and are unable to perceive its meaning". [36] In his 2014 Movie Guide, Leonard Maltin gave the film three and a half stars, describing it as a "Moody, evocative story of insanity". [37] The film has a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 20 reviews, with a weighted average of 8.72/10. [38]

Awards and honors

The film won the 1962 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, [39] marking the second year in a row Bergman had won the award, after The Virgin Spring in 1961. [40] Harriet Andersson attended the ceremony to accept the Academy Award on Bergman's behalf. [17] The film was also in competition for the Golden Bear at the 12th Berlin International Film Festival. [28]

AwardDate of ceremonyCategoryRecipient(s)ResultRef(s)
Academy Awards 9 April 1962 Best Foreign Language Film Ingmar Bergman Won [39]
8 April 1963 Best Original Screenplay Nominated [41]
BAFTA Awards 1963 Best Film Through a Glass DarklyNominated [42]
Best Foreign Actress Harriet Andersson Nominated
National Board of Review 21 December 1962 Top Foreign FilmsThrough a Glass DarklyWon [43]

Legacy

Through a Glass Darkly is sometimes considered the first film in a trilogy that includes Winter Light and The Silence , and focuses on spiritual issues. Bergman writes, "These three films deal with reduction. Through a Glass Darkly – conquered certainty. Winter Light – penetrated certainty. The Silence – God's silence – the negative imprint. Therefore, they constitute a trilogy". [44] He later retracted his claim the films form a trilogy. [44]

Bergman would return to Fårö to shoot several more films, including Persona (1966), Hour of the Wolf (1968), Shame (1968), The Passion of Anna (1969), Fårö Document (1969) and The Touch (1971). Fårö Document is a documentary, while the others use the island for symbolism and have been termed the "island films". [15]

In 2004, producer Andrew Higgie persuaded Bergman to allow a stage version of the work, initially intended for a production by Andrew Upton and Cate Blanchett during their time as Co-Artistic Directors at Sydney Theatre Company. Upton relinquished the project to Jenny Worton, dramaturg of the Almeida Theatre, London, where it was presented in July 2010, starring Ruth Wilson in the lead role of Karin. [45] [46] [47] [48]

See also

Related Research Articles

Ingmar Bergman Swedish filmmaker

Ernst Ingmar Bergman was a Swedish director, writer, and producer who worked in film, television, theatre and radio. Considered to be among the most accomplished and influential filmmakers of all time, Bergman's films include The Seventh Seal (1957), Wild Strawberries (1957), Persona (1966), Cries and Whispers (1972), Scenes from a Marriage (1973), Autumn Sonata (1978) and Fanny and Alexander (1982); the last two exist in extended television versions.

<i>Cries and Whispers</i> 1972 film by Ingmar Bergman

Cries and Whispers is a 1972 Swedish period drama film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Harriet Andersson, Kari Sylwan, Ingrid Thulin and Liv Ullmann. The film, set in a mansion at the end of the 19th century, is about three sisters and a servant who struggle with the terminal cancer of one of the sisters (Andersson). The servant (Sylwan) is close to her, while the other two sisters confront their emotional distance from each other.

<i>The Seventh Seal</i> 1957 film by Ingmar Bergman

The Seventh Seal is a 1957 Swedish historical fantasy film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. Set in Sweden during the Black Death, it tells of the journey of a medieval knight and a game of chess he plays with the personification of Death, who has come to take his life. Bergman developed the film from his own play Wood Painting. The title refers to a passage from the Book of Revelation, used both at the very start of the film, and again towards the end, beginning with the words "And when the Lamb had opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven about the space of half an hour". Here, the motif of silence refers to the "silence of God", which is a major theme of the film.

<i>Fanny and Alexander</i> 1982 Swedish film directed by Ingmar Bergman

Fanny and Alexander is a 1982 historical drama film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. The plot focuses on two siblings and their large family in Uppsala, Sweden during the first decade of the twentieth century. Following the death of the eponymous children's father, their mother remarries a prominent bishop who becomes abusive towards Alexander for his vivid imagination.

<i>Persona</i> (1966 film) 1966 film by Ingmar Bergman

Persona is a 1966 Swedish psychological drama film, written and directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Bibi Andersson and Liv Ullmann. The story revolves around a young nurse named Alma (Andersson) and her patient, well-known stage actress Elisabet Vogler (Ullmann), who has suddenly stopped speaking. They move to a cottage, where Alma cares for Elisabet, confides in her and begins having trouble distinguishing herself from her patient.

<i>Scenes from a Marriage</i> 1973 television miniseries by Ingmar Bergman

Scenes from a Marriage is a 1973 Swedish Television miniseries written and directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Liv Ullmann and Erland Josephson. The story explores the disintegration of the marriage between Marianne, a family lawyer specializing in divorce, and Johan, spanning a period of 10 years. Bergman's teleplay draws on his own experiences, including his relationship with Ullmann. It was shot on a small budget in Stockholm and Fårö in 1972.

<i>The Virgin Spring</i> 1960 film

The Virgin Spring is a 1960 Swedish rape and revenge film directed by Ingmar Bergman. Set in medieval Sweden, it is a tale about a father's merciless response to the rape and murder of his young daughter. The story was adapted by screenwriter Ulla Isaksson from a 13th-century Swedish ballad, "Töres döttrar i Wänge". Bergman researched the legend of Per Töre with an eye to an adaptation, considering an opera before deciding on a film version. Given criticism of the historical accuracy of his 1957 film The Seventh Seal, he also invited Isaksson to write the screenplay. Other influences included the 1950 Japanese film Rashomon. Max von Sydow played Töre.

<i>From the Life of the Marionettes</i> 1980 Ingmar Bergmans Television film

From the Life of the Marionettes is a 1980 television film directed by Ingmar Bergman. The film was produced in West Germany with a German-language screenplay and soundtrack while Bergman was in "tax exile" from his native Sweden. It is filmed in black and white apart from two colour sequences at the beginning and end of the film.

<i>Hour of the Wolf</i> 1968 film

Hour of the Wolf is a 1968 Swedish psychological horror film directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Max von Sydow and Liv Ullmann. The story explores the disappearance of fictional painter Johan Borg, who lived on an island with his wife Alma (Ullmann) while plagued with frightening visions and insomnia.

<i>The Touch</i> (1971 film) 1971 film

The Touch is a 1971 romantic drama film directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Max von Sydow, Bibi Andersson, Elliott Gould, and Sheila Reid. The film tells the story of an affair between a married woman and an impetuous foreigner. It contains references to the Virgin Mary and the Holocaust.

<i>Winter Light</i> 1963 film

Winter Light is a 1963 Swedish drama film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Bergman regulars Gunnar Björnstrand, Ingrid Thulin and Max von Sydow. The film follows Tomas Ericsson (Björnstrand), pastor of a small rural Swedish church, as he deals with an existential crisis and his Christianity.

<i>Shame</i> (1968 film) 1968 film

Shame is a 1968 Swedish drama film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman, and starring Liv Ullmann and Max von Sydow. Ullmann and von Sydow play Eva and Jan, a politically uninvolved couple and former violinists whose home comes under threat by civil war. They are accused by one side of sympathy for the enemy, and their relationship deteriorates while the couple flees. The story explores themes of shame, moral decline, self-loathing and violence.

Harriet Andersson Swedish actress

Harriet Andersson is a Swedish actress, best known outside Sweden for being part of director Ingmar Bergman's stock company. She often plays impulsive, working class characters.

<i>The Best Intentions</i> 1992 film directed by Bille August

The Best Intentions is a 1992 Swedish drama film directed by Bille August and written by Ingmar Bergman. It is semi-autobiographical, telling the story of the complex relationship between Bergman's parents, Erik Bergman and Karin Åkerblom, who are renamed Henrik and Anna in the film but retain their true surnames. The film documents the courtship and the difficult early years of their marriage, until the point when Anna becomes pregnant with their second son, who corresponds to Ingmar himself. Samuel Fröler and Pernilla August played Henrik and Anna, respectively.

<i>The Silence</i> (1963 film) 1963 Ingmar Bergman film

The Silence is a 1963 Swedish drama film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Ingrid Thulin and Gunnel Lindblom. The plot focuses on two sisters, the younger a sensuous woman with a young son, the elder more intellectually oriented and seriously ill, and their tense relationship as they travel toward home through a fictional Central European country on the brink of war.

<i>All These Women</i> 1964 film

All These Women, originally released as Now About These Women in the UK, is a 1964 Swedish comedy film directed by Ingmar Bergman. It is a parody of Federico Fellini's . Along with Smiles of a Summer Night, the film is one of the few comedy films ever made by Bergman. It was Bergman's first film to be shot in color.

<i>Secrets of Women</i> (film) 1952 film

Secrets of Women is a 1952 Swedish film directed by Ingmar Bergman. It was screened within the official selection of Venice Film Festival (1953). It is a drama about young relationships told in flashbacks by a group of women.

<i>The Devils Eye</i> 1960 film

The Devil's Eye is a 1960 Swedish fantasy-comedy film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman.

<i>Fårö Document</i> film

Fårö Document is a 1970 Swedish documentary film directed by Ingmar Bergman. It was shot on the island of Fårö and is about its inhabitants.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 Marker & Marker 1992, p. 298.
  2. Sadoul 1972, p. 327.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Gado 1986, p. 272.
  4. Young 2015, pp. 90-91.
  5. 1 2 3 Young 2015, p. 91.
  6. Gado 1986, p. 273.
  7. Matthews, Peter (18 August 2003). "Through a Glass Darkly: Patron Saint of Angst". The Criterion Collection . Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  8. 1 2 3 Gado 1986, p. 271.
  9. 1 2 Young 2015, p. 92.
  10. Pamerleau 2009, p. 123.
  11. Gervais 2001, p. 77.
  12. Gervais 2001, p. 78.
  13. 1 2 3 Gado 1986, p. 267.
  14. Young 2015, p. 96.
  15. 1 2 3 4 Steene 2005, p. 40.
  16. 1 2 Hart 2008, p. 113.
  17. 1 2 3 Vermilye 2002, p. 111.
  18. Young 2015, p. 89.
  19. Singer 2009, p. 25.
  20. Bergman, Ingmar (1990). My Life in Film. Arcade. p. 243.
  21. Bergman, Ingmar (1990). My Life in Film. Arcade. p. 243.
  22. Garcia 2016.
  23. 1 2 Cowie, Peter; Andersson, Harriet (2015). Harriet Anderrson on Cries and Whispers. Cries and Whispers (Blu-ray). The Criterion Collection.
  24. 1 2 3 4 Balio 2010, p. 141.
  25. 1 2 Gado 1986, p. 278.
  26. Hart 2008, p. 112.
  27. Luko 2015.
  28. 1 2 "12th Berlin International Film Festival June 22 - July 3, 1962". Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin . Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  29. Janis, Jason (19 September 2003). "A Film Trilogy by Ingmar Bergman: the Criterion Collection". DVD Talk . Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  30. Chitwood, Adam (12 July 2018). "Criterion Announces Massive 39-Film Ingmar Bergman Blu-ray Collection". Collider.com . Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  31. Staff (31 December 1960). "Review: 'Through a Glass Darkly'". Variety . Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  32. "Cinema: Birth of a Dark Hope". Time . 23 March 1962. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  33. Crowther, Bosley (14 March 1962). "Screen: Ingmar Bergman". The New York Times . Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  34. Vermilye 2002, p. 113.
  35. Kauffmann, Stanley (25 March 1962). "Torment and Time". The New Republic . Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  36. Ebert, Roger (24 July 2008). "Through a Glass Darkly". Rogerebert.com. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  37. Maltin 2013.
  38. "Såsom I En Spegel (Through A Glass Darkly) (1961)". Rotten Tomatoes . Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  39. 1 2 "The 34th Academy Awards (1962) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences . Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  40. Shargel 2007, p. 186.
  41. "Winners & Nominees". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences . Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  42. "Films in 1963". British Academy of Film and Television Arts . Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  43. "1962 Award Winners". National Board of Review . Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  44. 1 2 Steene 2005, p. 39.
  45. Jury, Louise (25 June 2010). "The curious case of Blanchett and Bergman". Evening Standard . London. Archived from the original on 11 August 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  46. Billington, Michael (17 June 2010). "Through a Glass Darkly". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
  47. "Almeida – Through a Glass Darkly". Archived from the original on 22 July 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  48. Bergman & Worton 2010.

Bibliography